Skip to main content

Full text of "The Principles of Latin Grammar: An Appendix, for the Use of Schools and ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 






;. t 

' • .. 









"•« • - - » 
• 4 ♦ • • • 

. t - •** • 

By Rev. PETER BUtLiaJfS;lfi-"J)i{\'* 

I *-** * * * ^ * * 
lATl PKOnSSOB or LANGUAGSS IN THX ktbSMt ^SikXtpU\*kff3Q% 



836 Broadway, corner Worth Street. 


■.- / A.J : 



TiL'JCiN ^ •• . 

R i ; . J 

' ' *' !5 

■!..•. J. 

\ Cx\.« w VcX'-^- 



. ri^%'-vv 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight 

hundred and fifty-three, by 


I _ - ' • - >^ - . ' 

In the Clerk^s f)fl6ce'«f:-lilie Northern District of New York. 



PiiDters, EHectrotypeis and BooUandeis 









»- • 



In the study of any language, the foundation of Buecen must be laid m 
a thorough aoqnaintance wiUi its principles. This being once attained, 
^ future progress becomes easy and rapid. To the student of language, there- 
fore, a good Grammar, which must be his constant companion, is of all his 
books the most important Such a work, to be reaUy valuable, ought to 
be simple in its arrangement and style, so as to be adapted to the capacity 
t^ of youth, for whose use it is designed ; eomprehenHve^ and aceuraU, so as 
to be a sufficient and certain guide in the most difficult as well as in easy 
^ cases ; and its principles and rules should be rendered familiar by numer- 
ous examples and exercises. 

The fondamental principles are nearly the same in all languages. So 
&r as Grammar is concerned, l^e difference lies chiefly in the minor de- 
^ tails — in the forms and inflections of their words, and in the modes of ex 
pression peculiar to each, usually denominated idiomt. It would seem, 
therefore, to be proper, in constructing Grammars for different languages, 
that the principles, so £ur as they are the same, should be arranged in the 
same order, and expressed as nearly as possible in the same words. Where 
this is carefully done, the study of the Grammar of one language becomes 
jw important aid in the study of another ; — an opportunity is afforded of 
•> seeing wherein they agree, and wherein they differ, and a profitable exer* 
C> eise is furnished in comparatiye or general grammar. But when a Latin 
Grammar is put into the hands of the student, differing widely in its 
arrangement or phraseology fronr the English Grammar which he had 
previously studied, and afterwards a Greek Grammar different from both, 
'^ not only is the benefit deriyed froof the analogy of the different language* 
in a great measure lost, but l^e whole subject is made to appear intolerably 
intricate and mysterious. By the publication of this series of Grammars, 
JSnglish, Latin, and Greek, on the same plan, this eyil is now remedied 
probably as far as it can be done. 
-» The work here presented to the public, is upon the foundation of AnAM*8 

, ^ Latin Grakm ar, so long and so well known as a text book in this country 
^ The object of the present undertaking was, to eombine with all that is 

•^ «zeeUeat in the work of Adam, the many important results of subsequent 



labors in this field ; to supply its defects ; to bring the whole up to thai 
point which the present state of classical learning requires, and to give 
it such a form as to render it a suitable part of the series formerly pro- 
jected. In accomplishing this object, the author has availed himself of 
every aid within his reach, and no pains have been spared to render this 
work as complete as possible in every part. His acknowledgments are 
due^or the assistance deriyed from the excellent works of Scheller, 
Crombie, Zumpt, Andrews & Stoddard, and many others, on the whole 
or on separate parts of this undertakirig ; and also for many hints kindly 
furnished by distinguished teachers in this country. As in the other 
grammars, so here, the rules and leading parts which should be first 
studied, are printed in larger type ; and the filling up of this outline is 
comprised in obserrations and notes under them, made easy of reference 
by the sections and numbers prefixed. The whole is now committed to 
the judgment of an intelligent public, in the hope that something has 
been done to smooth the path of the learner in the successful prosecution 
of his studies, and to subserye the interests of both English and Classical 
literature in this country. 


New plates haying become necessary for this work, the opportunity 
has been embraced of thoroughly revising and improving it. The rules, 
definitions, and leading parts, with very few exceptions, remain just as 
they were ; but still, some things deemed important have been added in 
many places in the form of new Observations, or of additions to the 
former ones. On this account, the pages of this edition do not correspond 
to those of former editions ; but this will occasion no difficulty, as th« 
Sections, Observations, etc., are arranged and numbered as they were 
before. Besides this mode of reference,which is still retained, the simpler 
method, by a running series of numbers, from first to last, as in the 
English Grammars, has been added. A leading object kept constantly 
in view, in the revision of this work, as well as of the Greek Grammar 
just completed, has been, to bring about a still greater uniformity in the 
works compo»ng this series, and to indicate more fully and distinctly 
wherein the languages agree, and Therein they differ. The additions 
that have been made to this work, amount in all to about twenty-eight 
pages, and no labor or expense has been spared to render the work in all 
respects more worthy of that fa,vor with which it has already been 
— J^ew Fork, June, 1868 




A1)latiT6, meaning o( 18 

eonfltmetion o^ 243 

governed by noims,. . . 243 

by adjectiyeB, 244 

by oomp. degree,.. 244 

by verbe, , , 246 

by pafisive yerbe,. . . 252 

vanonsly, 247 

AccidentB of the noim,. ..... 10 

Aoeuaatiye, meaning o(. . . . . . 12 

oonstniction o^ 240 

governed by verba,. , . . 240 

by passive verbe,. . . 252 
by prepositions,. . 268,264 

vanoufiiy) 242 

and geniiive 247, 248 

and dative, 249 

and accusative, 260 

' and ablative, 261 

Adjectives, 48 

Boot oC ; 18 

of first and seocoid deeL 49 

of third, 51 

irregular, 54 

exercises on, 66 

numeral, 67 

cardinal, 67 

• ordinal, 60 

comparison o^ 68 

Kules for, 68, ^ 

irregular, Aa, 65 

derivation o^ 67 

distributive, 60 

Multiplicative, 62 

construction of, 209 

Adverbs, signification o^ 196 

derivation o( ; 197 

comparison of, 198 

construction of, 261 

oases governed by,. . . , 262 

Analysis of sentenoei, 294 

examples o^ 297 

Apposition, substantives in,. . 207 

Archaism, 291 

Arrangement, Latin, 291 

General principles o( 292 

Beginners, directions for, 299 


Case, «. 12 

Cases, government o( 205 

Ciesurai pause, ^ . , 821 

Cause, manner, and instrument, 255 

Circumstances, construction o^ 254 

of limitation, 254 

of cause, manner, ^. . 255 

of place, 256 

of time, 258 

of measure, 259 

of price, 260 

Concord, o^ 207 

Conjugations, o^ 109 

General remarks on, . . . 162 

Firstj 119 

irregular, 167 

Second, 128 

irregular, 168 

Third, 186 

irregular, 171 

Fourth, 146 

irregular, 179 

Ist Periphrastic, 168 

2d da 164 

Conjunctions, 203 

construction o^ 288 

Consonants, 2 

Construing, Bules for, 800 


Dative, meaning oi^ 12 

construction o^ 280 

governed by nouns,. .. 281 



PatfT«, goyerned page 

by adjeotiYiBB, 281 

by verba, 233 

by impersonaU, .... 286 

by the pass, yoioe,. . 2£»8 

yarionsly, 289 

Datiyee two, goy'd by yerbs, 288 

DedeDfiion, Rules for, 18, 14 

Krgt, 16 

Exceptions in,. . . . 16 

Greek nouns in,. . 16 

Exercises on,*.,. 17 

Second, 17 

Exceptions^in,. . . 19» 20 

^ Greek nouns in,. » 21 

Exercises on, 21 

Third, 22 

Obseryations on,. . 22 
Examples of,. . . . {23-23 

Exercises on,. , . . . 26 

Genders in, 27 

Exceptions in.. . . . 80 

Greek nouns in,. . 88 

Fourth,.... 88 

Exceptions in,. . • • 84 

Obseryations on,. . 86 

Exercises on, ... . 86 

Fifth, 86 

Exercises on, 87 

l)eponent yerbe, 164 

irregular, 180 

Deriyatiyes and componnds^ 

quantity o^ ...» 816 

special rules for, 816 

Piphthongs, 1 


EUipus. 290 

EnaJlage, 290 

Etymology, 8 


Feet, simple, 817 

compound, 818 

iBOchronoua, 818 


Gender, oj^ 10 

Obseryations on, 11 

Genitlye, meaning of^ 12 

construction of, 222 

goy'd by nouns, 222 

by adjectiyes,. . 226 

by yerbfl 228 

by pasaiyes,. . . . 262 

Genitiye, goyemed pagx 

by adyerbs, 262 

variously, 280 

Gerunds, 108 

construction of^ 284 

Geruiidiyes, 107 

construction oi^ 286 

Gk>yemment, of 821 

Grammar, definition o1^ 1 

division o^ 1 


Hellenism, 291 

Hyperbaton,. 291 


Increment of nouns> 806 

of the 2d decL... 807 

of the 8d decL. . . 807 

of the" plural,. ... 808 

of the verb, 809 

InterjeetionB, ••.........«.. 202 

construction o^ 242 

Irregular nouns, 88 

adjectiyes, 64 

comparison, 66 

Verbs, 181 


Xietters, 1 

Limitation, circumstances o( 264 


Marks and characters........ 8 

Measure, circmnstances o(. . . 261 

Metre, 819 

different kinds o^ 821 

Iambic 821 

Trochaic 822 

Anapaestic, 828 

Dactylic, 828 

Chonambic, 826 

Ionic 826 

Metres, compound, • 826 

Metres, conbbination oj^ in 

Horace, 828 

Metrical key to Odes of Hor- 
ace 829 

Moods, 88 

Indie, tenses o^ • 92 

construction o^ 266 

Subjunctive, tenses o^ 96 

construction of,. . . . 267 ^ 

with conjunctions, 268 

with relative,. . . . 270 

used for imperativ6» 90 


ifaodf, Impen(tiT«, teDMt oC. . 100 

cooitruction o^ 276 

InfimtiT^, teoMfl o(. . . 100 

CQDstruetioii eC . . . • 275 

without a subject^ 2*76 

with a aubjeot^. . • 278 


KcgatiTeB, constractioB ol^. . . 261 

KomiDatiye, meaning oC 12 

eoDBtructiMi oi, 217 

after the Terb, 220 

NotatioD of numben,. ...«..• 69 

KouDfl, 9 

Aeoidentao^ 10 

Rootof,.... 18 

Lregolar, 88 

defeotiye, •'• 40 

ifomiB^ redundant, 46 

Syntax oC 207,222 

increment o^ 806 

Nnmlier, 12 

Numbers, notation o^ 69 

Numeral adjectiyee, 67 


Orthogra]^ J, 1 


Parting, direotions for, tOl 

ezamplea ol^ 802 

Partieiplea,^ 106 

oonstmetion -ot, 282 

ease absolute, 288 

Parte of speech, 9 

Person, • 10 

Person, and number of yerbs, 104 

Place, circumstances o( 266 

Pleonasm, 290 

Prepositions, o^ 199 

Obseryations on, 200 

in composition,. «....'. 201 

inseparable, 202 

gpyeming the acensa- 

thre, 268 

the ablatiye, 268 
the ace. and 
ablatiye,.. 264 
in composi- 
tion,.... 264 

Price, circumstances o^ 260 

Ptononns, Personal, 68 

Obseryations on, 69 

Adjectiye 72 


X>emooatealiy«» 74 

Obserfationioii,.. 76 

Definite, 77 

Relatiye, 77 

construeticBoC./. .• 218 

ease oU 216 

Interrogatiye, 78 

ObeeryatioiiB on,. • 79 

Indefinite, 80 

Patrial, 80 

compound, 80 

PNDuneiation, 4 

Eoglishmethodo^.... 841 

Prosodj, , 804 

Figures of; 827 

Punctuation, 8 

Quantity, o^ 6^ 804 

General rules for,. . . 6^ 804 

Special rules for, 806 

of penult syllables.... 810 

of final s^rUables, 812 

of deriyauyes and com- 
pounds, 816 


Resolution or analysis, 294 

Examples of, 800 


ScanniDg, 827 

Stanza, 828 

Supines, o^ 108 

construction o^ 287 

SyllaUes, 6 

Syntax, 204 

General principles ot 206 

of cases, Synopsis o^ 206 

Parts oi 207 

c^ the noun, 222 

of the yerb, 266 

Figoreeoi; 290 


Tenses, ot 91 

of the indicatiye,. .... 92 

subjunctiye,. • • • 96 

imperatiye, .... 100 

innpitiye, 100 

participles, .... 106 

Actiy e, how formed, ... 110 

Passiy e, how formed, • . 118 

Connection o£ 266 



TerminaticmB, table o(. ••.«.. 

Time, oircuiuBtanoes o( 



Different kinds o^. . . . 

Inflection o^ 

Voices o^ •*...••..• . 

ObserviitionB on, 

Moods of^...... 

Tenses o^ 

of the IndicatLTie, 
of the Subjunotiye, 
of the Iznperatiye, 
of the Innnitiye,. . 
Number and person o^ 

how formed, 

Regular, conjugation o^. 

1st conj. Active, 

Exercises on, 

1st conj. Passiye, 

Exercises on, 

2d conj. Active,. 

Exercises on, 

2d conj. Passive, 

Exercises on,.; . .. 

8d conj. Active, 

Exercises on, 

8d conj. Passive,. • • . . . 
Exercises on, .... 

^ 4th conj. Active, 

Exercises on,. • • . . 
4th conj. Passive, • . . . 

Exercises on, 

Deponent verba, 





Verb, FAOi 

Deponent, 1st eoaj. 16|S 

2d da 166 

8d do 167 

Verb, deponent, 4th da. 168 

Exeroises on, .... . 169 

Verbs, Neuter-passives, 160 

compound, 166 

irregular in pert and 

Sup. 166-179 

Irregular,. 181 

' B-rn^ 114 

Exercises on, . 117 

Defective, 188 

Impersonal, 190 

Exercises on,. . . . 193 

Redundant, 194 

Derivatives,. ...••••. 194 

FrequentativeB,. • 195 

Inceptives, 196 

Desidei-atives, ••••... 196 

Diminutives, . . « . 196 
construction of, with 

Nom. 217 

Special rules for, 218 

Syntax of; 266 

Increment of, 809 

Versification, 817 

Vocative, meaning o^. ...••• . 18 

construction o( 242 

Voice, 86 

Vowels, 1 

Vowel sounds, table oJ^. • • . • • 4 


164|Word8, 8 


L Roman computation of time, •••.. ...••• 881 

II. Roman names, 834 

III. Divisions of the Roman People, 835 

. IV. Divisions of the Roman civil officers, .•.. 836 

V. The Roman Army, « 886 

VI Roman Money, Weights, and Measures, 887 

VII. Different ages of Roman Literature, 840 

VIIL English pronunciation of Latin, 841 



1. — ^Latin Gbammab is tlie art of speaking or 
wilting tlie Latin language with propriety. 

It is divided into FoTir parte; namely, Orff^ 
grwphy^ Et/ymology^ Syntax^ and Proaody. 



2. — Orthography treats of letters, and the 
mode of combining them into syllables and 

§ 1. LETTERS. 

3. — A Letter is a mark or character used to represent an 
elementary sound of the human voice. 

The Latin Alphabet consists of twentj-five letters, the same 
in name and form as those of the English Alphabet, but with- 
out the w. 

Letters are either Vowels or Consonants, v 


4. — A VowxL u a letter which represents a simple inarticulate sound ; 
and, m a word or syllable, may be sounded alone. 

The Towels are a, «, t, o^ %ky y. In Latin, y is never a consonant as in 

5. — The rmion of two Yowels in one sound, is called a Diphthong I>ipb> 
thongs are of two kinds, proper and improper. 

2 LETTBB& § 1 

6. — A Proper Diphthong ig one in whieh botli the yowels are Bounded. 
The Proper DiphrhongB in Latin are three, yiz : mi, eu^ «j ; as, aurvm, 

7. — An Improper Diphthong is one in which only one of the vowels is 
founded. The Improper Diphthongs in Latin are ae and oe, often written 
together, cb,oi; as, tada, poena. 


X. At and oi are found as diphthongs in proper names from the Greek ; 
as Maia, IVoia. 

2. After g and g, and sometimes after a, u before another Towel in 
Uie same syllable, does not form a diphthong with it, but is to be regarded 
as an appendage of the preceding consonanl^ having nearly the force of w, 
as in the English words, linguiet^ quick, persuade ; thus, lingua, sanguie, 
qui, qu€B, quod, quum, suadeo, are pixmounced as if written lingwa, eangwis, 
kun, kwoB, hood, kwum, WHideo. So also after e and A in cut and huic, pro- 
nounced in one syllable, as if written etoi or kwi, and htoic; also wi after 
a consonant, in such words from the Greek as Harpuia, 

3. Two vowels standing together in different syllables, pronounced in 
quick succession, resemble the diphthong in sound, and, among the poets, 
are often run together into one syllable ; thus de-in, de-inde, pro-inde, <&q., 
in two and three syllables, are pronounced in one and two, dein, deinde, 
proinde, dec. 


9. — A CoMBONANT is a letter which represents an articulate sound, and, in 
a word or syllable, is never sounded alone, but always in connection with 
a vowel or diphthong. 

10. — The consonants in Latin are b, c, d,f, g, h,j,k,l,m,n, p, q, r, i, t, », 
x,z. Of these, eight, viz, p, h, t, d, c, k, q, and g, are called mutes, because 
they interrupt or stop^^he sound of the voice, as 6 in sub ;— four, viz, 2, m, 
n, r, are called liquids, because of their fluency, or the ease with which 
they^oto into other sounds, or, in combining with other consonants, are 
changed one for another; — ^two are called double consonants, viz, x and c, 
l>ecau8e they are each equivalent to two other consonants ; namely, x to 
en or gs, and c to d«. The letter j, likewise, is sounded by us as a double 
eonsonaot, equivalent to dg, and in prosody is so ccnsidered, because, ex 
eept ip iDompounds of Jiigum, it uniformly makes the vowel before it long. 
Tlie letter s represents a sibilant or hissing sound. The h is only au 
aspirat )• and denotes a rough breathing : in prosody, it is not regard^ at 

§ 1 LSTTXBS. 8 

a ooDBOnaat Hie letters h, y, and z, are used only in wurda derired from 
tiie Greek. 

11* — yoU, Andently, the letter j Beeme to have been more nearly allied to 
a vowel than to a consonaut, and waa reprectented by t/ thuft. etut^p^vs^ ifec, 
were written mim, peku^ (fee; and the^' tnua forming a Bort or mphtnong with 
the nreoeding vowel, of oonrae made the syllable long : as, 0^^vs^ P^^-^^t ^^ 
In. iiae manner, u and « were represented by the same letter, namely, v« 


12. — The marks and ebaraoters used in Latin Grammar, or in vriting 
Latin, are the following : 

^ Placed over a yowel shows it to be short 

~ Placed over a vowel shows it to be long. 

^ Plaeed over a vowel shows it to be short or loqg. 

" Is eaUed JHoBreaU^ and shows that the vowel over which it is placed 
ioes not form a diphthong with the preceding vowel, but belongs to a dif- 
ferent syllable ; as, o^, pxmoanced a-er. 

^ The eireumjlex shows that the syllable over which it stands haa been 
contracted, and is consequently long, as nuntidrtmt for ntmtiaviruHtf cftmt- 
cdasent for dimieaviueni ; or that the vowel over which it is placed, has its 
long open sound ; as, pmnd. 

^ The grave accent is sometimes placed over particles and adverbs, to 
^U t it^ giiiah them from other words consisting of the same letters ; as, qttdd, 
a conjunction, " that," to distingnish it from qw>d^ a relative, " which." 

* The acute accent is used to mark the accented syllable of a word * as, 

* Apoiircphe is written over the place of a vowel cut off from the end 
of a word ; as, fnen* for meiuL 


13. — The different divisions of a sentence are marked by certain cha* 
racters called Points 

The modem punctuation in Latin is the same as in English. The marks 
employed are the Comma (,); Semicolon (;); Cfolon (:); Period {,)\ Inter- 
rogation ( ? ) ; Exclamaiion ( 1 ). 

14. — ^The only mark of punctuation used by the ancients, was a point (.). 
which denoted pauses of a different length, according as it stood at the 
top, the middle, or the bottom of the line — ^that at the top denoting the 
shortest, and that at the botti)m the longest pause. 




15. — ^The pronunciation of the Latin language prevalent 
among the nations of continental Europe, is greatly preferable 
to the English, both because it harmonizes better with the 
quantity of the language, as settled by the rules of Prosody, 
and because, by giving one simple sound to each vowel, dis- 
tinguishing the short and the long only by the duration of 
sounds, it is much more simple. Hie sound of the vowels, as 
pronounced alone or at die end of a syllable, is exhibited in 
the following — 


Short & sounds like 

Long a 
Short S 
Long 3 
Short i 
Long I 
Short 6 
Long 6 
Short ii 
Long ti 

ae or se 

oe or oe- 











in Jehovah, 
in father, 
in met, 
in they, 
in uniform, 
in machine, 
in polite, 
in go, 
in popular, 

as amilt. 
as ^mia. 
as pgt^rS. 
as doo^re. 
as unitas. 
as pinus. 
as inddles. 
as pono. 
as poptilus. 


like ey 


in rule, or pure, as tuba, tisu. 


m our, 
in feud, 
in ice. 

as aurum. 
as eurus. 
as hei. 


1. The sound of the vowels a and e remains unchanged in 
all situations. 

2. The sound of t, o, and «, is slightly modified when fol- 

* The ancient pronunciation of the Latin language, cannot now be certainly 
Mcertained. The variety of pronunciation in afferent nations, arises from a 
tendency in all to assimilate it in some measure to their own. But of all 
varieties, that of the English — certainly the farthest of any from the origical 
— ^is, in our opinion, decidedly the worst ; not only from its intricacy and 
want of simplicity^ but especially from its conflicting constantly with the set- 
Uod quantity of the language. In English, every accented syllable is long, 
and every unaccented one is short. When, therefore, accordmg to the rules 
of English accentuation, the accent falls on a short syllable in a Latin word, 
or does not fall on a lon^ one, in either case, its tendency is, to lead to false 
nnantity.— For the English orthoepy of tlie Latin language, see p. 841 


lowed by a ooiCiaoBant is the same syllaUei and k th« flone^ 

whether the syllable is long or short Thus modified^ 

i soimda Vik» i in sit, aa mittit ^ 

o like o in not, aa pdteral^ {woul 

u like n in tab, as nruetnC 

IVbie, For the Bonnd of «, befom HMthw fowtl, sftsr f^ f , sad MHiMtimM 

«, (&C., See 8-2. 

8. The ooneonantB are prononnoed generally se in the English hmguage. 
^and ff are hard, as in the words Mrf, and ^ before m, ^ and «; and e is 
soft Hke «; and f, lilm^ belbre 4^ i, jr, «^ md «. 

4. rand Cj following or ending an aooented syltebie beftwe i short, fol- 
lowed by a vowel, nsnallj have the sound of ik; ss in nmmtim or iwiw e fa ii , 
patientiOf ndiu; prononnoed miiwUcM, potik unt kia^ mMnu* Bat < lias not 
the sound of «A before i long, as to€itu ; nor in such Greek words as 
MiUiadm, BoKftOa^ ^JSgfpUvvM ; nor when it is preceded by another i, or «, oi 
%; as Bf^nM^ otiwumy mtocMo, ^Ise.; nor, lastly, when I* is Ibliowed by the 
termination of the infinitive passive in «r,, as in im^mt^ ^vo^mt. 

NoU, The soft sound of « before «, ^ jfi^ «, and o^ adopted b^ all Xoropean 
nations, is evidently a deviation fVom the ancient prononoiation, aooordioff 
to whioh c was soanded hsrd, liice A, or the (4reek «, in aU sitnations. T% 
sounding %hi is a similar corruption, ohieily English, whioh it might perhaps 
bo well to change by giving H the same sound in all situations ; ss, am, 

5. S has slways the abarp sonod like u^ and B«ver the soft soiuid like •; 
or like s in m, ^#m^ ijom, &o. ; thus, not, <<0iiiiiiM, n^iMt, aio prononnoed aa 
if written noM, dfcMniiiOMi rajMM, not fiOM| domifiOMi ri^psM. 

} 9. STLLABLB9. 

18.-^A Stlulbuk ia a distinct sound forming the whole of 
word^ or so mncb of it aa can be soanded at onoe. 

Every word has as many syllables as it has distinct vowel 

A word of one syllable is called a Monosyllable. 

A word of two syllables is called a dissyllable. 

A word of three syllables is called a Trissy liable, 

A word of many syllables is called a Polysyllable, 

19. — ^In a word of maoij syUables, the last is called the final 
syllable ; the one next the last is called the penult^ and the sylla- 
t»le preceding that is called the antepenult 


20. — ^The Figures which affect the orthography of words, are 
as follows : 

let Prosikens prefixes a letter or syllable to a word; as, gnOhu tot 
noius, temu for tidit, 

2d. JSpenthesis inserts a letter or syllable in the middle of a word ; as, 
navUa for navta^ TimeluB for TnOluB, 

8d Paragoge adds a letter or syllable to the end of a word ; as, amarier 
for am&rit dee. 

4th. Aphaaresis cuts off a letter or syllable from the beginning of a 
word ; as, brivuH or hrinist for 6rltru e^ ; rh&bo for arrhSbo, 

6tli. Syncope takes a letter or syllable from the middle of a word ; as, 
oraclvm for or<ie&lum ; amdrim, for amavirim ; dadan. for defSfnan, 

dth. ^j>ocop0 takes a letter or syllable from the end of aword;asi, 
AiUCm for AnUmiiy men* for mine, die for dlee. 

'7tiL AntithesU substitutes one letter for another: as, oUi for Uli; tfuft, 
mUiie, for volt, voltie, oontraetions for vdlif, votiiU, 

8th. MetatheeU changes the order of letters in a word; tm,pi0tri9 for 

9tiL Thieaii separates the parts of a compound word by inserting 
another word between them ; as, gua me eumque voeant temx, for 
qu€B€umque me, Ao, 

10th. Anaetrophe inyerts the order of words ; as, d&re cirewn for circumr 


21. — Quantity is the measure of a syllable in respect of the 
time required in pronouncing it. 

In respect of quantity, a syllahle is either long or short; 
and a long syllable is considered equal to two short ones. 

22. — General Rules. 

1. A diphthong is always long ; as, ai^rum^ poe-na, 

2. A vowel before another vowel is short ; as, vl-a, de-us. 

3. A vowel before two consonants or a double consonant is 
long ; as, consul, penna, tr&xit, 

4. A vowel before a mute and a liquid is common ; L e., 
sometimes long and sometimes short ; as, eerSbrumy or eeri^ 

[For speoial roles on this snbjeet, see Prosody.*) 


23. — Accent is a special stress or force of voice on a parti- 
cular syllable of a word, by which that syllable is distinguished 
from the rest. 

Eyery word of more than one syllable has an aooent; as Dhts, kdmo^ 

The last syllable of a word neyer has the accent In a word of two 
syllables, the accent is always on the first In a word of three or more 
syllables, if the penult is long, the accent is on the penult ; as, 9ermd'ntg, 
amar^nvM ; but if the penult is short, the accent is on the antepenult ; as^ 
fddUia, dCbc^e^ pectHriSf peet6ribus, ^ 

24. — An enclitic syllable {gue, ve, n«, <Stc), being considered, in pronun- 
4siation, part of the word to which it is annexed, generally changes the place 
of the accent by increasing the number of syllables ; as, virum, virwnque; 
dom'lnus, dominiiwe, 

25. — A word of one syllable is properly without an accent ; but if an 
aielitic is annexed, it becomes a dissyllable, and takes the accent on the 
first syllable ; as, tu^ t&ne. 

26. — In Engliflh, an accented syllable is always long, or rather the ao* 
cent makes it long ; but in Latin, the accent makes no change in the quan- 
tity of its syllable, and, except in the penult, is as often on a short as on a 
long syllable ; as,/X'ctf««, pi'Ure, v^r%an. 

Note 1. These rules respectiug accent, in connection with the general rules 
for quantity, will be sufficient to guide the pupil iu accenting words, without 
the artificial tud of marking the accented syllaoles. Where the quantity of the 
penult is not ascertained by the preceding rules (22), it will be marked in this 

NoU 2. In reading Latin, it is important, as much as possible, to distinguish 
accent from quantity — a matter not without difficulty to those accustomed 
to a language in which accent and quantity always coincide. It /should be 
rememl^ed that in Latin, the accent does not make a syllable long as in 
English, neither does the want of it make the syllable short HdmineSy for 
example, should not be pronounced hd'm^aieg; and care should be taken to 
distinguish in reading the verbs lie'go and te'go; — the noun p6jfv3/u9 ( the 

long syllable, whether accented or not, should be made long. 

8 OF WOBDS. g 4 



27. — ^Etymology treats of the different sorts of 
words, their various modifications, and their de- 

§ 4. WORDS. 

28. — ^WoRDS are certain articulate sounds used 
by common consent as signs of our ideas. 

1. In respect of Formation, words are either 
JPrimitwe or DerivaUve; Simple or Compound. 

A Primitive word is one that comes from no other; as. 
puer, bdnus^ p&ter, 

A Derivative word is one that is derived from another 
word ; as, pueritia^ bonHtaSy paternus, 

A Simple word is one that is not combined with any other 
word ; as, pitis^ doceo, verto. 

A Compound word is one made up of two or more simple 
words ; as impius^ dedoeeo^ animadverto, 

2. In respect of Form, words are either De- 
(Mnahle or Inde(^maUe. 

A Jbedinahle word is one which imdergoes certain changes 
of form or termination^ to express the different relations of 
gender, number, case, <bc., usually termed, in^ Gi*ammar| 

An Indeclinahle word is one that urdergoes no change of 

3. In resjject of 8ignificati<m and Use, words 
are divided into different classes, called Pa/rts of 



29.-^1116 Parts of Speect in the Latin language 
are eight, viz: 

1. Nawth 09* Substanihe^ Ad^eotwe^ Proiiaun^ 

Vef'b. declined. 


2. Adverb^ Prepo&itioTi^ Interjection^ Conjuno- 
tion^ nndeclined, 

30. — Any partof speech u«ed simply as a 'word, and spoken 
of, is regarded as a noun (271). Thus used, it is indeclinable, 
and in the neuter gender. % 

% 6. THE NOUN. 

31. — ^A Noxm is the name of any person, place, 
or thing ; as Ooh^o^ Moma^ lUimo^ Vih&t. 

32. — ^Nouns are of two kinds. Proper and Comr 

1. A Proper Nov/ii is the name applied to an 
individual only ; as, Oidro^ ApriUe^ Movna. 

To this diiBfi belong, 

Pairon^ie$t or thoM which expr«M otufB parentage or fiunily; a% 
Priamldea, the Mim of Pruun. 

€hnHU, er Patriate which denote one's oomitiy ; as, RomOnuBt Gallu$. 

OhB, A proper noun appUed to more than one, becomes a oonunon nomi ; 
as, duodScim CatsHres, the twelve Caesars. 

2. A Common Nomi is a name applied to all 
things of the same sort ; as, t?^, a man ; d&nms^ a 
house ; l/ihefr^ a book. 

NoU, A Proper noun is the name of an individual only, and is need to 
Jistin^lfth that individual from all others of the same class. A Common 
noun 18 the name of a dose of objects, and is equally applicable to all the in- 
dividuals contained in it. 

83. — Under this class may be ranged, 

1. CoUettive noufu, or nouns of multitude, which signify many in Che 
singular number ; as, populus^ a people ; exeroXHn, an army 



2. Abstract tuntnSf or the names of qualitieB ; as, banttoBf goodness ; dul- 

cido, sweetness. 

8. Diminutive$y or nouns which express a diminution in the signification 
of the nouns £rom which thej are derived; as, libeUus^ a little book, from 

liber y a book. 

4. Amplificative nouns, or those which denote an increase in the signifi- 
cation of the nouns from which they are derived ; as, eapUo, a person hav- 
ing a large head, from c&ptU, the head. 


34. — ^To Latin nouns belong Person^ Oender^ 
Nkmiher^ and Case. 


35. — ^Person, in Grammar, is the distinction of 
nouns as used in discourse, to denote the speaker, 
the person or thing addressed, or the person or 
thing spoken of. Hence, 

There are three persons, called First^ Second^ 
and Third. 

A noun is in the first person, when it denotes the speaker 
or writer ; as, Ego ille consul qui verba ci'ves in exilium e;icio, 

A noun is in the second person, when it denotes the person 
or thing addressed ; as, Oatitlna, perge quo coepisH, 

A noun is in the third person, when it denotes the person 
or thing spoken of; as, Tempusfugit, 

Note. Person has nothing to do either with the form of a nonn, or with 
its meaning, but simply with the manner in which it is used. Hence, the 
same noan may at one time be in the first person ; at another, in the second ; 
and at another, in the tlrird. 


36. — Gender means the distinction of nouns 
with regard to Sex. 

37, — ^There are three Genders, the MascitUne^ 
the Feminme^ and the Neuter. 

38. — Of some nouns, the gender is determined by their signi 
fieation ; — of others, by their termination. 


39. — The Masculine gender belongs to all nouns which de- 
note the male sex. 

40. — ^The I'eminifie gender belongs to all nouns which denote 
the female sex. 

41. — The Neuter gender belongs to all nouns which are 
neither masculine nor feminine. 

42. — Nouns which denote both males and females, are said to 
be of the Common gender ; i. e., they are both masculine and 

43. — Nouns denoting things without sex, and which are 
sometimes of one gender, and sometimes of another, are said 
to be Doubtful, 

44. — The gender of nouns not determined by their significa- 
tion, is usually to be ascertained by their termination, as will 
be noticed under each declension. 


1. Nouns denoting brute animals, especially those whose 
sex is not easily discerned or but rarely attended to, com- 
monly follow the gender of their termination. Such are the 
names of wild beasts, birds, fi^es, insects, dec. 

2. A proper name often follows the gender of the common 
noun under which it is comprehended ; thus. 

The names of months, winds, rivers, and mountains, aro 
masculine, because meneis^ ventus^ fiuvius^ mons^ are mascu- 

The' names, of countries, towns, trees, and ships, are femi- 
nine, because terra^ urbs, arbor^ n&vis^ are feminine. 

To these, however, there are many exceptions. 

3. Some nouns are masculine and feminine both in sense 
and grammatical construction; as, adolescefis, a young man 
or woman ; Afflnie^ a relation by marriage ; dux^ a leader. 

Some nouns are masculine or feminine in sense, but mascu- 
line only in grammatical construction; i. e., they have an 
adjective word always in the masculine gender ; such as, ArtX- 
feXy an artist ;ywr, a thief; senex^ an old person ;• dec. 

Some nouns are masculine or feminine in sense, bat femi- 
nine only in grammatical construction ; i. e., they have an 
, adjective word always in the feminine gender ; such as, copiasy 
forces, troops ; custodice, guards ; operce, labourers ; &c. 

4. Some nouns denoting persons, are neuter, both in termi- 


nation and construction ; as, Acrodmctj a jester; Auxilid, auxi- 
liary troops ; mancipium, or gervilium, a slave. 

5.^ Some nouns distinguish the masculine and feminine hj a 
difference of termination ; as, Victor^ victrix ; ultor^ ultrix ; 
cdquus^ coqua. Some names of animals distinguish the two 
sexes by different forms; as, Agnus^ agna ; cervtis^ cerva; 
coluTnbu9, columha; gallus^ galHna, &c. In some cases, the 
words are altogether different ; as, tauriu, a bull ; vacca^ a 
cow. But, in general, the male and the female are expressed 
by the same term ; passer^ sparrow ; corvus^ a raven ; /c/w, a 
cat ; vulpesj a fox ; cdnis^ a dog ; honib, a man. 


46, — ^NuMBEB is that property of a nonn by 
wWcli it expresses one, or more than one. 

47. — ^Latin nouns have two numbers, the Sm- 
guLa/r and the Pl/u/ral, The Singular denotes 
one; the VYvubH^ more iha/n one. 

48. — Some nouns in the plural form, denote only one ; as, 
Athmcby Athens; others signify one or niore; as, ntiptke^ a 
marriage or marriages. 

4. CASE. 

49. — Case is the state or condition of a noun 
with respect to the other words in a sentence. 

50. — ^Latin nouns have six cases, the Nomiriatvoe^ 
Genitwe^ Datd/ve^ AccueaM/ve^ Vocative^ and Abla- 

1. The Nominative case, for the most part, denotes the name 
of an object simply, or as that of which something is afRrmed. 

2. The Genitive connects with the name of an object, the 
idea of origin, possession, or fitness. 

3. The Dative represents the thing named, as that to which 
something is added, or to, or for which something is said or 

4. The Accusative represents the thing named, as affected 
or acted upon by something else, and also, as the object to 
which something tends or relates. 

§ 8 DECUiSNSIOK. 13 

5. The Vocative ia used when persons or things expressed 
by the noun, are addressed. 

6. Tlie Ablative r^resents the thing named, as thaty^t>m 
which something is separated, Or taken ; or, as that by or with 
which something is done, or exists. 

51. — ^All the cases, except the nominatiye, are called Obliqtu 

52. — ^The signs of the oblique cases, or the prepositions hj 
which they are usually- rendered into English, are the follow- 
ing, viz : Genitive, of; Dative, to or Jbr; Vocative, 0; Abla- 
tive, with^fromy ifiy by, &c.j as in the following scheme : 

Bingolar. Plural. 

Nom. a king, 

Gen. of a king, 

Dat. to or for a king, 

Ace a king, 

Voo. - O king, 

Nom. kings, 

Gen. of kings, 

Dat. U> or for kings, 

Ace kings, 

Voe. O kings, 

Ahh withy from^inyOr by J a king.lAbl. iiriVA,yrom, in, or 5y, kings. 


53. — ^Deolensiok is the mode of changing the 
tenninations of nouns, &c. 

54. — In Latin, there are five declensions, called 
the JFirst^ Second^ Thirds F&u/rth^ and Fifth. 

55. — ^The declensions are distinguished from one 
another by the termination of the genitive' sin- 
gular; thus. 

The first declension has the genitive singular in -^, 
The second " " in -i. 

The third " " in -a, 

The fourth " " in -iU, 

The fifth " " in -«». 

56. — All that part of a noun, or of an adjective, which pre- \ 
cedes ^e termination of the genitive singular, is called the 
R^tot, All that follows the root, in any case or number, if* 
called the Case-ending^ or Termination. 





1. Nouns of the neuter gender have the nomi- 
native, accusative, and vocative, alike in both 
numbers, and these cases, in the plural, end al- 
ways in a. 

2. The vopative, for the most part in the sin- 
gular, and always in the plural, is like the nomi- 

3. The dative and the ablative plural are alike. 

4. Proper names for the most part want the 

The difference between these declensions will be seen at 
one view in the following : 













M. N. 

-US, -er, -um, 


-um, -um, 

-S, -er, -um, 





















M. N. 

-is, — 


-5, or\, 


-es, ^ -ii, 



"•es, ""*•? ~'i8'5 
-es, -&, -ia, 
















-ibus, or iibus, 
-us, -uS, 

-us, -ua, 

-ibus. or iibus. 







59. — The terminations of the nominative singular in the 
third declension, being numerous, are omitted in the table , 
also those of the vocative, which, in this declension, is always 
like the nominative. The terminations of the genitive, dOr 
tive, and ablative neuter, are the same/ as the masculine. 





60. — The first declension lias fonr terminations 
of the nominative singular* two feminine, Oy e,' 
and two masculine, a^^ es. 

Latin nouns end only in a ; the rest are Greek. 


Singular. Plarsl. 

Nom. -&, Nom. 











N, penn-&, 
Q. penn-ffi, 
D, penn-8B, 
Ac, penn-am, 
V, penn-&, 
Ab. penn-a, 

PsNHA, a feathery — Plater, a pen, 


a pen^ 

of apen^ 

to or for a pen^ 

a pen^ 


with a pen. 


N, penn-se, 

G. penn-ftrum, 
D, penn-is, 
Ac, penn-as, 
V, penn-se, 
Ab, penn-ls, 


of penSy 

to or for penSj 



vtith pens. 

AT. vi-a, 
G. vi-flB, 
D, vi-se, 

V. vi-a, 

Ab, vi-a, 


Via, a way, Fem. 


a way^ 

of a way, 

to a way, 

a way, 


toiih, iic, a way. 



















of ways, 
to ways, 



with, 6ic,, ways. 

JSoU. The words declined as examples in this and the other declensions, 
are not divided into syllables, and the hyphen (-) is never to be re^rded aa 
a division of syllables, but only aa separating the root from the UriMnation ; 

In like manner decline : 
Ara, an altar ; Sella, a seat; Tuba, a trumpet ; Litera, a letter, 


Ala, a wing. 

Area, a chest, 

C&sa, a cottage. 

Causa, a eau$e. 

FSba, a bean, 
Hftra, an hour. 
Men!<a, a table. 
Norma, a ruie. 

Ripa, a hank, 

Turba, a crowd. 

Unda, a v)ave, 

Vlrga, a rod. 



1. Nouns in a, denoting fippellations of men, as pincerna, a 
butler ; names of rivers ; (45-2,) likewise Hadri&y the Hadria- 
tic ; eometa^ a comet ; planeta^ a planet ; and sometimes ialpa^ 
a mole ; and dama, a fallow-deer, are masculine. Pascha^ the 
passover, is neuter. 


2. The Genitive Singular, — ^The ancient Latins sometimes 
formed the genitive in at ; as, auld, a hall ; Gen. aulai ; — some- 
times in as; as, mater-familia^y the mother of a family, (See 

3. The Accusative Singular, — Greek nouns in <z, have some- 
times an in the accusative singular ; as, Maian, Ossan, 

4. The Dative and Ablative Plural, — The following nouns 
have abus instead of m, in the dative and ablative plural, to 
distinguish them from masculine nouns in usj of the second 
declension, viz : 

Asina, a she ass, Filia, a daughter, 

Dea, a goddess, Mfila, a she mule, . 

Equa, a mare, Nata, a daughter. 

Several others are found in inscriptions and in ancient au- 
thors. Still, except dea and Jilia, notwithstanding the ambi- 
guity, they generally prefer the'termination is, 


62. — Greek nouns in a^^ es^ and e^ are declined 
as follows, in the singular number: — 

iEneas, jEneas, Anchises, Anchises, Peneldpe, Penelope, 

N, iEne-as, 

G, iEne-ae, 

D, iEne-se, 

Ac, iEne-am, or an, 

V, iEne-a, 

Ab, ^e-a. 

N. Anchis-es, 
G, Anchis-se, 
D, Anchis-se, 
Ac, Anchis-en, 
V, Anchis-e, 
Ab, Anchis-e. 

N, Peneldp-S, 
G, Peneldp-es, 
D, Penel6p-6, 
Ac, Penel6p-en, 
V, Penel6p-e, 
Ab, Penel5p-e. 

liike ASniiUy decline Boreas^ the north wind ; Midas,' & king of Phrygian 
— «}bo, OorgicUf MssHas. 

like AnchlseSf decline Altldea, a name of Hercules ; comites, a oomet ; 
— ako, Priamide8f Iodides, d/ftuuteg, salr&pes. 


Like Penetdpe, dedme Cfiree, a fiunoos ■oroer«M; OybtU, th« moth«r oC 
tbe gods; epiUime, aa abridgment; grammaOeef grammav;r— alao^ mtdi^ 
crambiy Oiree, J)atUii, Phoenlei. 

Obs. 1. When the plural of proper names occurs, it is like 
the plural of penna ; thus, Atfiict^ Atriddrum^ &C. 

Ohs, 2. Nouns in e9 have sometimes & in the vocative, more 
rarely &. Nouns in steB have 9ta. Thej also sometimes have 
the accusative in em, and the ablative in (L 

[The words in the following exerases will be found in No. 60.J 

1. Tell the case and number ofihefollomng toords^ and iran9' 
late them accordingly, — Penna, pennam, penn&rum, pennis, 
penn&, pennae ; — Sram, ftris ; sells, sell&, sell&, sell&rum ; tubis, 
tubam, tthsB ; litSr&, literftrum, pennis, ftras, tuba, Uteris ; — 
Peneldpes, Peneldpen, iEn^an, Anchlses, AnclussB, iEn^ 

2. Translate the following words into Latin : — ^The pen, of 
pens, with pens, from a pen, in a pen, by pens ; from the altars ; 
of a trumpet ; with letters ; a seat ; O altar ; the seat of Pene- 
lope ; of i£neas ; with Anchises ; a trumpet ; from the altar ; 
to a seat ; with a poi ; of the altars; dsc, ad lihiium. 


63. — ^The Second Declension has seven termi- 
nations of the nominative singular: namely, 

Five masculine, er^ ir^ w, ua^ and m. 

Two neuter, wm and on. 

Of these terminations, oa and on are Greek; 
the rest are Latin. 

Miuculine, NeuUr, 

8ing:alar. PlarnL Sinn^lar. PlanJ. 

N. -er,-ir,-ur,-us, N. -i, 

G, -i, G, -Orum, 

Z>. -^, D. -Is, 

^f.-um, Ae. -Os, 

V, -er,~ir,-ur,-e, K -i, 

J 6. -6 . ^5. -Is, 

JV. -um, N, -&, 

G. -I, G, -6mia» 

D, -0, 2>. -is, 

-4c. -um, Ac. -ft, 

V. -um, V. -ft, 

-46.-0. -46. -Is. 



§ 10 

64. — ^Noims in er, tr, and «r, add t in the genitive ; but u« and um aro 
changed into t. The only nouns in ir are v«r, and its compounds duumvXri, 
trettXriy Ac The only word in ur of this declension, is the masculine gender 
of the adjeotiye ddtnTy fulL All these are declined like puer, 

PuxB, a boy, Masc. 

JV. puer, 
G. puer-i, 
D, puer-o, 
Ac, puer-um, 
V. puer, 
Ab. puer-o. 


a boy, 
of a boy, 

to, or for a boy, 
a boy, 

with, dec, a boy. 


N. pu6r-i, boya, 

G. puer-orum, of j boys, 

D, puer-is, io or for boys, 
Ac, puer-os, boys^ 

F. pu6r-i, boys, 

Ab, pu^r-is, with, &c., boys. 

65. — All the nouns in er declined like puer, are the compounds of firo 

and g(iro ; as, Lw^fety the morning star ; amClgefy an armor bearer : also 

the nouns <iditftery an adulterer ; CelflbStf a Celtiberian ; IbeVj a Spaniard ; 

, Liber f Bacchus; s&ceTy a father-in-law; vesper ^ the evening; and sometimee 

MtdcibeTy a name of Vulcan : also the plural libiH, childrea 

Words in «r, tr, and ur, it is probable, originally ended in iruHy iru8, and 
tiru8; and hence, in some words, both forms are still found; as, toeirus 
and sdeer, 

66. — ^RuLE 1. All other nouns in er^ lose e in the 
root, by syncope, when the termination is added ; aS| 

Liber, a book, Masc. 

iV. liber, 

G, libr-i, 

J), jibr-o, 

Ac. libr-um, 

V. liber, 

Ab, libr-o. 

iVT. libr-l, 

G, libr-Orum, 

J>, libr-is, 

Ac, libr-os, 

V. Hbr-i, 

Ab, libr-is. 

Thus decline : 
Ager, a field. 

Aper, a wild boar, 

Culter, a knife, 

Magister, a master, 
Auster, the south wind. 
Cancer, a crab. 

67. — ^RuLE 2. Nouns in tte^ have the vocative 
in e / as, venl/aSj verUe. 

DoMiNus, a lord, Maso. 

N, domin-us, 
G, domin-i, 
Z>. domin-o, 
Ac, domin-um, 
V. domin-e, 


J\7'. domln-1, 
G, domin-orum, 
D. domin-is, 
Ac, domin-os, 
F. doimn-i, 
Ab, domm-is. 

Thus decline : 







the wind, 
the eye, 
a year, 
a river, 

a garden, 
a ray. 




BxoNuic, a kingdom^ Neut. 


SiDgolar. Plural. Thos deoliiie : 

2V, regn-um, If. regn-a, 
0. regn-i, G. regn-orum. 
2>. regn-o, J), regn-is, 
Ac. regn-um, Ac. regn-tf, 
F. regn-um, F. regn-a, 
Ab. regn-o. Ab. regn-is. 

. Saxum, 

a cave. 

a star. 

a gift. 

a yoke. 

a stone. 

an apple. 



a judge. Folium, a Uaf, Sdeer, ek fothmr-infiam. 


WIT. Gladius, a tword, Telum, 

a dart. 


a auk. Lupua, awUf, T5rus, 



attag, Marua, a wall. Tectum, 

the roof. 


the neek. Nidua, a nett. Truoeua, 

ihe trymk. 


a harae. Ovum, an egg, Vslum, 

a Mail. 


an artist, Prelium, a battle, Vftdum, 



afigtree. Ramus, a branch. Vdtum, 

a vow. 


£xe. 1. Of nouns ending in tur, the names of plants, towns, 
islands, and precious stones, with few exceptions, are feminine, 

Obs. In many cases, where the name of a tree ends in tts^ 
fern., there is a form in um denoting the fruit of the tree ; as, 
cer&sits, cer&sum ; m&lns^ malum ; mdrus, morum ; pirus^^pirum ; 
pruniM^ prunum; pomus, pomum. But fleus means both a 
fig-tree, and a fig. 

JSxc. 2. Besides these, onlj four words, originally Latin, 
are feminine ; viz, alvus^ the belly ; cdlus, the distaff; humuSf 
the ground ; and vannus^ a winnowing fan. 

£xc, 3. Vlrus^ juice, poison ; and peldgus^ the sea, are neuter, 
and have the accusatiye and yocative like the nominative. 
VulguSy the common people, is both masculine and neuter. 
Pampinus, a vine branch, is rarely feminine, commonly mas- 

Ikee, 4, Many Greek nouns in us^ are feminine, especially 
compounds of ooog; as, methodus^ periodus^ dec. So also, bibhis 
papirus diphtkonguSy paragraphus, diametrus^ perimetrus. 



69. — Exc. 5. The VocaUve l^ngvla/r. Ist. Pro- 
per names in ius lose us in the vocative; as, 
VirgiUuSj V. VirgiU; except J^vuSy which has 

In like manner, JiliuSy a son, has fill; and genius^ one's 
guardian angel, has genu But other common nouns in ius^ 
and such epithets as Delitis^ Satumius^ dec., not considered as 
proper names, have ie. Also proper names in Ius, from 
Greek nouns in siog, have ie, 

2d. Deua has detis in the vocatiye, and in the plural more 
frequently dii and diis, (sometimes contracted di and dis,) 
than dei and deif. Mens, my, has the vocative mt, sometimes 

70. — Ohs, The poets, sometimes, make the vocative of 
nouns in us, like the nominative, which is seldom done in 
prose. Sometimes, also, they change nouns in er into 
us; as, J^ander or Evandrua; in the vocative, JSvander 
or JSvandre, 

71. — Exc. 6. The Genitive Singular. — Nouns in ius and 
turn, in the purest age of the Latin language^ formed the 
genitive singular in t, not in u, both in prose and verse ; as, 
Jilij TuUiy ingeni; they are now frequently written with a 
circumflex ; thus, Jilty Tulli, ingent; for, Jlliiy Tulliiy &c. 

72. — Exe, 7. The Genitive Plural, — Some nouns, especially 
those which denote value, measure, weight, commonly form 
the genitive plural in ^, instead of drum; as, nnimm'&m^ 
sestertiUmy dec. The same form occurs in other words, espe- 
cially in poetry; as, deiimy DanMniy dzc. ; also, divom is used 
for divorum. 

73. — Dsu8| a gody is thus declined : 



JSf. De-US, 


De-i, or Di-i, 

Contr. DI, 

G. De-i, 



J). De-o, 


De-is, iyr Di-is, 

" DIs, 

Ae, De-um, 



F. De-US, 


De-i, w Di-iy 

" DI, 

Ab, De-o. 


De-i^, or Di-is, 

" DIs. 



JV. barbital!, 
Q. barbit-i, 
D. barbit^, 




Ae. barbiton, 
V, barbit^n, 
Ab, barbit-o. 


§ 10 THIRD DXKJSNfflLON. 21 


74. — Greek nouns in os and on, are ofl^i changed into ia 
and um ; as, Alpheos, Alpheits; lUoUy Ilium : and those in ro9^ 
into er ; as, Alexandras, Alexander, When thus changed, they 
are declined like Latin nouns of the same terminations. 

Qreek douds are thai deoliiied: 

Akdbooxos, Masc; Dxlos, Fern. — Babbiton, a lyre^ Neut.* 

N, Androge-os, D6l-os, 

O. Androge-o, or -i, Ddl4, 
D. Androge-o, D6l-o, 

Ac, Androge-o, or -on, D6l-on, 
V, Androge-os, Dsl-e, 

AL. Androge-o. D€l-o. 

75. — ^Some notniB in o», ancieiitlj had the gemtiye in u ; aa, Mtnandn*. 
ParUhu- oocfirs in Virg^ as the yocatiye of ParUhtu, Proper namea in «u« 
are declined like dominuSf but have the YocatiYe in eug, and aometimea ood- 
tract the genitive singular ; aa, Orph^ into Orplm, or Orphi, Proper namea 
in which «u ia a diphthong, are of the third declenaion. Other nouna, alao^ 
are sometimes of the third declenaion ; as, Androgeo, AndrogtowU, 


list of words in the following ezeroiaea : 

Pner, a hoy, Begnnm, a kingdom, S^um, the eofUf 

Dom&raa, a lord, Y entos, the wnd, Oofilus, the eye, 

liber, a hook, Coolum, hewien, Filiua, « wen. 

Tell the ease and number of the following words, and trans* 
late them aecording'ly : — PuSri, domindrum, donubio, pu^ro, 
puSrum, pu^ros, Lbri, libris, librum, libro, dominis, dominai 
regnum, regna, regnorum — ventus, vento, yentunft--ociUuS| 
oculorum — ^filii, fill, filiis, iilios. 

Translate the following words into Latin : — To a boy, from 
a boy, O boy, O boys, of boys ; books, of books, for books, 
in books, with a book ; a lord, from a lord, to a lord, of lords, 
the lords ; of a kingdom, the kingdom, to the kingdoms ; to 
the winds of heaven, lords of the soil, &c., ad libitum. 



76. — ^Nouns of the third declension are very 
numerous ; they are of all gendors, and generally 
increase one syllable in the oblique cases. Its 
final letters, in the nommative, are thirteen, a, e^ 

h ^t Vj ^1 ^1 ^? ^? ^» ^> ^> ^' ^^ these, a, % y, are 
pecuhar to Greek nouns. 

Ohs, A noun is said to increase^ when it has more syllables 
in any case than it has in the nominative. 


Miuculine and Feminine, 







N. -es, 


N. -a, 

Q, -is, 

0, -um, or -ium, 

G, -is. 

Q, -um, or -ium. 

D. -i, 

D, -ibus, 

D. -i. 

D, -ibus, 

Ac. -em, 

Ac, -es, 

Ac, — , 

-4c. -a. 


F. -es, 


V. -a, 

i46.-e, or- 


^6. -ibus. 

^6.-e, or- 

-i. -46. -ibus. 


1. In this declension, the nominative and vocative of mas- 
culine and feminine nouns are always alike. As the final 
syllables of the nominative are very numerous, a dash ( — ) 
supplies their place in the preceding table. Neuter nouns 
come under the general^ rule, (57-1). 

2. All nouns of this declension are declined by annexing 
the above case-endings^ or terminations to the root, 

8. The Root consists of all that stands before t^ in the 
genitive (56), and remains unchanged throughout. Hence, 
when the genitive case is found, the cases after that are alike 
in all nouns, except as noticed hereafter. In most nouns of 
this declension, the root does not appear in full form in the 
nominative, nor in the vocative singular. See 78, 80, 81. 

4. The genitive singular of nouns, in this deolensiun, will 
be most easily learned from the Dictionary, as all rules that 
can be given are rendererl nearly useless by the number of 
exceptions under them 




5. In the following examples, the root and terminations are 
separated by a hyphen (-), in order to show more distinctly 
the regularity of the declension. This being mentioned, it 
will occasion no difficulty, though standing, as it often does, in 
the middle of syllables ; as, pd tr-is. 


1. Sbriio, a speech^ Masc. 




N^ Sermo, 

jr. Sermdn-es, 

Carbo, a coaL 

G, Sermon-is, 

G. SermOn-um, 

Leo, a lion. 

D, Sermon-i, 

i>. Sermon-ibus, 

Oratio, an oration. 

A9. Sermon-em, 

Ac. Sermon-es, 

Pavo, a peacock. 

V. Senuo, 

F. Serm5n-es, 

Praedo, a robber. 

Ab. Serm6n-e, 

Ab, Sermon-ibus, 

Titio, afire-brand. 

KoTB. ESmo^ fOmOy ApoUOf and twlo ; also, eardo^ ordo, margo^ and like- 
wise, nonns in do aQd go, of more than two syllablea, change o into % before 
Cfao terminationlt ; as, ^^mo, Aominw^* Oupido, OupidUtU; imofo, imaginit. 
Bnt Oomklo, unedo, and harpa^, retain o; as, Conudo. eomtddntt, Anxo and 
Nerio change o into e; as, Anio^ Aniinii; and cdro nas earnitf by syncope 
for cardnit. 

2. Color, a eolor^ Masc. 


N, c51or, 
G, col6r-is, 
D. color-i, 
Ac. coldr-em, 
V, cdlor, 
Ab. colOr-e. 

i\r. colOr-es, 
G, col6r-um, 
D. color-ibus, 
Ac. col6r-es, 
V. col6r-es, 
Ab. oolor-ibus. 

Thns decline : 







a tree. 

a singer. 



a reader, 
a ehepherd. 

N. miles, 
G, milit-is, 
Z>. milit-i, 
Ac. milit-em, 
V. miles, 
Ab. milit^. 

3. MiLBS, a ioldier^ Masc. 


J\r, milit-es, 
G. milit-um, 
D, milit-ibus, 
Ac. milit-es, 
V. milit-es, 
Ab, milit-ibus. 

Thns decline : 
Ales, a bird, 

Cdmes, a companion. 
Limes, a limit, 

Tr&mes, a path, 

Seges, -etis, a crop, 
TSges, -etis, a mat 



§ 12 

79. — ^RuLE 1. Nonns in es and is^ not increasing 
in tiie genitive lingular, have mm in the genitive 
plural; as, 

4. Hupxs, a roeky Fern. 



Thus dedine : 

2V. rup-es, 

J7". r&p-es, 


a bee. 

G. rup-is, 

G. rup-ium, 


a fleet 

JD. riip-i, 

D. rup-ibus, 


a mass. 

Ac. rup-em, 

Ac. rup-es, 


a cloud. 

V. rup-es, 

F. rup-es, 


a vine. 

Ab. rGp-e. 

Ab. rup-ibus. 


a fox. 

Ezo. SirueSf a pile ; viUetf a prophet ; eUniSy a dog ;juvini9f a young man; 
J/ muglliif a mullet; pOniiy bread; ttri^iij a seraper, have urn. Sedetf 
menuity Apia or d^>ea, and voliieris, haveiim or ium, 

80. — ^Rui*E 2. Nouns of one syllable in as and 
is^ and also, in e and a?, after a consonant, have 
mm in the genitive plural; as, 

5. Pars, a partj Feixu 

N^. pars, 
G. part-is, 
J), part-i, 
Ac. part-em, 
V. pars, 
Ab. part-e. 

jr. part-es, 
G. part-ium, 
J), part-ibus, 
Ac. part-es, 
V. part-es, 
Ab. part-ibus. 

Thus dedine: 
Calx, -cis, ^e keel. 

Vas, -dis. 
Lis, -tis, 
Arx, -cis, 
Pons, -tis. 

a surety. 

a lawsuit. 

a citadel. 

a city. 

a bridge. 

81. — ^RuLE 8. Nouns of more than one syllable 
in ds and ns^ have wn^ mid sometimes iv/m^ in 
the genitive plural; as. 

6. Pareks, a patent^ Masc or Fern. 

iV. parens, 
G. parent-ifl, 
D. parent-i, 
Ac. parent-em, 
F. p&rens, 
Ab. pareut-e. 

N. parent-es, 
G. parent-um,-ium, 
D. parent-ibus, 
Ac. parent-es, 
F. parent-es, 
Ab. parent-ibus. 

Thus dedine : 


a fork. 


a cable. 


a client. 


a serpent 

Sextans, a sixth of an as. 
Torrens, a torrent. 





82. — Obs. 1. Masculine and feminine nouns, which have ium 
in the genitive plural, sometimes have is, or eis, as well as et 
in the nonmiative, accusative, and vocative plural ; as, partes, 
partium; — nominative, accusative, and yogoXxw^ paries^ parteu^ 
or partis. 

7. Opus, a work^ Neut. (57-1.) 


N, 6pus, 
O. oper-is, 
i>. oper-i, 
Ac. opus, 
F. opus, 
Ah. opdr^. 


N. oper-a,' 
Q. oper-um, 
D. oper-ibus, 
Ac. oper-a, 
V. op6r-a. 
Ah. oper-ibus, 

ThoB dedine : 

Funus, a funeral. 

L&tus, the side. 

Corpus, -dris, the body, 
C&put, capitis, the head. 
Femur, -6ris, the thigh. 
Iter, itinSris, a journey. 

83. — ^RuLE 4r Nouns in ^, aZ, and or, have 
/ in the ablative singular; iwm in the genitive 
plural ; and ia in the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative plural; as, 

8. SsDiLS, a seat^ Neut. 



Thus decline : 

N. sedil-e, 

N. sedil-ia. 


a shield. 

G. sedil-is, 

G. sedil-ium. 


a towel. 

D. sedil-i, 

D. sedil-ibus. 


the sea. 

Ac. sedll-e, 

Ac. sedil-ia. 

Ovile, ' 

a sheep-fold. 

r* sedTl-e, 

V. sedil-ia, 


a net. 

Ah. sedil-i. 

Ah. sedil-lbus. 

Cublle, . 

a couch. 


9. Animal, an anim 

aly Neut. 



Than decline ; 

N. animal, 

N. animal-ia. 


a cushion. 

G. animal-is. 

G. animal-ium, 


a spur. 

D. animal-i, 

D. animal-ibus, 


a sun-beam. 

Ac. animal. 

Ac. animal-ia. 



V. animal, 

V, animal-ia, 


a bedcover. 

Ah. animal-i. 

Ah. animal -Ibus. 


a tax. 

Exe, Proper names in e have e in the ablative ' as, Prcmestey Neut, k 
(own in Italy ; abiatiyc, Prcetieste. 




§ 12 


Aeer, -^ris, a, 

a mapU tree. 

Homo, -Tnis, c. 

a man. 

^tas, ^atis, £, 


Imago, -inis, £, 

an image. 

Arbor, -oris, £, 

a tree. 

Lac, -tis, a. 


Aries, -^tis, m., 

a ram. 

IiSpis, -idis, m^ 

a stone. 

Ars, -tis, it 

an art. 

Laus, -dis, £, 


CSnon, -onis, m., 

a rule. 

Lex, Iggis, f , 

a law. 

Career, -firis, m^ 

a prison. 

Moulle, -is, a, 

a necklace. 

Cardo, -inis, m., 

a hinge. 

Mons, -tis, m. 

a motmtain 

Carmen, -inis, il, 

a poem. 

Miuius, -^ris, n^ 

a gift. 

Cervix, -icis, £, 

the neck. 

Nix, nivis, f^ 


Codex, -icis, m. 

a book. 

Kox, noctis, £, 


Consul, -ulis, m., 

a consul. 

Onus, -dris, a, 

a burden. 

Cor, cordis, n. 

the heart. 

Pocten, -inis, m., 

a comb. 

Crux, -Qcis, £, 

across, - 

Begio, -onis, £, 

a region. 

Dens, -tis, m.. 

a tooth. 

S^r, -£ris, m., 

a trout. 

Dos, dotis, £, 

a dowry. 

Serpens, -tis, c, 

a serpent. 

FomnTdo, -inis, f.. 


Trabs, -Sbis, £, 

a beam. 

Fornax, -acis, f , 

a furnace. 

Tunis, -is, f, 

a tower. 

Frater, -tris, m., 

a brother. 

Uter, utris, m. 

a bottle. 

Fur, fiiris, c. 

a thief 

Virgo, -inis, £, 

a virgin. 

G^nus, -dris, n., 

a kind. 

Voluptaa, -atis, f^ 

, pleasure. 

Hffires, -6dis, c.. 

an heir. 

Vulnufl, -€ris, a, 

a wound. 


Tell the case and number of the following words, and trans" 
late them accordingly : — Sermonis, sermoniim ; coloribus, 
colori, colore, colores; militum, militis, militem, militibus; 
rupis, rupe', rupium, rtipi, rupibus; partium, partes, parte, 
partis ; parenti, parente, parentum, parentes, parentis ; opera, 
opere, operi, operibus, operum ; sedilis, sedilia, sedilibus, sedili, 
sedilium ; animalia, animalis, animali ; carnunis, carmini, car- 

Translate the following words into Latin : — Of a rock, of 
rocks ; f'rom a soldier, with soldiers ; to a seat, seats, of seats ; 
the works, of a soldier; to the color, of a rock, a seat, for a 
parent, the speech, of a parent, to a soldier, the color, of an 
animal, irom rocks, to rocks, of a region, for a serpent, the 
night, &^{,y ad libitum. 





85. — ^RuLB 1. Nouns in n^ o, er, or^ es increas* 
ing (76, Ohs.^ and (W, are generally masculine. 

86. — ^The following are exceptions ; viz : 

1. MscepUons in N. 

Fkm. Bindon, aedor; haleycn, and Icon^ are feminine. 
NsOT. GliUe% unguetiy inffuen, pollen, and all nounB in men ; as carmen^ 
nomen, eta, are neater. 

2. Moceptions m O. 

Fbji. 1. Nouns in to, denoting things incorporeal, are feminine. 

2. Noons in do and go, of more than two sjllaUes, with gratukKt 
virgOf and sometimes margo, are feminine. 
But harpdgo, comddo, un^ and Oupfdo, Cupid, are masculine. 

NoTB. OupidOf desire, in prose, is always feminine ; in poetry 
often masculine. 

8. CdrOy flesh, is feminine, and Greek nouns in o; as, echo, Argo, 

3. Mcceptions in ER, 

Fm. 7%6er, the tuber-tree, and sometimes linter, a boat, are feminine. 
N«ot. *u4<5rt*, cadaver f cicer. Iter, l&aer, Idver, pap&ver, piper, siler, epinther^ 

tHher, tuber, a swelling, ilber, ver, verlir, zingXber^ and sometimes 

ifMT, ai'e neuter. 

4. Mcceptimia m OR. 

Fem. ^r6or, a tree, is feminine. (46-2.) 

NxoT. AdoTy iBguor, numnor, and eor, the heart, are neuter. .. 

6. JExceptions i/n ES, increasing (76, Obs). 

VvM, Compea, merees, merges, quUs, requies, inquiet, siget, tigee, ttides, and 

sometimes dies, a bint, are feminine. 
Nkut. ^s, brass, is neuter. 

6. Mcceptions in OS. 

Fkm. Arhoi, (46-2) cos, dos, eos, are feminine. 

Kkut. Os, the mouth ; os, a bone ; also, the Greek cJtaos, ethos, ip6e, and 
milos^ are neuter. 



§ 18 


87. — ^RuLE 2. Nouns m as^ es not increasing, 

is J ySj and atts / — also in s after a consonant, and 
«?, are, for the most part, feminine. 

88. — The following are exceptions ; viz : 

1. Mcc^Uons in AS. 

MAsa ASf a piece of money, and Greek nouns in a«, -antis^ are masculintL 
Nkut. V<Uy a yessel, and Greek nouns in a«, -atU^ are neuter. 

2. jEJxc^tion8 m ES tk?^ incredsing. 

KAsa AcinSces^ cOleSt and sometimes palvmhes^ and vepret, 
Nect. CacoStheSf hippcmdneSf nepentltes, and jE>an^e», Greek. 

3. JExceptions in IS. 

HAsa 1. Latin nouns in nt« are masculine. But amm«, e¥nt«, clfkniSfflnin, 
andfUniSy are sometimes feminine. JP'lne»t boundaries, m the 
plural, is always masculine. 
2. The following nouns are masculine, viz : 

Axis, Cossis, lilpis, 

AquSlis, Cucumis, Mensis, 

Gaulis, or ) 
Cdlis, f 





















MAsa or Fsic AnguU, can(Ui»y eenchrit, cotbiSj ptUvUy scrSbiSf tigrUy tor- 
quit, are masculine or feminine. 

4. Mocepti&ns in YS. 

MAsa Names of rivers and mountains, as Halyt, (Hkn/$, de., are oommoiily 
masculine. (45-2.) 

5. Mcceptions in S after a consonant 

IfAsa 1 i)en9, fon%y mona, and pons ; also, eh&lyhB^ ellopt, ipops, gryp\ 

hydrops^ miropa, and seps, are masculme. 
2. Nouns m ns, originally participles, and compounds of dens, as 

occldentf orten«, btdens, a two-pronged hoe ; also seztanSf qua- 

drans, triens, dice., parts of as, are masculine ; but bldenSf a sheep, 

is feminine. 
Uaso. or Fkm. Adeps, forceps, rudens, scrobs, serpens, stirps. 

Note. Animans, a living creature, is of oil genders. 


6. Exceptions in X. 

Masc. 1. AX. C^raXy cordaxy drdpax, styrax^ thdr€ur, are masculine. 

2. EX. All nouns in ex are masculine, except lex^ nex^ supellex^ 
feminine ; cortex^ imbrex, 6bex, rumex^ silex, sometimes 
feminine ; grex and/>fim«d;, rarely feminine ; and airipUx,, 

8. IX. C&liXj foimixy phcsnix, apadixy are masculine, and some- 
times perdix and vdrtx ; otherwise feminine. 

4. OX. BoXy SsoXy and volvox are masculine. 

6. UX Th'adtix is masculine. 

0. TX. BombyXy a silk worm ; c&lyxy coccyXy ^yXy are masculine ; 
but dnyXy and sandyXy are masculine or feminine. 

7. NX. QuincunXy septniiXy aicunxy deunxy parts of as, are mas- 

culine ; iy9ix is masculine or feminine. 
CcUxy lime, is feminine ; ecUx, the heel, masculine or feminme. 
B&tnbyXy silk, is feminine. 
KsuT. AtripUx, gold-herb, is neuter. 


89. — ^RuLE 3. Nouns in a, e^ iy Cy and ^, are 
always neuter; those in 4 «^^ wr, and us^ are al- 
most always neuter. 

90. The following are exceptions; viz: 

1. Exceptions in L. 

VCisii, Magil and sol are masculine ; aa/, in the singular, is commonly 
masculine or feminine, sometimes neuter ; in the plural, always 

2. Exceptions in AR 

Hasc. SUldr is masculine. PaVy in the sense of '*mate,** is masculine or 
feminine ; in the sense of "a pair,^* it is neuter. 

3. Exceptions in UR. 

Hasc. AatvTy furfur, turtvTy and vultur, are masculine. 

4. Exceptions in US. 

Masg L^pusy miiSy rhusy meaning a seed, or spice, and Ch'eek nouns input, 

(except lagopuSy feminine,) are masculine. 
Fem. Nouns in ««, having utifty or udm in the genitive ; also p^cuSy -^is^ 

tellwty laaopuSy and rhtM, meaning a tree, are feminme. GruSf 

is masculine or feminine. 



I5 The following nouns in is have im in the accusative. 

Amussifi, ty a measure^ rule, R&vis, £, a hoarseneu, 

BiiiriBj If tJie beam of a plotigh. Sioapis, f^ mustard. 

Canialibis, f., Iiemp. Sitis, £, thirst, 

Cuc&mis, m., a cucumber. Tussis, £, a cough 

GummiB, £, gum. Vis, £, strength, 
Meplutis, t,'a strong smell, 

2. Proper names in is not increasing in the genitive, have 
im in the accusative ; viz : 

Names of cities and other places ; as, BiJMUs^ f,, a city of 
Spain ; SyriiSy f, a quicksand on the coast of Africa. 

Names of rivers ; as, Tiberis^ m., the Tiber ; Boeiis, m., th© 

Names of gods ; as, Anubis^ m. ; Osiris, m., Egyptian deities. 

Note. These nouns have sometimes in in the aocnsative. 

3. The following nouns in is have em or im in the accusative ; 

Aqu&lis, £, a water pot Puppis, t, tlie stern of a ship, 

ClEvis, t, a key. Restis, £, a rope, 

Ciitis, £, tlie skin, Securis, £, an axe, 

febi'is, f^ a fever, Sementis, f., a sovoing. 

Lens, f, lentiles, Sti'igilis, f., a curry-comb 

Navis, f^ a ship, Turris, £, a tower. 
Pelvis, £, a bason. 

Note 1. Fuppisj restiSf securis, and turris, have generally im; the otheTb 
eommonl)^ etn. The oldest Latin writers form the accusative of some oihor 
nouns in im; as, avis, auris, 

4. Nouns which have been adopted from the Greek, somtj- 
times retain a in the accusative ; as, heros, m., a hero, keroa , 
Tros, m., a Trojan, Troa. (See No. 13 below.) 

Note 2. This form of the accusative singular is s^dom used by the best 
prose writers, and is ohieflv confined to proper names, except in aer, m., the 
air; as^er, m., the sky; aeJphin, m., a dolphin; Pan, m., the god 01 the 
shepherds, which commonly have a^ra, CBithera, delphma, and Pdna, 

Ohs. 1; Many Greek nouns in es have en, as well as em^ in 
ihe accusative ; as, Euphraten^ Oresten, Fyl&den, 



5. Nouns in w, wMch have vm in the accusative, 
have i in the ablative ; as, eitis^ sitim^ eiti. 

But cann&bisj BcetiSj smapis, and Tigris^ have e or «. 

6. Nouns in i^, which have em^ or im in the 
accusative, have ^ or i in the Ablative ; as, cUma^ 
clme or cla/vi. 

Nyte 8. Bat cutUf and '"rettUy have € only ; tecHrUf ieiMrUit^ and ttriffilii^ 
eeldom have e. 

7. The following nouns, which have em in the acccusative, 
have 6 or i in the ablative ; viz : 

Amnis, ul, a river. Ooclpnt, n., the hind^ead, 

Anguia, m. and t, a make. Orbia, m., a circle. 

Avis, £, a bird. Para, £, apart. 

GiviB, c^ a citizen. Poatis, ul, a door post. 

Glassifl, t, afieet. Pfigili <^ <x pugilist. 

Flma, m. and £, an endl Rua, a, <Atf country. 

Fustia, m^ a etaff. Son, £, a ^. 

Ignis, nL, a^r«. Supellez, £,/umt^f«. 

Imber, hl, a shower. Unguis, hl, a naU. 

3lQgil, UL, a mullet, Vectia, la, a lever, 

Sote 4. ^inM, f»i2^i2^ oeoipvtt pitffil, rw, svpeUeXj and vectis^ have « or f 
indifferently ; the others much more frequently have e, 

Ohs, 2. Names of towns, when they denote the place in or 
at which any thing is done, take e or i ; as, Carthapine^ or 

Ohs, 3. Canalis^ m. or f., a water pipe, has can&li only. 
Likewise names of months in is or er; as, AprlliSy September, 
Aprili^ Sepiernhri ; and those nouns in is which were originally 
adjectives ; as, cedllis, affinity bipennis, familiaris, natdlis, 
rivalis, sodalis, volucris^ &c. This class of nouns also admits 
e in the ablative : JRudis, f., a rod, uadjuvenis, c, a youth, have 
e only. 

8. The following neuter nouns in al and ar have e in the 
nblative ; viz : 

Baeear, lady's glove. jQbar, a sunbeam. Par, a pqfr. 
Far, corn. Kectar, nectar. Sal, scUt. 

Obs. 4. Mare, the sea, has the ablative in e or t. 


[See Rules, 79 — 83.] 

9. The following nouns have ium in the genitive plural : 

CSro, ty flesh. Lar, m., a hcmsehold god. Par, n, a pair. 

Cohore, f , a cohort, Linter, m. or £, a boat, Quiris, m., a Jioman. 

Cov, n^ the heart. Mas, m^ a male, Samnis, m., a Samnite, 

Cos, f., a whetstone. Nix, 1, anoto, Strix, £, a screech-owl, - 

Dos, £, a chwry. Nox, £, night, liter, ro., a 6o^^^. 

Fauce, f., th^jaws. Os, n., a 6on«. Venter, hl, </*e 6e%. 

Oft«. 5, The compounds of uneia and aa have likewise ttwi; as, Sepiunx^ 
m., seven ounces, septuncium ; sextans^ m., two ounces, textantium. 

Ohs. 6. ^/>2«, f., a bee, has &pum and apium; frauSy fraud; and mu«, a 
mouse, generally, and /ornox, lar, paltts, and rdcKa;, sometimes, have ium; 
d^ns, f., power, has Spurn only. GrypSy m, a griffon ; /y»w:, m. or £, a lynx; 
a ad Sphinx f f., the Sphinx, have um. JBoa, c, gen. 6dvi«, an ox, has houm, 


10. BoSy c, an ox or a cow, has hdbua or hiJiJbu% in the dative plural ; and 
aus, c, a sow, has suXbuSy or syhua. Nouns in m^i have tia as well as ^{6i»; 
as, poema^ n., a poem, poematlbua or poem&tia. The Greek termination m 
or fin is very uncommon in prose, and is admissible only in words purely 
Greek. (See No. 13, below.) 


11. The form of the accusative plural in a< is admissible in all words 
which have that termination in Greek, but is rarely used in prose. livy, 
however, frequently uses Maceddnas; and Allobrdgaa is found in desar, 
(For the accusative plural in ts, or da, see 82.) 

12. Some nouns of the third declension are somewhat pe- 
culiar in different cases, as follows : 

Jupiter. Vis, forces power, Fern. 

iV. Jupiter, 
G. J6v-is, 
D, J6v.i, 
Ac, J6v-em, 
V, Jupiter, 
Ab, Jov-e. 



JV. vis, 

iV. vir-es, 

G. vis, 

G, vir-ium, 

D. — , . 

JD, vir-ibus, 

Ac, vim. 

Ac, vir-es, 

V. vis, 

V, vir-es, 

-46. vi. 

Ab, vir-ibus. 

S 16 



Bos, an oXy or eow^ Masc. or Fern. 

Singnlftr. PlaraL 

N, bos, N. b6v-es, 

G. bdv-is, &, bourn 

2>. bdv-i, D. bubus, or b&bai,* 

Ac. b5v-em, Ac. bdv-es, 

V. bos, F. bdv-es, 

Ah. bdv-e, Ah. bobus, or btlbus. 

* Contracted for bovQma. 



if, Lampas 
JS. Tr6-a*, 


S. Heros, 

S. Phyll-i8, 

JS. Pir-is. 

S. Chl&m-ya, 

S. O&p-ys^ 

tS. Hffire»-is, 

S. Orph-eus, 

& Did-o, 

-&dis, or -&do8, 


-&di8, or -&doB, 



-Idis, or -Idos, 
-idifl, or -idoB, 
-ydis, or -ydog, 
-yia, or -yoa, 
-is, -ioB, or -eos, 
-eos, or-el, or-«i, 
-OS, <7r -Ouia, 




-&Bi-, or 






-el, or -ei. 


-&dein, or -&da, 
-&de«, or -adaa, 
-&deui, or -&da, 

-ftdes, or -&daa, 

-o€m, or -oa, 
-idem, or -Ida, 
-idem,-im, or-in, 
-ydem, or -Ida, 
-ym, or -yn, 
-im, or -in, 





-i, or-is, 



-o,or-6ni,l-o, or -<)nem, 




91. — ^The Fourth Declension lias two termina- 
tions of the nominative singular, ti^ and u. 
Those in u are neuter. 


Matculine and Feminine, 


N, -us, 
Q, -tls, 
D, -ui, 
-4c. -um, 
F. -us, 

Ah. -My 








N, -u, 
G. -ds, 
D, -u (ui), 
Ac, -u, 
F. -u, 





§ 16 

y, fruct-us, 
G, fruct-Cls, 
D, fruct-ui, 
Ac, fruct-um, 
V, fruct-us, 
Ab. fruct-u 

N. corn-u, 
G. corn-As (5>3-4), 
/>. corn-u, 
Ac. com-u, 
F. com-u, 
Ab, corn-u. 

Fructus, yh/i^, Masc. 
• Plural. 

iT. fruct-us, 
G, fruct-uum, 
D. fruct-ibus, 
Ac, fruct-us, 

F. fruct-us, 
Ab, fruct-ibus. 

CoRNU, a horn, Neut. 


i\r. corn-ua, 

G. corn-uum, 
D, corn:lDus, 
Ac. corn-ua, 

F. corn-ua, 
Ab. cornibus. 

Thus decline 


a song. 


a fail. 


a chariot. 


a wave. 


a step. 

' Senatus, 

the senate, 


Thus deelise : 



. Genu, 

the knee. 




a spit. 

Note, The only neuters in this declension are comu^ gUu. genu^ veru, and 
pseuy which has the dative pectd : tonitrtts, ii*, m.. and tonitruum, t, n., 
thunder, are in common use; tondtru is hardly ever found in classic writers, 
and never in the nominative or accusative singular. 


Flatus, a blast Motus, a motion. 

Ictus, a stroke. Nutus, a nod. 

M&nus, f., the hand. Passus, a pace. 

Bitus, a ceremony. 
Sinus, a bosom. 
Situs, a situcUion. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are feminine ; viz : 

Acus, a needle. - Reus, a Jig. Porticus, a gallery. 

Anus, an old toomun, M£nu8, the hand, SpScus,* a den. 

Domus, a house. PSnus,* a storehouse, Tribus, a tribe, 

* Sometimes masculine. 


liJxc, 2. The Genitive and Dative singular : — In some writers 

the genitive singular is occasionally found in uis ; as, ejus anuis 

causA^ for dniis. Terence : sometimes also in i ; as, senati and 

tumulti. Sall. In others, the dative is sometimes found in u, 

Ab.^^P^^^ for impetui ; Esse usil sibi^ for usui. Cic. 


Sxc, 3. The Genitive^ Dative^ and Ablative plural : — ^TTie 
genitive plural is sometimes contracted ; as, cnrriim, for cur- 
mum. The following nouns have iibus instead of Ums in tb^i 
dative and ablative plural ; viz : 

Acus, a needle, Lftcus, a lake, SpScua, a den, 

Arcus, a bow. Partus, a birth. Tribua, a tribe. 

ArtuA, a Joint Portua,* a harbour, V6ni,* a epiL 

O^a,* the knee, 

* These words also have -^bue in the dative plural. 


1. Nouns of this declension seem to have belonged anciently 
to the third, and were declined like grus, gruie; thus, fructue^ 
fructuris^fruetu-i^ &c. So that all the cases, except the Dative 
singular and the genitive plural, may be regarded as contracted 
forms of that declension. 

2. Several nouns of this declension are, in whole or in part, 
of the second also ; such as, Flcus, lauruSy penus, plnus, ddmuSy 
senaius, tumultuSy and several others. CapricormiSy m., and 
the compounds of m&nus, as unim&nus, centim&nue, 6sc., are 
always of the second. 

3. Jesus, the name of the Saviour, has um in the accusative, 
and u in all the other oblique cases. This word does not pro- 
perly belong to this declension, but is after the Greek : ^ryrov^, 
cv, ov, ovv, ov, 

4. Nouns in u were formerly considered indeclinable in the 
singular ; but the recent investigations of Freund and others, 
have shown this opinion to be incorrect, at least with regard 
to the genitive ; and that u, the only termination of the dative 
now found, is probably a contraction for ui — just as usu is 
contracted for usui, (Exc. 2.) 

5. D5kus, a housCy Fern., is thus declined : 

Singular. Plaral. 

N, dom-us, iT. d6m-us, 

G. d6m-tls, or -i, G, dom-Orum, or -uum, 

J), dom-ui, or -o, D, dom-ibus, 

Ac, d5m-ura, Ac, d6m-us, or -os, 

V. d5m-us, V. dom-us, 

Ab, d6m-o. Ab. dom-ibus. 

/ ^ote,--'Dbmus in the genitive, signiiles qf a home, Domi is used only tc 
I signify at home^ or of home. 



§ 17 


1. Tell the gender^ number^ and case, of the following words^ 
from the paradigm and additional examples, pp, 34 and 85, and 
translate : 

Fructus, fructtls, fructuum, flatibus, flatu, manuum, manibus, 
nutu, passuum, passibus, passtls, comua, tonitribus, veriibus, 
casu, cuiTum, currui, fluctu, fluctibus, cornibus, (Sec 

2. Translate the following words into Latin, and tell thg 
gender, number, and case, in which the words are put; viz: 

Of fruit, to fruit, with the hand, for the hand, of a horn, U> 
a horu, with a horn, from horns, horns, the hot-ns, of the 
chariot, for a chariot, of chariots, from the waves, for the 
waves, from his hands, with a nod, &;c. 


94. — ^The Fiftli Declension has but one termi- 
nation of the nominative singular, namely, ee; as, 
7*eay a thing : dies^ a day. 

All nouns of this declension are feminine, except di^s, a 
day, which is masculine or feminine in the singular, and al- 
ways masculine in the plural ; and meridies, the mid-day, which 
is masculine in the singular, and wants the plural. 

1. Dies, a 








iV. di-es, 

iV". di-es. 



G» di-ei. 

G. di-erum, 

-ei, -€I, 


D» diei, 

D. di-ebus, 

-ei, -ei, 


Ac» di-em. 

Ac, di-es, 



y. di-es, 

F. di-es, 



Ab, di-e. 

Ab. di-ebus. 



Obs, 1. I>ies, res, and species, are the only nouns of the 
fifth declensior which have the plural complete; acies, effigies^ 
fades, series^ and spes, in the plural, have only the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative ; the other nouns of this declension 
have no plural. 

§ 17 




N, faci*es, 
G, faci-ei, 
2>. faci-ei, 
Ac. faci-em, 
F. &ci-es, 
Ab. &Gi-d. 

2. Facdbs, tkeface^ Fern. 


N. &ci-es, 



Ac. faci-es, 
F. &ci-es, 

Acies, an army. 
Effigies, an image. 
Series, a series. 
Spes, -^'i, hope. 

Exc. The poets sometimes make the genitive, and more 
rarely the dative singular, in e; as, fide for fidf^ Ov. : some- 
times in i; as, pernicii for pemiciei^ Nbp.; and plebi for 
plebety Liv. Bequies is both of the third and the iiflh declension. 


1. Tell the gender^ number j and case of the following nouns^ 
and translate ihem : — Diei, spei, aciem, acie, faciei, facies, 
diebus, dierum, dies, &ciem, effigiem, series, rerum, diebus, 
diem, <k;c., ad libitum, 

2. Translate the follovnng English words into Latin, and 
tell the gender, &c. : — ^The image, of the face, the things, of 
the JEirmy, the hope, of the army, a series, of days, to a day 
from the days, with the army, to an image, &c. 


Tell the gender, declension, case, and number, of the following 
nouns, in the order here msntioned, and give the translation ; 
thus, Penn&, a noun feminine, of the first declension, in the 
ablative singular, " with a pen " * : 

Via, pueri, genero, ventis, puerorum, sermo, sedile, sedili, 
sedilium, sedilibus, fructuum, fructtls, sellse, tubam, regno, 

♦ The following are the 
fndicated by the genitive, 

Ala, -se, a wing, 
Belluin, -i, war. 
C&put, -Itis, the Jiead, 
CmoTy -is, color. 
Dies, -el, a day. 
DomlnuB, -i, a lord. 
Fades, -ei, the face. 
Fructus, -^^, fruit, 
GSner, -i, a so7i-iai-law. 
Hdnor, -is, honor. 

wordB used in these exercises ; the declension is 
according to No. 65. 

Iter, itinSris, a way. 
M&nus, -Os, a hand, 
Mensa, -le, a table. 
Miles, -itis, a soldier. 
F&rens, -tis, a parent. 
Pars, -tis, apart. 
Puer, -i, a boy. 

Sedlle, -is, a seat. 
Sella, -CB, a seat. 
Sermo, -6nis, a speech, 
Templum, -i, a iempU. 
Tempus, -dris, time. 
Tiliba, -8B, a trumpet, 
Urbs, -is, a city. 

Kegnuti), •!, a kingdom. Ventus, -i, the tovnd. 
Res, rSl, a thing. Via, -8b, a way. 

Rapes, -is, a rock, Vulpes, -is, a fox 


templi, dies, rgrum, capite, capitum, itineribus, partis, parent* 
ibus, rupe, urbis, vulpem, vulpibus, parente, sedilia, die, 
colorem, militis, militibus, sermones, honore, mSnus, m&niis, 
manibus, faciem, ala, tubam, mensarum, bellum, dominCnim, 
templum, pueronim, bella, bello, &c. 

Translate the following into Latin, and state the gender, de- 
clension, case, and number, always following the same order ; 
thus, " Of boys,^"* puerorum, a noun, masculine, of the first de- 
clension, in the genitive plural : 

From the way, to a speech, with a part, of a seat, of seats, 
to the wind, a kingdom, to a boy, of boys, with lords, foxes, 
of tables, to parents, with seats, of soldiers, from the head, 
heads, to a part, with a trumpet, in a time, of war, the time, 
of color, in a journey, to a seat, of a rock, to sons-in-law, 
with fruit, of the face, with a seat, to tables, of rocks, &c. 


95. Irregular Nouns are divided into Variable, Defective^ and 


96. — Nouns are variable either in Gender, or Declension, 
or in both. Nouns varying in gender are called, Hetero- 
geneous. Those which vary in declension are called, Hetero^ 

Heterogeneous Nau/aa. 

\ .*- Masculine in the singular, and neuter in the plural ; as, 

Ayenrns, a hill in Campanict. Pangseus, a promontory in Thrace. 

Dindymus, a hill in Phrygia, Teenllrus, a promontory in Laeonia, 

Ism&rufi, a hill in Thrace, TartSrus, hell. 

JAssoSluB, a hill in Arcadia, Tayg^tus, a hill in Laconia. 

2. Masculine in the singular, masculine and neuter in the 
plural ; as, j6cus, a jest, plural j6ci and j6ca; locus, a place, 
plural I6ci and I6ca, 

3. Feminine in the singular, neuter in the plural ; as, 
carbS^sus, a sail, plural carb&sa; Ferg&mus, the citadel of 
Troy, plural Pergama, 


4. Neuter in the singular, masculine in the plural ; as, ArgoB^ 
Argos, a city in Greece, plural Argi; JElysium, the Elysian 
fields, plural Elysii; coelum^ heaven, plural coeli. 

Note 1. — Argos, in the Singular, is uned only in the Norn, and Aee. 

5. Neuter in the singular, masculine and neuter in the 
plural ; as, frenum^ a bridle, plural frhd BH^Jrena; rostrum , 
a rake, plural rdstri and rostra, 

6. Neuter in the singular, feminine in the plural ; as, bal- 
neum, a bath, plural balneoe^ seldom balnea; epulum, a ban- 
quet, plural epulce; delicium, a delight, plural delicias, 


7. Vas, vasis, neuter, a vessel, of the third declension, plural 
vasa, vasorum, of the second. Jugerum, jngeri, neuter, an 
acre, of the second declension, plural jug era, jugerum, of the 
third. Jugeris and jugere from jugus, are also found in the 
singular. (See Num. 11 below.) 

8. Some Greek proper nouns are declined both by the 
second declension and the third, as follows : 

Nom, Gen, Dot. Ace, Foe* AbL 

r. , ( -ei. -eo, -eum, or -eon, -eo; 2d Ded. 

Urpneus, < „ i T^ i 

'^ ( -eoa, -ei, -ea, -€u, 8d Decl. 

-o, -um, -o; 2d Decl. 

•odi, -ddem, -u, -ode ; 8d Decl. 

AchilleuB, -ei, -eo, -eu, -eo; 2d Decl. 

Achilles, -lis, or -Ifios, -li, -lem, or -len, -les, or -le, -le; 8d DecL 


^>«' 1 lis, 

9. To this class may be referred a few double nouns, the 
parts of which are of different declensions. When the two 
nominatives combine, both parts are declined like a substantive 
and adjective ; thus, 

Respublica, a commonwealth, Fern. 
Singular. PlnraL 

N, respublica, N, respublicee, 

G, re'ipublicse, G. rerumpublicfirum, 

2>. reipublicae, D. rebuspublicis, 

Ac, rempublTcam, Ac. respublicas, 

V. respublica, V, respublicsB, 

Ab, republic^. Ab, rebuspublicis. 


JusjuRANDUM, an oath^ Neut. 

Bingokr. Plurai. 

N. jusjurandum, N, jurajuranda, 

G. jurisjurandi, O. 

2>. jurijurando, D. 

Ac, jusjurandum, Ac, jurajuranda, 

V, jusjurandum, V, jurajurandft, 

-46.jurejurando, Ah, 

When the one part is a nominative, and the other an obllqiM 
ease, the part in the nominative only is declined ; as, 

Materfamilias, a mistress of a family ^ Fern. 

N, materfamilias, 
O, matrisfamilias, 
D, matrifamilias, 
Ac. matremfamilias, 
V, materfamilias, 
Ab, matrefamilias. 

Note 2. — "BQTQyfamiliaB ia an old form of tho genitive, and is governed Cj 
mater. So, PaUr-famUias.Jili'us-famUiaSy JiliarfamUias, Pi Tnatretfam^ 
hdrv/m^&Q, In tlus way,/<£mi^ is used as weU tAfamiliae, 


Nouns are defective either in Case or in Number, 

Obs. 1. Indeclinable nouns, i. e., nouns which have the same 
form in all cases, though commonly ranked under this class, 
do not properly belong to it, because none of the cases are 
wanting. ITiey are such as pondo, n., a pound or pounds ; 
semis, n., the half; mille, a thousand ; ccepe, an onion ; opus, 
need or needful, used both as a substantive and an adjective. 
To these may be. added any word used as a noun ; as, velle, in 
the phrase, suum velle (for sua voluntas), his own inclination ; 
— proper names adopted from a foreign language ; as, ElizH' 
bet, Jerusalem, &c. 

I. Nouns defective m pcurtiaular cases. 

Note, — ^A noun used in one case only, is called a monoptote; in two cases, a 
diptoU; in three, a triptots; in four, a tetraptotej in nve, & perUjgtijte, Aa 
indeclinable word is called an aptote, 

10. The following nouns are used only in one case : 

NomiiuUive. luquies, f., want of rest. 



Admonita, hl, an admonition. Ingratufl, £, in tpite of, 

AmbSge, 1, a winding, InjuBSU, ul, without order 

Cafise, Di,, a net. Interdiu, by day. 

IMu, by day. K&tu, m, 6y birth. 

Ergd, on account of. Koctu, £, 6^ nt^A/. 

Fauce. f thejawe. Fromptu, m^ tn readineee. 

Obs. 2. Many verbal nouns of the fourth declension are 
ased only in the ablatjve singular; as, ctccHu, promptu^ 6sc. 
Dxcis^ f, and nauci^ n., are used only in the genitive singular; 
as diets' gratia^ for form's sake; res nauci, a thing of no value. 
Injicias, f., and incita, f., or iiuHtas, have only the accusative 
plural ; as, inficicut ire, to deny ; ad inc^tas reductus, reduced 
to extremities. Ambages^ causes and fauces^ are regularly de- 
clined in the plural. 

11. The folio Yring nouns are used only in two cases : 

N^ominative and,Aeeu8ative» 
AMOf D., the city of Athens, Instar, il, likenesSf bigness, 

InferisB, -as, f, aacrifices to the dead, Suppetiae, -as, £, help. 

Nominative and Ablative. 
AstuB, -u, m^ cunning. Vesper, -e, or -i, m., ^Atf evening. 

Genitive and Ablative. 
Comp^dis, -e, f^ a fetter. Spontis, -e^t^of onie own accord, 

Imp^tis, -e, wl, force. VerbSris, -e, xl, a stripe. 

JugSris, -e, il, an acre, Repetundftmm, -is, £, extortion. 

Obs, 3. Compedes, jugera and verbera are regularly declined 
in the plural. Astus is found in the nominative and accusative 

12. The following nouns are used only in three cases ' 

Nominative, Accusative and Vocative, 

Caooethes, n^ a bad custom. K^fas, n^ impiety. 

(Also other Greek nouns in -es.) Kihi], and Kil, n^ nothing, 

Oete^ n^ whales, Tempe, a, the vale of Temps, 
IXca; -am, £, a j>roo0M; pL -as. 

Nominative, Aeeusativs and Ablative, 

Epos, n^ a heroic poem. H^los, n, a song; pL -e. 

Fas, n^ (Uvine law. Mane, -e, -e, a, the morning, 

Orfttes, f., thanks. T&bes, £, consumption. 

Lues, If a plague. Y epres, or -is, in., a brier. 


JVowi, Ge^i. and Abl. Tftbum, il, putrid gore, 
Nom^t Oen. and Ace, Munia, -drum, n^ offices, 

OpiSf ty genitive, help, (from opSy) has dpem in the accusatiye, and dpe 
in the ablative singular, with the plural complete, 5peSy dpum, d^., wealth ; 
and prieiy £, dative, a prayer, (from prex,) has prScem and price^ with the 
plural entire, pr^eSj prScuniy Ac. FemlniSy a, genitive, the thigh, (from 
fimefiy) has femini and fenrClney in the dative and ablative singular, and 
ferriUna in the nominative, accusative and vocative plural. 

Ohz, 4. Vc^re% has the plural entire ; and tabes and gratihus^ 
the nominative and the ablative plural of tabes and grates^ are 
also found. 

The following nouns want the genitive, dative, and ablative 
plural : 

Far, n., com^ Mel, n., honey. Bus, a, the country 

Hieras, £, winter, M^tus, m,,/ear. Thus, iL,/rankincen9e^ 

(For nouns of the Fifth Declension, see 94.) 

13. The following nouns want the nominative and vocative, 
and are therefore used only in four cases : 

Ditionis, £, power, Sordis, t, filth, 

Peciidis, f., a beast. Yicis, £, a change. 

To these may be added daps, t, a dish ; frux, £, com ; and nez, £, 
slaughter, which are seldom used in the nominative. The plural of frux 
IS entire ; daps wants the genitive ; and nex seems to have the nominative» 
accusative, and vocative only. 

Chaos, n., a confused mass, wants the genitive and dative 
singular, and is not used in the plural. 

Obs, 5. Pecudis and sordis have the plural entire ; vicis is 
defective in the genitive ; ditionis has no plural. 

14. Some nouns are defective in one case. 
The following want the genitive plural : 

F»x, U dregs, PrOles, £, offspring. 

Fax, U a torch Bos, m., dew, 

li&bes, £, a stain, Sobdles, £, offspring. 

Lux, £, light, Sol, m., the tun, 
Os, n., the mouth, 

BaiiaSy £, a glut of any thing, and sSlvm, n., the sea, want the genitive 
angular and the plural entirely. SUus, m., a situation, mustiness, wants 


the genitiye. and perhaps the dative singular, and probably the genitiys, 
dative, and ablative pluraL Nenw, c, nobody, wants the vocative singuUur, 
and has no ploraL 

II. Nouns defective in nwmher. 

15. Some nouns, from the nature of the things which they 
express, cannot be used in the plural. Such are the names 
of virtues and vices ; of arts, herbs, metals, liquors, different 
kinds of corn, al)stract nouns,, &o.; as^jusdiia^ justice; luxuSy 
luxury; fn7isic€L^ music; apium^ parsley; anrum, gold; lac^ 
milk; tri£icum, wheat; mayniiudo^ gre^itness; senecius, old 
age ; wfiicies^ leanness, <kc. But some of the nouns included 
in these classes are occasionally found in the plural. 

16. Tlie following masculine nouns, for the most part, waat 
the plural : 

Aer, aSris^ the air, PSnus, -i, w -^ all manner of yro' 

i£ther, -^ris, the sky, visiotia. 

Finius, -i, dung, PontuB, -1, the sea, 

Hesperus, -i, tlu evening star, Pulvis, -^s, ditst, 

Inmus, -i, mud. Sanguis, -mis, blood. 

Meridies, -iei, mid-day. Sopor, -Oris, sleep, 

Mundus, -i, a woman's ornaments, Vetemus, -i, a lethargy. 

MuscuB, -i, moss. 

IfoU 8. — A8r^ pulvis, and s6por are found In the plural. 

17. The following feminine nouns, for the most part^ want 
the plural : 

Argilla, -se, pottet's earth, SSlus, -QtiB, safety, 

Ffimes, «is, hunger, Sitis, -is, thirU. 

Hiimus, -i, the gro^ind. Supellez, -ctilis, household /um^ 

Ind61e,8, -is, a disposition, ture, 

Plebs, -ie, tfte common peo]^. Tenia, -ae, pardon, 

Pubes, -is, the youth, Yesp^ra, -ae, tfte evening 

The following are sometimes found in the plural : 

Bills, -is, hile, Pituita, -», phJ^gm, 

GholSra, -ae, choler, Pix, -cis, pitch. 

Cutis, -is, the shin, PrOles, -is, offspring, 

Fama, 'S^fame, Quies, -fitis, rest. 

Gloria, -bb, glory, Soboles, -is, offspring, 

lAbes, -is, a tiain^ Tellus, 41ri8, the earth, 

Ptz, -eis, peaeti, 



18. The following neuter nouns, for the most part, want 
the plural : 

Album, -i, a list of names, Liitum, i, clay 

BarSthrum, -i, any deep pla^e. Nectar, iiis, nectar, 

Diluculum, -i, the dawn of day. PelSgus, -i, tJie tea, 

Ebur, -6ri8, ivary. Pdnum, -i, and pSnus, -dris, all kinds 

Fceuum, -i, hay. of provisiotis, 

Cl6lu^fro8tj indeclinable. Pus, pQris, matter, 

liUum, -i, tlie black speck of a bean ; Sal, s^lis, salt, 

a trifle, Ver, vgria, the sprina. 

Jiibar, -ftris, the sunbeam, Viru8,-i, jootson. 
Justitium, -i, a vaeationy tJte time Vitrum,-!, ^/am. 

when courts do not sit, Viscum, -i, the mistletoe, 

Lardum, -i, bacon, YulgOB, i, the rabble, 
Lethum, -i, death, 

Oba, 6. jEbur^ lardum^ lutum^ and pus^ are found in the 
plural ; and pel&ge is found, in some cases, as the plural of 
pel&gus; sal, as a neuter noun, is not used in the plural. 

19. Many nouns want the singular; such as the names of 
feasts, books, games, and many cities and places ; as, 

ApoUinares, -ium, games in fionor of Olympia, -orum, tfie Olympic games,. 

Apollo. SyracQsse, -arum, Syracuse, 

Bacchanalia, -iuiu, and -drum, the Hierosolyma, -drum, JeruscUetn, 

feasts of JBacchus, Thermopylae, -firum, tfie straits of 
BucoHca, -orum, a book of pastorals. TJiermopylcs. 

20. The following masculine nouns are scarcely used m 
the singular : 

Antes, tfic front rows of vines, InfSri, the gods below. 

Cancelli, laiticeSy or windows made Lemures, -um, ghosts^ hol^obUnt, 

with cross-bars, LibSri, children, 

Cilni, gray hairs, Majores, -um, ancestors, 

Gel^res, -um, the light-horse, Mfines, -ium, ghosts, 

CodicUli, writings, Mindres, -um, successors. 

Fasti, -orum, or fastus, -uum, ealen- Pena.te8,-um, or -ium, AoiM«/io/(fjVNiii 

darSy in which were marked festival- PostSri, posterity, 

daySy (be. Procures, -um, the nobles, 

Fdri, the gangways of a ship, or teats Pugillares, -ium, writing tables, 

in the Circus, SupSri, the gods above, 

Obs 7. Libh'i and proceres are also found in the singular 
{procerem). Some of the others, as in/eri, majoresy 6ic^ 

8 18 



are properly adjectives, and agree with the substantivf"^ which 
are implied in their signification. 

21. The following feminine nouns want the singular : 

Clit^Uie, a pannier. EalencUe, NdiuB, IduA, Parietlns, ruinous %oalls. 

•uum, names whieh the Pbaldras, trappings. 

Romans gave to certain Primitias, first fruits, 

days in each tnonth, ReliquieB, a remainder, 
Ijaetefl, the small guts. Salioas, salt-pits. 
Lapicidime, stone guar- Sc&lis, a ladder, 

ries. SoOpse, a besom. 

ManubiflB, spoils taken in Tenebras, darkness. 

COnsB, a cradle, 
DirflB, impreeoHoni. 
DivitiflB, riches. 
Excubiie, watches. 
ExsequifiB, j^unerals. 
EIzuTue, spoils. 
FerisB, holidays. 
GerrsB, trifies. 
Induci®, a truee. 

Therms, hat baths. 
Tricie, toys. 
YiiYa, folcUng doors. 
yindicisB, a claim of li- 
berty, a defence. 

HuuB, threats. 
Induyite, clothes to put NQgs, trifies. 

on. NundinsB, a market 

lD8idi«, snares, Nuptiae, a marriage. * 

The following are generally found in the plural : 

Alpes, the Alps. Chaiites, -mn, the Graces. 

ArgutiaB, quirks, witticisms. Facetias, ple€uant sayings, 

^KgSB. a chariot drawn by two horses, Ineptiae, silly stories. 
Tngm, .— . by three, PrsBstigiaD, enchantments, 

Quadrlg®, -*— by four. Sal^briB, rugged places, 

Braccas, breeches. 

22. The following neuter nouns want the singular : 

Acta, public acts or records, 
JE&UvA, sumtner quarters, 
Anna, arms. 
Bellaiia, -um, daifUies. 
Brevia, -um, shallows, 
Gibaria, victuals. 
Grepundia, children's toys, 
Gunabula, a cradle^ an origin, 
Exta, the entrails. 
Februa, purifying sacrifices, 
Flabra, blasts of wind, 
FrSga, strawherries. 
Hybema, winter quarters, 
Qia, -om, the entrails, 
JustR, funeral rites. 
Lamenta, lamentations. 

lAntXti, provisions for the entertasty 
ment of foreign ambassadors, 

Magalia, -um, cottages. 

Moeiua, -um, tJie walls of a city, * 

Orgia, tlte sacred rites of Bacchus. 

Parentftlia, -mn, solemnities at the 
funeral of parents. 

Praecordia, the diaphragm, the heart 

Sponsftlia, -mn, espousals. 

Statlva, a standing camp. 

Talaria, -mn, winged shoes. 

Tesqua, rough places. 

Tronstra, the seats on which the rowers 
sit in ships. 

UtenBilia, -mn, utensils. 


Obs, 8. Acia and transtra^ are also found in the singular. 
Some of the others, as cestlva^ brevia, hyberna^ statlva^ &c., are 
properly adjectives ; and agree with the substantives wliich are 
necessary to complete their meaning. 

III. RedAjmdcmt Nomis. 

23. Some nouns are redundant in termination, gender, or 
form of declension : as, arbor ^ or arbos^ a tree ; vulgus^ the 
rabble, masculine or neuter; rrienda, mendw^ or mendum, mendi^ 
a fault. , 

The most numerous class of redundant nouns, is composed 
of those which express the same meaning by different termina- 
tions ; as, 

iEther, -firia, d: aethra, -sb, the air. GSlu, <& -Mm^ frost. 

Alvear, <fc -e, <k -ium, a bee-hive. Gibbus, dt -&; ds -er, -€ria, oi^ -6ri, a 

A.mar£cu8, <k -um, sweet marjoram, bunchy a swelling. 

Ancile, d: -ium, an oval shield. Glutinum, <k -en, gitce. 

Angiportus, -(is, d: -i, & -um, a narrow Grus, -uis, & -uis, -uis, a crane 

lane. Iiaurus, i, ds -ii8, a laurel tree, 

Apbractus, <& -um, an open ship. Maceria, d: -ies, -igi, a waU. 

Aplustre, oEr -um, the flag, colors. Materia, -as, d: -ies, -lei, matter. 

Arbor, d: -os, a tree, Menda, -ae, d: -um, -i, a fault. 

Baculus, d: -um, a staff. ^ Milliare, h -ium, a mile. 

Balteus,,<£r -um, a belt. Monitum, d: -ub, -tla, an adtnonitioH. 

Batillus, d: -um, afire-shovel, Muria, d: -ies, -iei, brine ov pickle. 

Capus, d: -o,a capon. Nasus, <fc -um, the nose. 

Cassis, -idis, & -ida, -idas, a helmet. Obsidio, d^ -um, a siege. 

C§pa, d; -e, (indec), an onion. Ostrea, -ae, d: -ea, orum, a« oyster. 

Clypeus, d! -um, a shield. Peplus, d: -um, a veil, a robe. 

Golluvies, d: -io, filth, dirt. P^nus, -lis, <£? -i ; <fr -um ; «£r -us, -fi^is, 

CompSges, ofc -go, a joining. provisions. 

Conger, ds -grus, a large eel. Pistiina, ds -um, a grinding-hous0 

CrScus, dt -um, saffron. Plebs, d; -os, the common people. 

Cubitus, db -um, a cubit. Praetextus, -ds, dh -um, a pretext. 

Diluvium, dk -es. a deluge. Rapum, db -&,a turnip. 

Elegi, -oinmi, db -ia, an elegy. Ruma, ds -men, the cud 

Ellepbantus, ds Elephas, -antis, an Ruscum, ds -us, butchei's broom, 

elephant, Segmen, ds -mentum, a paring, 

Easdda, dt -um, a chariot. Sepes, ds seps, a hedge. 

Eventus, d: -a, -drum, an event. SibHus, d: -a, -orum, a hissing, 

Gausapa, <£' -e, -es ; ds -e, -is ; ds- -um, a Sinus, ds -um, a milk paiL 

rough cloth Sti'&men, ds -t^om, ^raio. 


SixSlmea, db 'tarn, a perfiune, TordHar, d! -^Ore, a wine-prea. 

TignuB, <t -um, a plank, Veternus, d! -tun, a lethargy, 

Toral, d: -Ale, a bed<overing, YiBCum, dt -us, the miiiUtot, 
Toiutroa, -tB, <t -u,dt -uum, thunder, 

Obs. 9. Some of the nouns in the preceding list, may be 
ased in either or in any of the terminations, and in the singular 
or plural, indiiferently ; some, as auxiliuniy laurus, -iist aro 
used only in one or two cases; or in one number, as elegi; 
while others, as prcetextus (a pretext) and prcetextum (a border), 
though sometimes synonymous, are commonly employed in a 
different meaning. 

24. The following nouns have a meaning in the plural dif- 
ferent from that which generally belongs to them in the 
singular : 

SingnUr. Pltml. 

Aedes, a temple. Aedes, a Itouie, 

Aiudlium, amstanee, Auxilia, auxiliary troops, 

Bdaum, any thing good, Bdna, gooda, property, * 

CaxceTf a prison. Carc^res, the barriers of a roes 


Cafltrmn, a fort. Gastra, a camp. 

Comitium, a place in the Roman Ck>iuitia, an assembly of thi people 

forum where the eomiiia were held, for the purpose of voting, 

Copia, plenty. Copiae, troops. 

Cupedia, daintiness, CupeduB, or -a, dainties. 

Facultaa, power ^ ability. Facultfttes, wealthy property. 

Faacis, a bundle of twigs, a fagot. Fasces, a bundle of rods carried 6e> 

fore the chief magistroUe of Home, 

fmifl. tJte end of any thing, Ftoes, the boundaries of a country, 

'Eor^HuaSij fortune. FortQiue, an estate, possessions, 

Gratia, gracCy favor, Gratias, thauTcs. 

Hortus, a garden, " Horti, pleasure-grounds, 

Lit^ra, a letter of the alphabet, Litdrse, a letter, epistle. 

Liistrum, a period of Jive years, XiOBtra, dens of wild beasts, 

Natalia, a birthrday, Natales, birth, descent, 

OpSra, labor, Op6r», workmen. 

Opifl, (genitive,) help. Opes, wealth, power. 

Pan, a part, portion, * Fartea, a party, faction, 

Pl%a, a space, a tract of country. PlSgae, nets used by hunters. 

PriDcipium, a beginning, a first prin- Principia, a place in the camp where 

eiple, or element, tite generdPs tent stood. 

48 ' ADJECTIVES § 19 

Singular. Ploial. 

Bcfitrum, the beak of a hirdy the Bjostra^ a ptdpit in the Jioman/orvm^ 
$Iiarp part of the prow of a $hip, from which orators ttsed to addreag 

the people, 
Bal, tdlt S&leB, witticisms, 

Nate 4. — All the noons in the preoedijog list, except casti^um and eomU/Mntj 
are Bometimes found in the singular, in the sense in which they more ooot- 
monly occur in the pluraL 


97. — An Adjeotivb is a word used to qualify 
a substantive ; as, vir boiojs, a good man ; deoem 

nm)eey tek ships. 

A noun is qualified by an adjective when the object named 
is thereby described^ limited^ or distinguished from other thing9 
of the same name. 

1. The accidents of the adjective are gender ^ number , and 
case, and, of most adjectives, also comparison. 

2. Adjectives, in Latin, indicate the gender, number, and 
case, by the termination; as, bon-us, bdn^a, bon-vm, (98.) 

3. Participles have the form and declension of adjectives, 
while, in time and signification, they belong to the verb. 

"^ "4^ Some adjectives denote each gender by a different termi- 
natioriSii, the nominative, and consequently have three ter- 
minations. Some have one form common to the masculine 
and feminine, and are adjectives of two terminations; and 
some are adjectives of one termination, which is common to 
all genders. 

5. Adjectives are either of the first and second declensions, 
or of the third only, 

6. Adjectives of three terminations f except thirteen), are of 
the first and second declensions ; but tnose of one or two ter- 
minations, are of the third. 

Uxc, Thirteen adjectives in er, of three terminations, are 
of the third declension. (See 99-^.) 

S 20 





98. — Adjectiyes of the first and second declensions have the 
masculine always* in ii« or er; the feminine always in a, and 
the neuter always in tun; as, maBculine 6dniM, feminine 6dna, 
neuter hdnum^ good. 

The ihasculine in u% and ef, is declined like d<minu9^ and 
gener; the feminine in a, like penna; and the neuter in «fii| 
like regnum: thus, 

1. BovuB, BOVA, BOKUM, good. 



Jtfa«e. .Fhn. 


Moic Fern. 


iV^. bdn-us, a, 


N. b6n-i, as, 


6^. bdn-i, e, 


6^. bon-orum, ftrum, 


2>. bdn-o, e, 


2). bdn-is, is, 


^c. bdn-um, an^ 


^. b5n-os, as. 


V. b^n-e, % 


F. bdn-i, «, 


Ab. b5n-o, lly 


^&. b6n-is, is, 


In the same manner decline : 

Altufli MgK OavuB, holler "LafbaMtjoyfuL 

AmpliiB, large, DootuB, leametL Fleniu,yW^ 

B]andjiB,JlaUering, DOrus, AardL PriTatiu» jmvofa^ 

Cams, ii!Mtr. Jidvm, faUhfiiL Beeto^ fv^ 

^ Also all participles, numerals, and pronouns, in us; as, affUt- 
ifi8, amatOrufy amandua^ — jE>rlmtM, $HMndu$^ &c., — meui^ hii», 

IM& i.— JfipM has fni la the yocatlye masenline. seldom 

2. Tbitbr, TEiTBRA, TXHBRUH, tender. 

y. tgner, 
6^. tenSr-i, 
Z>. ten6r-o, 
^c. tenSr-um, 
Ah, ten§r-o, 











J\r. tenSr-i, e, 
^. tener-drum,&rum, 
D. tengr-is, is, 
Ac, tenSr-os, as, 
V, ten5r-i, ee, 
Ab, tendr-is, is, 








In the same manner decline 

Asper, rougK lfijBer» wretched. 'EaAettforeign, 

liber, /ree. Prosper, prMperoiM: S£tur,/t«tf. 

Also compounds deriyed from giro aixd/lhro; as, lanXger, bearing wool ; 
opl/er, bringing help. 

But most adjectiyes in er lose the e in all the genders (66) ; as^ 

3. Ater, atra, atbum, bkuik. 


N, S.ter, atr-a, 

O. atr-i, atr-se, 

2>. atr-o, atr-ae, 

Ac, atr-um, atr-am, 

F. ater, atr-a, 

Ah, atr-o, atr-&, 

iEger, tick, 
CrSber, frequent 


NeuL Moue, " Fetn, Neut, 

atr-um, N, atr-i, atr-se, atr-a, 

atr-i, G, atr.orum,atr-arum,atr.6rum, 

atr-o, i)/, atr-is, atr-is, 

atr-um, ^c.atr-os, atr-as, 

atr-um, V» atr-i, atr-se, 

atr-o. ^6.atr-is, atr-is. 

In like manner decline : 

M&cer, lean, SSeer, Mcred, 

PiLlcher,/Qt>. Sinister, Z«/t 

Dexter y right, has dextra, dextrum; or dexthra^ dextirum, 

4. The following adjectives have the genitive singular in 
%U8^ and the dative in t; namely. 

Alius, another of many. Sdlus, alone. 

Alter, the other of two, TOtus, whole, 

Altemter, ths one or XJUus, any. 

other. IJnuS) one. 

Neuter, neither. liter, whether. 
Nullus, none. 

In the other cases, they are like bdnuSy thier, or dter; as, 

UterKbetk which of tk$ 

Utervis, which of ths 

two you pleaee. 

TOtus, t6ta, t6tum, uhole. 



Maee. J^em, 


Maee Fern. 


N, tot-US, a. 


N. t6t-i, ae, 


0, tot-ias, ius. 


G, tot-orum, firum, 


D, tOt-i, i. 


D. tot-is, is. 


Ac. t6t-um, am, 


Ac. tdt-os, as. 


V. tot-e a. 


V. tOt-i, », 


Ah toto, 1^ 


Ah. t6t-is, is, 





NoU 2.^JUu8 has aUud in the neuter ; and in tLe genitive aliuty oontraotod 
for alUiu ; dative, alii. The genitive in i«M, in poetry^ has the i either long 
or fthort ; in prose, always long. UUr^ neuter^ otter j o^Mif, ttUtUf aod mUluSf 
instead otitis in tne genitive^ and i in the dative, occasionally, in the early 
writers^ have the regolar genitive i| a», t, ftnd dative o, a», o. 


99. — ^RuLB 1. Adjectives of the third declen- 
gion, have e or i, in the ablative singular ; but if 4- 
the neuter is in ^, the ablative has i only. 

Rule 2. The genitive plural ends in mni^ anid it 
the neuter of the nominative, accusative, and vocar 
tive, in ia. 

Exc. Except comparatives, which have vm j 
and a. 

L Adjectwes of one termination. 


1, Felix, happy. 



Mate, Fern, 

Nieut, Mase, Fern, 



felix, f^lix, 

- ffelix. 

N, felio-es, es. 



felic-is, is, 


Q, felio-ium, ium. 



felio-i, i, 



D, felio-ibus, ibus. 



. fetio-em, em. 


Ae, felic-es, es, 



felix, felix. 


V, felio-es, es, 


ul& fel!c-e or i, eori, 


Ah, felio-ibus, ibus. 



In like manner decline : 

FSroz, bold. 

SuppleZy tuppliant, Tniz, -Qoifl, ervd. 

SSgaz, aagaeioui. 

TSnaz, tenaeiom. VsIoil, -(Jeifl, i 



, FnxjDVSB, prudent, 
' Singular. 


Fmh Neut, 

jK prudens, 

prQdens, prudens, 

G» prudent-is, 

prudent-is, prudent-is, 

J), prudent-i, 

prudent-i, prudent-i. 

Ae. prudent-em, 

prudent-em, prudens, 

F. pradens. 

prudens, prudens. 


Ab. prudent-e, or 

-i, prudi 

snt-e, or -i, prudent-e, 

or -i. 





N. prudent-es, 
G. prudent-ium, 
2). prudent-ibus, 
Ac, prudent-es, 
V, prudent-es, 
Ab. prudent-ibus, 










In like manner decline : 

AJbo all participleB in fw;*ai, ibnans, d&unn^ %mi^ cmditM^ ^ 

Note, — ^Partidples have € oftener than % in the ablative angular, and \sl thft 
ablative abaolute, they have # onljr. 

n. Adjectwe^ of two fermmaiioTis. 

3. ^Tia, idTB, meek. 




Jtfdue. Fern, 





N". mit-is, is, 


N, mit-es. 



G. nut-is, is, 
D. mit-i, i, 
Ac, mit-em, em. 



G, mit-ium, 
J}, mit^ibus, 
Ac, mit-es. 



V. mit-is, is. 


F. mit-es, 



Ab, mit-i, i, 


Ab, mit-ibus. 



In lihe same manner decline r 
AgOia, aetwe, Pebilia, weak. Talis, tuch, 

BrSvia, thorL InoolikniB, iafe, TTtitliB, %t9eful, 

4. Comparative Degree^ — MixiORy mitics, m>ore meei* 


N, mitior, 
G. mitior-is, 
D. mitior-i, 
Ac, mitidr-em, 
F. mitior, 


mitior, mitius. 




mitior, mitius, 

* J • 

Ab. mitiOr-e ori, e or i, e or i. 


Mom, Fern. JifmL 

N, mitiOr-es^ es,. a, 

G, mitior-um, um, um, 

D, mitior-ibus, ibus, ibus, 

Ac, mitidr-es, es, a, 

F. miti5r-es, es, a, 

Ab, mitior-ibus, ibus,. ibus. 

In like maimer decline : 

Altior, Mffher, Felicior, happier, Melior, better, 

Brevior, shorter, Foitior, braver, TdoOior, to/tier, 

Durior, harder, Mftjor, greater, Psjor, iDoraft 




JStf, Phu^ more, hae iwlj the neiiter gender in the uDgular, 
and is thus deolined t 



N. plus, 
O. pl€ur-iS| 


Ac. plus, 


-46. plQr-e, or i. 

JIT. plOr-es, 
Q. plur-ium, 
2>. plur-ibus, 
^«. plQr-es, 



.45. plur-!bus, ibus, ibus. 

JShU. — ^The nentev plnni in ta is hardly eyer need. The ootnponnd, eon^ 
fimr^tf htm no BiwgnUr. > 

ICL Ad^ectwee of three termrnatume. 

5* AoBB or ACRiB, AORB, sharp. 


Mate, Fern, 

y. ftcer, or ftcr-is, is, 
G. acr-is, is, 

D, &cr-i, i, 
Ac, &cr-eixi, em, 

F. acer, or &cr-is, is, 

AJb. dcr-i, 1, 


JVina. iToM. Fern, NmU, 

e, i^. ftcr-es, es, ia, 

is, G, acr4um, ium, lum, 

i, D. acr-ibus, ibus, ibus, 

e, ^e. ftcr-esi es, ia, 

e, F. &cr-es, es, ia, 

i. ^5. aor4bii8, ibus, ibus, 

Besides deer, the foIloTOig twelve are deolined in this way : 

AUeer, eheeffvL JBqnMter, eqtaMtrian, Siliiber, uhoiuomit, 

Oampester,./Ca<, lead, Palaster, m«rj^. SilT«eter, uioodjf, 

Oel^b^,/am<mi^ Pedester, mtfovt, Terrwter, Urrettrifii. 

G^er, «M>SL Pfiter. jm^rid Yolfioer, «v»/e. 

100. — Moceptione m the Ahlaiwe Smgvlw cmd 

Qembvoe PhiraL 

Exc. 1. The following adjectives have e in the ablative 
singular, and um in the genitive plural; viz : 

Coelebi^ immarrMdl Paxq>er,jMK7r. Sotpe8,Mc/>. 

Compos, ftioMter of, Juydnia, ycwn^. Impab«% beardUtt. 

Hotpes* ttrangti, Pabi% fiMm^fMiMc Supentev, twrvMii^, 

Irapoi^ unoi^ S^coc, M, Y^im* old. 

Hi* Mmpmindi ol efi^^r, etfpcr^ emapUf and |wt, have likawlie # iad 

&i ADJXOnVKS. § 22 

I^oCe, — OoMty eompoty impotf and syp9rtU8^ have BOtnetoines { in Uie 
ablative. Vettu has commonly veteri in the ablative, but always cetera and 
««^t«f» in the plural. 

JSxc, 2. The following adjectiyes have « or » in the ablative 
singular, and urn in the genitiye' plural ; yiz : 

Ales, fringed, Deg^ner, degenerate. Partifceps, akartag, 

Anceps, doMe. Pispar, unequaL Praeceps, headlong, 

Artsfdz, artificial, I^vefl, ncA. Princei>a, cAi^^. 

Cicu.*, ^amtf. Ihipar, uneqiuaL ' Supples, tuppliant, 

0oxap9Xf equal, Tmapa, poor, YUgilf toatch/td. 

Note, — MhnoTy mindfyU ^ immn^kmor, unmindftil , par, equal ; ^Lber^ fertile , 
votucer^ swift, have i only m the ablative singular, ana wn in the genitive 
plural ; except par^ which has iwn, 

Loouple9y nch ; eone^ guilty, uid tneone^ innocent, have ifm, as well as ium^ 
in the genitive plural. 


Irregular adjectives are Defective or JRedundam. 


1. The adjectives frugi, temperate ; sat or s&tis, sufficient; 
Mentis, half; and the plurals quot, how many ? tot, so many ; 
aliquot, some ; quotquot, and quotcunque, how many soever ; 
totidem, just so many, are indeclinable. Nequam, worthless, 
is also indeclinable, but used in both numbers. 

2. Exspes, hopeless ; and p^tis, neuter pote, sometimes 
phtis, able, are used only in the nominative. They are of all 
genders, and p6tis is also found joined with plural nouns. 

Tantandem, as much, has tanddem in the genitive, and tan- 
tundem, m. and n., in the nominative and accusative singular. 

Necesse, or necessum, necessary; and volupe, pleasant, are 
used only in the nominative and accusative singular. 

3. Mactus, -e, and plural -i, a common word of encourage- 
ment, brave! gallant! is used only in the nominative and 
vocative singular, and nominative plural. 

PliLs, more, in the singular, is neuter only ; wants the dative^ 
and probably the vocative ; has e only in the ablative, and o, 
seldom ia, in the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural 

I 22 ABjianyxs. 66 

Prim&riSy genitiye, first, wants the nominatiTe and Tocatire 
singular, and the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural 
neuter ; likewise seminecis, half dead, which is not used in the 
neuter, and has aeminlkum m the genitive plural. 

Pauciy few; and pkriquey the most part, are seldom used In 
the singular. 

4. The following classes of words want the vocative ; viz : 
Partitives ; as, quidam^ alius : Relatives ; as, qu&lisy quanhu : 
^Negatives; as, nuUu$, neuter: Interrogatives ; as, qudtuef 

Except aUquiSy quieunquey quitibet, and quisque. (See 131.) 

5. The foUowing adjectives of one termination, in the sub- 
joined list, are scarcely used in the nominative, accusative, or 
vocative plural of the neuter gender ; viz i 

Adjectives in ER : as, pauper, puber, eeler, deghier^ fi^er. 

Adjectives in FEX : as, ardfex, camXfex, 

Adjectives in OR : as, fTilmor, concdloTy bicorpor. 

Adjectives in ES : as, &^9, divesy hcuplesy sospes^ 9uperite9^ 
deseSy rhesy hibesy th'eSy prcepes. 

Adjectives in OS : as, camposy impoty exoe. 

Also pubUy impubiSy supplexy cdmiSy inopSy vigily sonSy insoniy 
iniercuSy riduXy and perhaps some others. 

CcBteTy or ccBt^iruSy the rest, is scarcely used in the nominative 
singular masculine. 

VictriXy victorious, and ultrixy revengeful, are feminine only 
in the singular, but feminine and neuter, in the plural ; vietrieoty 


6. Some adjeetiyes oompounded of clunut/rinvin, baeiUum, armOyJUj^mny 
lUntUf iomnuSf and anlmuBf have two forma of dedenaioD ; one in tu, of the 
firat and aecond declenaioDB ; and another in tt» of the third ; aa, aecllvuSf 
-a, -wm, and ore/tm, -«, steep ; imbecHlttSf and imbeeilli$f weak ; MemisomnuSf 
and 9emUomni$f half-sleeping ; exarCMvM^ and exan\m%»^ dead. Also, 
hildris, and hildrus^ merry. 

Obs. Some of these componnds do not admit of this Tariation; as, 
maffnanirmtSfflexanfrntUf effrSnuSj leoiaomnuHj not moffnanHmiSj <&c. Oo the 
eontraiy, pusillanlmiSf inJUgiSy t//imt«, inaomniSj exaomniSj are used, and ' 
oot p^vtillanimuaj Ac Semianlmi»f inermis, tvbllmitty aecllvis, decllvia, 
fyrocllvisy are more common than <emtanYmiM, ibe. InarCbmia^ and bijUgit, 
are scarcely used. 




1. Adjectives and Substantives to he declined together. 

Pura cSsa, a mtaU cottage, 
OlftruB poSta, afamouBpoeL 
Pulohra filia, a beautiful dafughter, 
Dulce pOmmn, a tweet apple, 
Iliocilis puer, a docile boy. 
BrSve seyum, a ehort life, 
GSpax antnim, a capacious den. 
Magnum dptis, a great work, 
Ser^DUft dies, a clear day, 
Densa ntlbes, a thick cloud, 
lUus paator, afait)^vl thepherd. 

Alta arbor, a high tree, 
Priscus mos, an ancient euttom, 
OaUida SMtas, a warm eutnmer 
TQtus portus, a safe harbor, 
Kobile carmen, a noble poem, 
Antlqna urbs, an ancient city. 
Magna dos, a great dowry, 
C&WL n&TiB, ^a hollow ship, 
Oulp&tus PSris, wicked Paris, 
M&er TroB, a miserable Tro^n, 
Infeliz Dldo^ unhappy IHdo, 

2. Translate the follotoing tonrds into English^ according Co 
their number and case : 

Diei sereno, 
Piei sereni, 
D&am nnblbTis, 
fldi pestOris, 

XTrbem antlqnam, 
PoetiB olflriB) 
PuSri dodges, 
MwDm priscdnjm, 
Garmlnis nobilis, 
OalHda lestftte, 

XJrbb antlqnaB, 
Paritdi culp&to, 
AKD^res altsB^ 
PortSboB tatis, 
Dulcium pomCnmi. 

3. Translate the following phrases into Latin, observing to 
put the adjective in the same gender , nymher^and case, with the 
iuhstantive. The words will be found in the list above : 

To a small oottag«, 
Of a capadont deo^ 
From loffy treesy 
For unhappy Dido^ 
In a hollow ship, 
A wretched Trojaq, 
With thick douds, 
From a clear day, 
Of sweet apples, 
High trees, 
With great dowries, 

Of aneijeiit tfostomi, 
Of an aoeient dty, 
To a great work, 
wioked Paris, 
Faithful shepherds^ 
In a short life, 
With a sweet ap{de, 
With clear days, 
Noble poems, 
Of ancient cities. 
In small cottages, 

la a great work, 
With wicked Parii^ 
A harbor safe, 
In a dear day, 
Of small cottages^ 
To a thick cloud, 
With high trees. 
Beautiful daughters. 
In a warm summer 
Of a short life,- 
With docile boys 

I ai 




WH. — Numeral adjectives are those which signify number 
fa Latin, they are divided into four classes ; viz : 

1. Cardinal, which express number simply, or how manj; 
as, one, two, threes/our, &c 

2. Ordinal, denoting whicli one of & number; as,^^/, 
Meeond, ikird, fourth, &o. 

3. Distributive, denoting how manj to each ; as, 6if»f, two 
by two, or two to each. 

4. MuUiplicative, denoting, how many fold. 

103. The Cardinal or Prineipal numbers are ; 











lUI, or IV. 



































SedScim, or SezdSciin, 















Viginti fbitus, or 1 
Unu8 et yiginti, ( 



Vi^ti duo, or ) 
Duo et Tigiuti, te \ 







XXXX, or XL 




S 24 














TiXXXX, or XO. 

^ ninety 



a hundred 

Oentum Onua or 
Centum et Onus, Ac^ 



a hundred and one, dtc 

Ducenti, -s^ -a, 


two hundred 



three hundred 



four hundred 


10, or D. 

Jwe hundred 


IOC, or DC. 

fix hundred 


lOCC, or DCO. 

seven hundred 



eight hundred 



nine hundred 


CIO, or M. 

a thousand 

Duo millia, or 
Bis mille, 



ttoo thousand 

Qumc|ue millia, or 
Quinquies miUe, 


100, or V. 

five thousand 

Decern millia, or 
Decies mille, 


CCIOO, or X. ' 

ten thousand 

Quinquaginta millii 
Qumquagies mil 


1000, or X. 


Centum milliai or 
Ceuties mille, 


CCCIOOO, or 0. 

a hundred thousand 


1. Eighteen, and nineteen are more properly expressed by 
duodeviginti, and undeviginti; from which Ordinals, Distri- 
butives and Adverbs are likewise formed. The same form is 
also used in the corresponding numbers of each of the other 
decades ; as, duodetriginia^ twenty-eight ; undetriginta^ twenty- 
nine, &c. 

2. The Cardinal numbers, except uni^ and mtVZe, want the 

3. Unus^ as a numeral, is not used in the plural, except 
when joined with a substantive that wants the singular ; as, 
una mcenia^ one wall ; or when several particulars are con- 
sidered as one whole ; as, una vestimenta, one suit of clothes. 
Unus is declined like tdtus (98-4). 





N. tres, 



0, trium, 



D. tribus, 



Ac. tres, 



F. tres, 



Ah. tribus, 




Duo, twoy and T&ss, three^ are thus declined : 

Maae. Fern. NevL 

i\r. duo, duffi, duo, 

Q, duorum, du&rum, duOrum, 

2>. duobus, du&bus, duobus, 

Ae. duos, -o, duas, duo, 

V. duo, duae, duo, 

^6. dudbus, dufibus, duObus, 

AmbOy both, is declined like duo. 

4. All the cardinal numbers, from quatuor to centum in- 
dusive, are indeclinable ; and from centum to mille^ thej are 
declined like the plural oibdnus (98-1). i 

5. Mille^ when placed before a genitive plural, is a sub- 
stantive indeclinable in the singular ; in the plural, it is de- 
clined like the plural of sedile (83-8) ; thus, millia^ millium, 
millibuSy &c. When it has a substantive in any other case 
than the genitive plural joined to it, it is a plural adjective 
mdeclinable; as, mille homines^ a thousand men; bis mille 
hominibuSy with two thousand men. 


'6. The capital letters used by the Romans to denote num- 
bers, were 0, 1, L, V, X, which are therefore called Numeral 
Letters. I, denotes one; V, Jive; X^ ten; Lyji/ty, and C, a 
hundred. By the various combinations of these letters, all 
numbers were expressed as follows : 

The repetition of a letter repeats its value; thus, II signifies 
two; III, three; XX, twenty; XXX, thirty; CC, tujo hundred; 
CCC, three hundred^ &c. V and L are never repeated. 

When a letter of less value is placed before another of 
greater value, the value of the less is taken from the greater. 
When placed after it, the value of the less is added to the 
greater; thus, 

IV. Four, V. Five, VI. Six. 

K. Nine, X. Ten, XI. Eleven. 

XL. Forty, L. Fifty, LX. Sixty. 

XC. Ninety, C. A hundred, OX. A hundred and ten. 




A thottmnd was marked C£D, which was afterwaxds expressed 
by M, the initial of mille. Five hundred is marked ID, after- 
wards changed into D. 

The annexing of to ID makes its value ten times greater ; 
thus, IDD denotes j^ve thousaiid; JDOD^Jifii/ thousand. 

In like manner, a C prefixed, tc^ether with anotiier D aa- 
nexed to the numerals CID, always increases the value t^i- 
fold ; thus, CD, a thousand;. CCDD, ten thousand; CCODDD, 
a hundred thousand. Any higher number than this, aocording 
to Pliny, was expressed by repetition; thus, CCCDDD, 
CCCIDDD, two hundred tftouscmd. 

Thousands are sometimes expressed by a line drawn over 
the numeral letters; thus, HI denotes three thousand; Xj ten 
thousand, &;c 


105. — The Ordinal Numerals are formed from the cardinal ; 
they all end in us, and are declined like bSnus (98-1) ; as, 
primus, first ; secundus, second ; dsc (See the following table.) 


106. — Distributive numerals distribute aii equiil liumber to 
each individual of several objects, or an equal number at di^ 
ferent tizEies. They answer the question. How many to each? 
or, How many each time 1 as, Sini, two each, or two at a 
time, two by two. They are all plural, and declined like the 
plural of bdnus (98-1) ; but usually have itm instead of drum 
in the genitive ; as, singiili, ob, a ; &o. 

The fqllowing table contains the ordinal and distzibutive 
numbers, and the corresponding numeral adverbs : 



I^tanarid Adverbs* 

1. VfimvAy first. 

SinguH, fme '5y <m«, 

Sehiel, once. 

2. Secnndus, second, 

Bini, two btf two, 

Bis, tmee. 

8. Tertius, third, 

Tend, or trizn, <fea, 

Ter, thriee. 

4. Qtiartoa, Ac., 


Qu^r, /cur UmeSf 

5 Qiiintofl^ 


Quiaqniers, &c. 

6 SextuB, 



7. Septimus. 



8. OotftYUS, 



9. NOnuB, 



la DedmtiB, 



I 24 





12. Duoded^mtifl, 

15. Tertiitf dedbatu, 
24. Quartos dedmos, 
lb. QtmrtuB deeXmia, 

16. Seztot 4«fllini28» 

17. S^ytimm deciiniiB, 
1& OctATus dedmnt, 

19. K(teuB deeiUniB, 

20. Yicerimras, or 


21. Vketimiu {nlmiis. 

22. yieeflSmas secondcui 

SO. TneetBrnaBf or 

40. QuadrageamuSy 

60, Quinquageritiaia, 

60. SezageBimuB, 

70. Septuagesimiu, 

80. Octogeeimi28» 

90. Nonageslmus, 

100. Centesimiis, 

200. DucentealmiUi 

SOOl Trecentedknns, 

400. Quadriogeiito- 

600. QuiDg^enteflbmiBy 

600. SezcentealmaB, 

700. SeptingenteslknuB, 

800. OctingenteBlmiui, 

900. NoDgente^tous, 

1000. MiUedmu^ 



2000. BSsmOleslmiiBydto,-! 





^V J II.— I* 1—— * 

^••^■^ •"'■ ■'■■ " ■ i 
QoIdi dfiBBy 


Septfini dfidi, 

Oetfini dtai, 

Noir^ dSni, 


Viofini singfili, 
Yieem bbii, 









Treoeni, or trecentSiii, 

QuadriD^em, <or ) 
quadrmgentem, f 


Sezoeni, or SezcentSm, 




Milleni, or 
Bingiila milliii, 

Bw miUeni, or 
Idoa millia, ilc^ 

]>eoie8 et septiM. 
Beciea et octiea. 
DeeieB et nonie& 


Semd et TicteBi 
Bis et Tiaea, te 


















Bia milHeS) 4«. 

7. Instead of primus, prior is used, if only two Are spoken 
of. Alter is often used for secundus. 

Twenty-first, thirty-first, Ajc, are often expressed by anus 
et vicefAmui, anus et triceAmuSy <Seo. ; and twenty-second, &c., 
by duo, or (Uter et viceimua^ in which dwo is indeclinable. In 


the other compound numbers, the larger precedes without ei^ 
or the smaller with et; as, vicestmus qitartus, or quartus et 

8. Distributives are used in a variety of ways, as 1st. In 
multiplication, with adverbial numerals; as, bis bin<i, twice 
two, i e. four ; bis §eno8^ twice six, i. e. twelve. 2d. Instead 
of cardinals, with words which have no singular; as, blni 
codicilli^ two writings ; or with nouns in the plural having the 
meaning of a singular, but still different from the meaning of 
the same word in the singular number (§ 18, 24, or 96-24) ; 
as, blna castray blnce cedes. Since literce ; two camps, two houses, 
two epistles. Duo, duce, with these nouns, would mean two 
forts or castles ; two temples ; two letters of the alphabet. 
3d. Blni is used for duo, to denote things which exist in pairs ; 
as, blni boves, a pair of oxen ; blnce aures, two ears. In ordi- 
nary language, distributives occur only in the plural — among 
the poets sometimes in the singular in the sense of multipli- 
catives ; as, centena arbdre {=centum arbortbu^), literally " with 
a tree a himdred fold." See also No. 11. 

9. The singular of some distributives, is sometimes used in 
the sense of a multiplicative ; as, blnus, two-fold, dec. 


107. — Multiplicaiives denote how many fold ; they all end 
in ex, and are declined ]jke/elix (99-1). They are as follows : 

Simplex, single. Quadriiplez^/our/b^ 

Diiplez, dotibU, QuintQplez,^ve/b^ 

. Triplex, threefold. Oentuplex, a hundredfold^ tfeo,.^ 

10. To these classes may be added : 

Ist. Proportionals, which denote how no^ny times one thing 
is greater than another ; as, duplus, twice as great. 

2d, Temporals, which denote time ; as, blmus, two years old ; 
biennis, of two years' continuance. 

3d. TiiDSft which denote how many parts a thing contains ; 
fls, binarius, of two parts. 

4th Interrogatives ; as, quot, how many ? qu6tus, of what num- 
ber 1 quoteni, how many each? quoiies, how many 
times? which have for their correlatives, tot, tod- 
dem, dec. 


II. The learner should carefully notice the distinction be- 
tween the cardinal and distributive numerals in their ordinary 
use. Thus, for example. Duo consoles viointi naves habibantj 
means, ** the two consuls together had twenty ships," L e. 
twenty in all, or ten each ; but Duo eongHles yicsNAS n&ves 
habebant, means, ^ the two consuls had twenty ships eo^A," or 
forty in all. 


108. — ^Adjectives have three degrees of com- 

garison, the Poeitive^ Conipa/rative^ and Super- 

J 09. — The PosiTHTB expresses a quality simply ; as, honus^ 
gi>od. The CJoMPARATiVE expresses a quality in a higher or 
lower degree in one object than in another, or than in several 
taken together. The Superlative expresses a quality in the 
highest or lowest degree in one object compared with several 
taken separately ; as, gold is heavier than silver ; it is the moat 
precious of the metals. H^nce, those adjectives only can be 
compared whose signification admits the distinction of more 
and less. 

110. — The Superlative is often used to express a very high 
or a very low degree of a quality, without implying com- 
parison ; as, vir doctissimus, " a very learned man ;" hortus 
amcenisslmus^ " a most delightful garden." Thus used, it is 
called the superlative of eminence^ and is commonly translated 
with the article a, or an ; — when comparison is implied, the 
article the must be used. 

m. — The Comparative is always of the third declensior , 
and declined like mitior (99-4). The Superlative is always 
of the first and second, and declined like b6nus (98-1). 


1, The comparative is formed from the root of 
the positive (56), by adding ior for the mas- 



§ 26 

coline and feminine, and ma for the nenter; 

Positive. Soot. Comparative. 

Dtlnis, kard^ dtkr- dur-ior, dur-ior, d«ir-hts, harder, 
Brevis, short, br^v- brev4op,^ brev-ior, brev-ius, shorter, 
Audax, boldy audfto- audac-ior, audac-ior, audac-ius, bonier, 

2. The superlative is formed from the root of 
the positive, by adding ismmis^ a, wm^ as, 

Positive. Boot. Superlative. 

Dtirus, hard, dtir- dur-issimus, a, um, hardest. 
Brevis, short, brev- brev-issimus, a, um, shortest 
Audax, hold, audao- audac-issimus, a, um, boldest 

Moc. K the positive end in er^ the superlative 
is formed by adding rmms^ a, wm^ to the nomi- 
native masculine, i. e. to the root uncontracted : as^ 



Pulcher, fair 

, pulcher-rimus, a,um. 

Pauper, poor, pauper-rimus, a, um. 

Hence these adjectives are compared thus : 

DQrus, durior, 


Eard^ Harder^ 


BrSvis, brevior, 

breviBsimuB ; 

Shorty shorter 


Aadaz, audacior, 

audaci8^[mti8 ; 

Bold, holder, 


Fulcher, pulchrior, 

pulcherrimus ; 

Fair, fairer. 


Pauper, pauperior, 

pauperrTmiM ; 

Poor, poorer 


In the 

same maimer 

compare : 

ATfcns, MgK 

Firmus, strong. 

liber, /r««. 

CSpax, capacious. 

Fortis, brave. 

Kger, sloxB, 


Oreber, fregumt. 

Grftvis, heavy. 

l?raden8, fmtdent. 

Dignua, toorthy. 

IhtSger, entire. 

Sapiens, wtM. 

Doctus, teamed. 

Lentufi, dow. 

Veh^m^tiB, vehetMntA 

FBliz, happy. 

UMi^ tight. 

V4I0X. «CFi/t. 

% 26 




SONS. * 






opti[mu|i ; 












pessimus ; 





' plus, n. 

plurimus ; 










Ohe. Flue has only the neuter in the singular, 
plural, it is regular, and is declined as 99-4. Exc. 

In the 

1. The following adjectiyes form the superlative in Unvue • 

FafiiUa, «afy. 



GraeOiB, Zmhh 


Kuroilin, low^ 



ImbedUiA, iMoifc, 

iflnbeeillior, imbeoUEiiniiL 




2. The following adjectives have the comparative regular, 

but the superlative irregular. 

Citer, near. 



Dexter, righiy 


£bcter, fmtinatdt 


extrOmiv, «r exOmiuk 

TniS^ms, Uno, 



IntSrus, inAoard, 



Mattirus, ripe. 

rostdroB, Mindt 


pofltxemiu, or poftOmus. 

Sinister, left. 


SupdruB, high. 


Aiipr^piaa, or Bummnp. 

VfitUB, old. 



Ncie. — DifM^ rich, lias eommonl^ diUor, dibMtmut^ for itB oomptntiiRe 
•nd BuperUUTe ; oontraofe|B4 finr 4hv^ md "' '" * 

3. Compounds in dtcue, fietcSy Idquus, and vdlua, form the 

oomparatiye in entior, and l^e superlative in eniisAmue, 

Benenci]% bme/icetU, beoeficentior, heneficentuiBiimu. 

BeneydluB, henevclewt, benevolentior, beneyolentiBsimaB, 

Magml6quii8, hoasHng, magmloquentiory magniloqueotissImaBk 

MaledlcuS) railing, maledicentior, maledicentiflaXmuB, 

Mirif icufl. tponderfidf mlrificentior. mirificentifisimas. 


IfoU, — Mw\fiou* has also miriJiGiamiw^ in the superlative. Tbfi ooia- 
pounds of idgutu are not found in tiie superlative. 

4. The following^ adjectives want the positive : 

Deterior, hwm, deterrimus. Propior, nearer, proidmus. 

Ocior, ffoifter, ooisstmus. JJltenor, farther, ul&nua. 

i^har, former, primus. •* 

5. The following adjectives want the comparative : 

Inclytus, renounied, inelytissimus. NupSrus, late, nuperrimus. 

Inyictus, invincible, invictissimus. Far, equal, parissimus. 

'HL&AiMa, deterving, meritissimus. VQT%\iSA\}&, persuaded, persuaflissTmuB. 

NoYus, nevj, novissimus. S£cer, Mered, sacertimus. 

6. The following adjectives want the superlative : 

Adolescens, young, adolescentior. Opimus, rich, opimior. 

Diutumus, lasting, diutumior. Pronus, bending down, pronior. 

Ingens, huge, ingentior. ^i\xr,full, saturior. 

JuT^nis, yowig, junior. S&iez, old, senior. 

Note. — The superlative of jttvenisy or adoleeoene, is supplied by mMmut 
ndltt, the youugest ; senex takes tnaxifmu ndtu^ the oldest. 

7. Almost all adjectives in Ui» (penult long), &lis, and bilig^ 
want the superlative ; as, civilis, civil, eivilior; reg&Hs, regal, 
regalior; Jlebilis, lamentable, Jlebilior, 

Note. — Some adjectives of these terminations have the superlative also ; 
as oagualis^frugaks, howUdUe, liberalia, w>cdlis — affaMUSy amabiUSf haliUe^ 
igfwoUis, mtrabiUs, mobUia, mutabiUs, nobUiSf etabUis, 

Some adjectives of other terminations also want the superlative : as, ared- 
nu8y ior, secret ; dedwyiSj ior, bending downwards ; longinqutte^ mt off, ior; 
propinquttSf near, iorj sakUdriaj healthfUl, salittarior. 

Anterior J former, and sequior, worse, are found only in the comparative. 

Mquanif worthless (indeclinable), has nequio*-, nequieevrntta. 

8. Many adjectives have no degrees of comparison at all, 
because they denote invariable qualities. They are such as 
denote substance^ origin^ possession, or definite time ; as, aureus^ 
adamantinus; — Groecus, Momanus, peregrlnus ; — paternus^ equt- 
nus; — oestiuus, hiberntts, vlvus, &c. 

0. Many adjectives which do not denote invariable qualities, 
are yet without comparative and superlative forma. They are — 

1st Adjectives ending in %mu<, lnu8, Gnu, and most adjectives in fvu«; 
Wj legittmus, maiutlnua, canOnu, fugitlvua : also adjectives in us after a 
vowel ; as, dvhiue, idoneus, arduus, <&c. ; except adjectives in quus, in which, 
however, the first u does not form a syUkble (8-2) ; and sometimes assiduiis^ 
egregiua, plus, etrenuua and vacuus, which are also regularly compared. 

5 5-H 

V". -, , •-' 


2d. Compoimd adjeGtiyes, one oi whose oompeDent parts is a dodh or a 
verb ; as, ver«urd^,/)««A/er, deginer^ magnan'Unut, conrt6nui^f<Kdifrdigu9^^».i 
and such as have the deriyatiTe terminations Icm^ Wmx, idui, d/u^ l/ti, 
buttdtu; as, modUms, trepulua, gurrultts^ mortaliSf ho9tlli8,furUmndui, Aa 

Sd. DiminntiYes, which in themselyea imply a sort of comparison ; aa^ 
ieneJhu, somewhat tendt^r ; majtiteulus, somewluit big. 

4th. Manj adjectiTes which cannot be ohissed under distinct heads : as, 
aUruiy white ; <tlmu8, gracious ; egentUy needy ; Idicer, torn ; mhnor, mindAil ; 
miriM, wonderful; prceeox, early ripe ; sospes, safe ; and many others noted 
in the dictionaries. 

In most, or in all adjectives of these classes, and sometimes 
in* others also, the comparative is made by prefixing magis^ 
more ; and the superlative by prefixing valde or maxime, most, 
to the positive ; as, arduus, high ; magis arduus, higher ; valde^ 
or maskme arctuus^ highest, or very lugh. Sallust has nuutims 

10. Comparison is sometimes made by means of the pre- 
positions prce, ante, proeter, or stipray with the positive ; as, 
J^rce nobis beatua, happier than we, Cic. ; Ante alias insignis, 
most distinguished. Lit. A high degree of quality without 
comparison is expressed by prefixing valde^ imprimis, appHme^ 
admodum, &;c., or by the preposition per or pros prefixed in 

11. The force of the comparative is increased by prefixing 
etiam, even, yet, and of both comparative and superlative, by- 
prefixing Umge or multo, far, much ; as, multo m^lior, mudi 
better ; longe nobilisHmus, far the noblest. Quam with the 
superlative renders it emphatic; as, quam doctissUnus, extremely 
learned ; quam eelerrUne, as speedily as possible. 


1 14. — Derivative adjectives are formed chiefly from nouns, 
from other adjectives, and from verbs. 

1. Those derived from nouns are called Denominatives, 
They are such as aureus, golden ; capitalis, capital, relating to 
the life ; puerllis, boyish ; animosus, full of courage, dec, from 
aurum, cUput, puer^ anXmus, &;o. 

2. Those derived from adjectives are also called denomina- 

68 PRONOUKS. § 28 

tiyes ; , thej are chiofly diminutiyes ; as, dfMdilw, erweetdsh ; 
dvaiuBculua^ somewhat hard, 6&c., from dulciSy durus, 6z;c. 

3. Adjectives derived from verbs are called Verbal adjec- 
tives. They commonly end in bundusy idtia, bUis, iliSy iUus^ 
and ass; as errabundus^ given to wandering ; rapidtis, rapid ; 
credibiliSj credihie ', Jleanbilis^ easy to be bent;^^t^t^«, feigned ; 
c&pax, capacious, &c., from erro, rapio, credo^ Jlecto^ fi^go^ 
capio, 6lc 

4. Participles divested of the idea of time, and expressing 
merely a quality, become adjectives, and are capable of com- 
parison ; as, dmans, fond of; amantior^ amantissimus ; doctuSy 
learned; doctior^ doctksimus. These are called Participial 

Adjectives are also derived from adverbs and prepositions ; 
as, hodiernuiy contrariuSy 6z;c., from kodie, contra, 6lq, 

§ 28. PRONOUNS. 

115.— -A Pronoun is a word used instead of a 

116. — hi Latin, there are eighteen simple pronouns, namely , 
JS^o, tUj sui; ilUy ipse^ iste^ hic^ m, quiSj qui ; meus, tutu, sutts^ 
noster, vester; nostrets, i^estras and cujas. 

Of these, £ffo, tu, sui, are substantive or personal pronoun^i 
the rest are adjectives. 


117. — ^The Substantive or Personal pronouns have the same 
accidents as nouns (34) ; in construction, they take the gender 
and number of the nouns for which they stand, and are thus 
declined : 

Eoo, /, First Person, Masc. or Fern. 



Jf. ggo, 


N. nos, 


(?. mei, 

of me. 

0. nostrtlm 

, or nostri,* of us. 

J), mihi, 

io mey 

JO, nobis, 

to u», 

Ac, me, 


Ac, nos, 



— , — 


Ab, me. 


&;c., me, 

Ab, nobis, 

v>iik, <Ss(}., U9, 

• NoKbrum, ^ettrmm^ Q. wbjMtiy« ; nottri, vutri, 6. objeotiTe. BM. 





Td, thauy Second Petsoii, Masc. or Fern* 


//, ta, /Ao«, or y(w, 

fl'. tui, ofthee^ or ofyou^ 

2>. tin[>i, <a <Aee, or ft> jrov, 
^c te, <A«0, or you, 

FL tu, thauy or you, 

^. te, .tn(A, ^Ec., ihe0i or you, 

j/V. voi, y«, or yo«, 

(?. yesti^in, or yestri, o/you^ 
2>. yObis, <o yo«, 

^c. yos, you, 

V. yoB, (? ye, or you, 

ui^. ydbk, miAy ^so., you. 

Sui, of Atm«e{^ of herself^ of ittelfy Third Person. 
Masc, Fem.y Neut. Befleziye. 


G. sui, 
/>. sobi, 
Ac. se, 


of himself, &c., 
/o himself dsa. 

ui6. se, im^y &C., himself &;c., 


6^. sui, 

^c. se, 


of themselves^ 

to themselves^ 


Ah. se, wiAf &c., themselves. 


1. In all speech, three things are implied, die person speak- 
ing, tiie person spoken to, and the person or thug spoken of. 
These are called, in Grammar, the Firsts Second^ and Third 
persons; and the pronouns representing them are ealled Per- 
sonal Pronouns. 

2. The pronoun of the first person is Hgo, I ; of the second, 
Tu, thou or you ; of the third, Suiy of himseli^ of herself, of 
itsel£ Also the adjectiye pronouns, ipse, ills, iste, is, and hie, 
without a substantiye, in the gender of the nouns represented 
by them, and with the general meaning of he, she, it, may be 
called Substantive or Personal Pronouns. 

JMs 1^— The plural of th« flni person is often nsed for the linfrolar, i e. 
not toriffo; BO auo netter for mmt; $nd the verb, without the pronoun ex- 
pressed, is sometimes- used in the first person plural for the flrst person 
■infmlsr ; but the plursi of the seoond person is not used for the sing^iuar, as 
in English. 

Mi$ S.— "Thou " and " thee,** are used as the rendering of tu and its cases 
lit the singular, only in solemn addresses, or to mark speoial emphasift or 
contempt. In ordinary discourse, it Ih translated by *<yon." dee Eug. 
Qiam., Hi. 4 An., and Pr. Gr., 244 and 246. 

8. The personal pronouns of the third person, though al) 

70 PBONOUNS. . \ § 28 

translated by one term in English,* dififer &om one another 
in meaning and use, as follows : 

lot 8uif the Bubstantiye pronoun of the third person, is wiLbout the 
nominatiye, as the third person (in English hCy thcj it, they) is not usually 
expressed in Latin in the nominative, but is implied in the third person of 
the verb. But if it is to be expressed, a demonstrative pronoun, commonly 
t7/e, is used The other cases of the English pronouns of the third person, 
not reflexive, are expressed by the oblique cases of u, «a, id, the nomina- 
tive of which belongs to the demonstrative pt^nouns. Sui, sXbiy ae, are 
used in a reflexive sense referring, as a substitute, to the main subject of 
the sentencef in which they occur; as, LaudcU se, ''He praises himself,^ 
Cdto se oceldit, ** Cato killed himself J* CSio dixit se esse Cass&re felidareni^ 
** Cato said that he (Cato) was happier than Csesar/' PuerptUat hoc sibi 
nocire, " The boy thinks *that this hurts him " (the boy). Procultis JiUins 
dixisse fertur a se visum esse McmUlum, " Proculus Julius is'reported to 
have said that Romulus was seen by A?.m"( Julius). But when the pro- 
noun refers to another word, and there is a transition from the principal 
to a subordinate subject, the oblique cases of is, ea, id, must be used. 
Thus, if the words that he, him, by him, in the last three propositions, re- 
ferred to any other than Cato, or the boy, or Proculus Julius, they would 
have to be made, in the first sentence, by evm ; in the second, by ei ; and 
in the third, by ab so. 

Exe, 8ui, and its corresponding possessive pronoun sums, are sometimes 
used when the reference is not to the primary, but to a subordinate sub- 
ject ; but this is nevw done by good writers when it would cause ambiguity. 
The most conmion cases of this usage are : — 1st When the primary sub- 
ject is in the first or second person, to which, of course, tut, being the third, 
cannot refer ; as, iXlum oceldi sito gladlo, " I slew him with his own sword." 
2d. After guisgtie or unttsquisque ; as, «uum evUque <n6uttn^, " they give 
every man his own." 8d When the word to which suus refers stands im- 
mediately or almost immediately before it ; as, hune c^es sui ex urbe ^e- 

♦ The want of different pronouns of the third person, in English, is 
frequently the cause of ambiguity, which never can occur in Latin or Greek. 
Thus, if we say : ** Lysias promised his &ther never to abandon his friends ;" 
it is impossible to tell, from this^sentence, whose friends are meant, — whether 
those of Lysias or of his father. If the former, " his," in Latin, would bs 
suos; if the latter, ** e/w," and if the latter in a special manner, " if7«iu«." 

t The main subject is generally the nominative to the leading verb, as in 
the above examples. Sometimes, however, the construction requires it to 
be in a different case ; as, Ab Antonio admonitus sum ut mane swi adessemj 
here, the leading subject is Antonio in the Ablative, and to this, of course, 
tibi refers ; so in the following : Est libido homini suq antfno obef^i, the 
inindpal subject is homini. 

§ 28 PBONOUNS. 71 

eirunif "his fellow eitizeDB baiuBhed him from the oitj." 4fh. "When Um 
noon with which tutu agrees is coupled with another by eum ; as, emm 
cum ams r^nu dimisiruntf " they dismissed him with his effects." 

2cL Ipse is applicable to any of the three persons, and, in the nominatiy* 
ease, is used when either the primary or the subordinate subject is again 
introduced with emphasis in a subsequent or subordinate clause, or in the 
Dezt sentence ; as, Lycurgus nihil ulla lige in alios sanxit, cujus non ipse 
primus in se documenta d&ret^ ** Lycui^^ bound nothing by any hiw upon 
others, of which he did not first giye an instance in himself;" here ipss 
refers to LyeurguSy the primary subjedt In the following sentence, ipsi 
refers to the subordinate, and ipse to the principal subject: Cctsar ad 
proffectos — mittii qui nuneidreni ne hostes prodio laeessirent; et si ipsi 
(prttfeeti) lacessirentur, sustinirent quoad ipse {Ccesar) oeeessisseL CcBsar, 
B. G. IV, 11. 

In the oblique eases, ipse hardly ever refers to the main subject (this 
being the proper office of sui\ but to the subordinate, when that is to be 
expressed with emphasis, and distinguished from the primary or anj 
other subject preyiously expressed ; as, SenOtus dixit non sua negligentia, 
sed ipsius {Pompeji) subito adoentu factum^ ** The senate said that it hap- 
pened not through any negligence on their part, but owing to his (Pom- 
pay's) sudden arrivaL" Instances, howcTcr, occur in which the oblique 
eases refer to the principal subject ; but these are rare, and such as to 
create no ambiguity. 

Note, — When joined with the personal pronouns ^o, f», &e., used in a 
reflexive sense, and in an oblique case, ipse commonly a^ees with the subject 
of the verb in the nominative or accusative, but is always to be translated 
with the oblique case, to which it adds the force of the word ** self *' or 

a subject; cr^istnthiipsum {not, ipsi) /iivire. Yet, when, for the word in 
the oblique cose, special emphasis is required by antithesis or other cause, 
ipse is put in the case of the pronoun ; as, Alios dmaSf te ipsum (not ipse 
odisti, ^ Others thou lovest, thtsxlf thou hatest." 282. 

8d. Isy Mc, iste, tUe^ without a substantive, in all genders, are used as 
pronouns of the third person, and are all rendered hCy she^ or it, as the 
word which they represent may require. In the nominative, they are 
applicable equally to the maiu or to the subordinate subject ; but in the 
oblique cases, with few exceptions, they refer to the subordinate only. 
It must be carefully noticed, however, that though often rendered by the 
same term in "B^g^i^h^ gtiU each word has its own specific meaning and 
use, as follows : 

Is simply refers to some person or thing mentioned before, and is Ism 


72 ADJECnVB PROl^OUNS, § 29 

euaj>h>tio and distmetiye than taxy of i^e ot&er terms. "Behre qvA {it qvi 
be wh<»), it Felero to tike penion or thing described in the relatire dftuse^ 
and, in this eonstrpction, is often understood. *' 

Sie is used in relsrenee to objeets whioh aire nesffest to the speiiker 
JQence, as nothing is nearer to tiie speaiker than himBeH Aic h9mo^ ** tiiis 
man,'' is often the same as 1^, Hie is therefore called the demonstratiTe 
pronoun of i^e first perMH, 

Iste refen to the person spoken to, or to the thingii pertaining to, or 
connected with him. Thus, iste l^Sber, means ** that book of thine,'' or " thy 
book." Hence it is called the demonstraliTe of the aedond person. It is 
often used, like the English thoUf wi an expression of vortUessness or con- 
tempt An. and Pr. Gr., 244. 

Me, in opposition to Aie, refers to objects at a distance from the spealEer^ 
or to that about which he is speaking to anotiier, and is called the demonr 
strative of the third perton. As substantiye peonouns, theo, these tfaiiee 
words maj be thus disHngnished : 

Hie means "he," namely, this man near m^ or just spoken of 

hie means "he," namely, that man by you, or of whom you spoke. 

llle means " he," namely, that man at a distance, or formeily spoken o£ 

In the use of these pronouns. howeTCr, these distincttons are not always 
strictly observed; iile and m especdalfy, are often used indiscriminately^ 
and in the same sentence, apparently for the sake of euphony or vaiiety 
of expression. 

4. The personal pronouns are rendered emphatic by an- 
nexing the definite ipse^ or the syllable met or te, separately or 
variously combined ; as, e^o ipse^ eg^mety tute, tutemet, nosmet- 
ipsi, <S2C. Se^ the accusative and ablative of sui^ is often 
doubled, as sese. When the preposition cum is used with the 
ablative of the personal pronouns, it is commonly annexed ; 
as, mecum, tdcum, sieum, nobiscttm^ &;c. 

6. In the accusative plural with inter, or after a transitive active verh^ 
with tfivtciwt, 96 is used as a reciproetU pronoun ; as, Fratree inter se Hmtles, 
"Brotibers like each oHier.* BrQtus et Atom $e innfieem oceidSntntt 
* Brutus and Arons slew eacii other." 


119. — ^ADJEorrvTE Peonouns are words used 
sometimes like adjectdyes, to qualify a substautire ; 


and sometimes like pronouns, to stand instead of 
nouns. They are f^'^clined with three genders, to 
agree with substantives in these accidents. 

120. — ^Adjective Pronouns may be divided 
into Possessi/oe^ DemonsPrati/oe^ Dejmite^ Mdati/ve^ 
hUerrogaime^ Indejmite^ and Pai/rial. 

*^ * • 

121 — ^The Possessive Pronouns denote posses- 
sion, and are derived from the substantive pro- 
nouns as follows : x 


.Meus, a, um, wy, my own^ from me. 

Tuus, a, um, thy^ thy own, " tu. 

Suus, a, um, his, her, its, his oum, &c., '^ sui. 

Noster, tra, trum, our, our own, " no8. 

Vester, tra, trum, your, your own, " vos. 

Obs. 1. In signification, possessive pronouns correspond to 
the genitive of their primitives, for which they may be con 
sidered as a substitute ; thus, frater mei, " the brother of 
me," and meus frater, " my brother," mean the same thing, 
and hence they are often connected with, and may be rendered 
as, the genitive ; as, suo popullque Romani beneficio, " by the 
kindness of himself and of the Roman people." Caes. Hence, 
also, the genitive of the adjective is often put with the posses- 
sive pronoun in any case qualifying the substantive implied 
in it ; as, tuo ipsius amlco, " with thine own friend." Mea 
unius opera^ '* through the agency of me alone." Vestra ipso- 
rum causa hoc feci, &c.; — and hence, also, a substantive in 
apposition with the possessive pronoun is put in the genitive ; 
as, tuum ^?ninis simplicis pectus vidimus. 

Obs. 2. In form, possessive pronouns are regular adjectives 
of the first and the second declension. Meus, tuus, and suus, 
are declined like bonus, 98-1 ; except that meus has mi, 
seldom meus, in the vocative singular masculine. Nosier and 
vester are declined like ater, 98-3. 

Obs. 8. Suus, like its primitive sui (118-8, £ze.), is used m a reflex! 70 



sense, referring to the main subject of the sentence, and must be rendered 
into English in the gender and number oi that subject^ withont regard to 
the uoun with which it stands ; thus, swim rem familiarem perdideruntt 
** they squandered their property f here 8tui7n, though singular, to agi'ee 
with rem^ must be rendered ** their," because it refers to the plural subjeot 
of perdiderurU, Ilia wo^fr aires dilexitj " she loyed Iter brothers." 

When the reference is not to the main subject, but to some other person 
or thing, the possessive is expressed in Latin, not by «t4ii«, but by the 
genitives of tile, ipae, iate^ is, and hie ; thus, ^us rem familiarem raptierunt, 
** they plundered his property." Suos amlcos dmaij means " he loves his 
own friends ;" ^us amUos &m€U, is ** he loves his friends," meaning (not his 
own, but) the friends of some other person to whom ejus refers. 

Obs, 4. The ablative singular of the possessive pronouns, especially sito 
and sua, frequently take ihe su£Sz pie, equivalent to the English word 
own ; as, suapte m&nu, " with his own hand ;" and, in the same sense, all 
the cases of suus take the sufiSz met, usually followed by ipse; as, Haip- 
nibal, sutOmet ipse frauds caphu, abiitf " Hannibal, being foiled by his own 
device, departed." 


122. — Demonstrativb Pronouns are sucli as 
point out with precision a person or thing already 

They are hiCy this ; illef iste^ is, that. They are declined as 
follows : 


. Hic, 


this; Plural, these. 







Mase Fern, 


N. hie, 

haec, ' 


N. hi, nse. 


G. hujus, 



G. horum, hanim, 


D. huic, 



D.^his, . his. 


Ac, hunc, 



Ac, hos, *" has, 


F. hie, 



V. hi, has, 


J 6. hoc. 



Ab. Ks, his. 


Note. — S ^me suppose that the original form of this prononn was hiee, haetf 
hoce, BOine iaacs of which still remain ; that tl^ present form was attained hy 
dropping i nal «, and that this, and not hiccel-ncBcce^ ^c, is the proper em- 
phatic torn of the word. It is certain, hoiiever, tlat most writers and 
(Bpruinmariani prefer the double c^ as Mcee^ &Q, f See ObA. 8. 




2. Ills, illa, illud, that; Plural, thoH, 


Mate, Fern, Ntui, 

N. illi, illsB, ilia, 

G. illorum, illarum, ilidrum« 

D. illis, illis, illis, 

Ac, illos, illas, ilia, 

V, illi, illse, ilia, 

Ab, illis, illis, illis. 

MU, — YirgiX ha9 oUij as a datiyo sinj^alar. and nominatire pinral; and 
Cioaro, in an vntiqne ibrmnla, has oUa and o/uw, from an ancient form oUum, 

Istej " that," is declined like ille, 
3. Is, BA, ID, that; Plural, those. 





y. Ole, 



G. illius, 



D, illi. 



Ac, ilium, 



V, me. 



Ab, illo, 



Mate. Fern. Ifina. 


Fem. Neui 

N. is, e&, id, 
Q. ejus, ejus, ejus, 
D. ei, ei, ei, 
Ac, eum, earn, id, 

N. ii, 
G. eCrum, 
D, iis or eis 
Ac. eos. 

eae, e&, 
e&rum, edruni, 
, iis or eis, iis or eisi 
eas, e&. 

V. — — — 

F. — 

— — 

Ab. eo, e&, eo. 

Ah, iis or eis 

, iis or eis, iis or eis. 

4. From m, and the syllable dem, is formed idem, e&dem^ 
Uem^ " the same," which is thus declined : 

Mute Fem, 


N. idem, eSdem, 
G. ejusdem, ejusdem, 
I>. eidem, eidem, 
Ac. eundem, eandem, 
V, idem, e&dem, 
AJb. eodem, e&dem. 








N. iidem, e^edem, 
G. eorundem, earundem, 
D. eisdem, or iisdem, &;c., 
Ac. eosdem, easdem, 
F. iidem, eaedem. 
Ah. eisdem, or iisdem, &;c. 



• 8co 98 

;. NoU 2. 



1. When two persons or things are spoken of, ille refers to 
the former, and hie to the latter. This order, however, is 
sometimes reversed. When three are spoken of, ille refers to 
the first ; iste^ to the intermediate ; and kiCy to the last. 

2. ITic means " this," referring to something near the speaker 
or just spoken of. Ille, " that," refers to something at a dis- 
tance or before spoken of; sometimes to what is well known 
and celebrated, and therefore regarded as present ; as, Medea 
ilia, " the well known Medea :" Alexander ille, " the illustrious 
Alexander." Iste, " that," refers to something near, or belong- 
ing to, or some way connected with the person spoken to. 

a. Is, " that," is less precise in its reference than the other 
demonstratives. It commonly refers simply to a person or 
thing as mentioned before. — Sometimes it points out that 
which is to be further described in a relative clause ; as, ea 
legione quam secum hahehat, *"*• with that legion which he had 
with him." — Sometimes after et, atque, que, and in a negative 
clause after nee, it is used to show that the noun referred to 
receives an additional predicate ; as, in una domo, et ea qxMem, 
angusta, " in one house, and that, too, a small one :" Adoles- 
centes aliquot, nee ii ienui loco orti, " some young men, and 
these not of humble origin." The neuter \et id, idque) is 
used when the proposition itself receives an addition, and may- 
be rendered " and that too," " especially," equivalent to the 
Greek xai tavta, 

b. Is (and sometimes hie and ille), before ut or qui, has the 
sense of talis, " such ;" as, neque tu is es qui (or ut) quid ttis 
nescias, " neither art thou such a one as not to know what 
thou art." 

c. Idem, agreeing with the subject, but without a substan- 
tive, connects emphatically two predicates which belong to 
the same subject, and, when the predicates are similar, may 
be rendered " also," " and also ;" as, Cicero orator ^rai idenique 
philosophus, " Cicero was an orator and also a philosopher ;" 

Viros fortes eosdem bdnos esse volumus^ " we wish brave men 
to be also good." When the predicates are opposite, Idem is 
translated by " yet," " and yet ;" as, hoc dlcit, 7iegat idem illud, 
" he affirms this, yet {or, and yet) he denies that." 

3. Hie, and some cases of the other demonstratives, are 

S 83 



rendered emphatic by adding ce; as, kiece^ hujusce^ huneoiy ^ 
When ne interrogative is also added, ce is changed into ei; asg 
hiccine^ hosdine, &c. 122. Note. 

4. From i7^tf and iste with Ate, are formed the compound! 
illic and isthic or t«^>, used^ in some of the cases for ille and 
iste, but with greater emphasis. Those parts only are in use 
which end in c, as follows : 

iV. istic, 
^. istiino, 
Ab, istoc, 

Jstic is thus declined : 

Singnlar. , 

-rem. JV«it 

istsec, istoc, ^ or istuc, 

istanc, istoc^ or istuc, 

istac, istoc. 



. ' 


Illic is declined in the same manner. 


124. — ^The Definite Pronoun ipse is used to 
give a closer or more definite signification of a 
person or thing; as, ad ipsam portam accessit^ 
"he came up to the gate itself;" or "to the very- 
gate." It is thus declined : 


JfoML Fern. Neut, 

N, ipse, ips&, ' ipsum, 

G» ip^us, ipsius, ipsius, 

i>. ipsi, ipsi, ipsi, 

Ac. ipsum, ipsam, ipsum, 


Ah. ipsoy ipsS^ ipso, 

Mate Fern, Neut. 

N. ipsi, ipsae, ips&, 
Q. ips6rum, ipsarum, ipsorum, 

D. ipsis, ipsis, ipsis, 

Ac. ipsos, ipsas, ipsa, 


Ah. ipsis, ipsis, ipsis* 


126. — ^A Relative Pkonouk is one that re- 
lates to, and connects its clause with, a noun or 
pronoun "before it, called the antecedent. 




Ibe sunple relatiye qui is thus declined : 

Qui, QUiB, QUOD, who^ which^ that, 





N. qui, 


O, cujus, 


i>. cui, 


Ac, quein, 








Maac, Fern. NeuU 
N, qui, qu8e, quas, 

O, quorum, quarum, quorum, 
JD, queis, or quibus, &;c., 
Ac. quos, quas, quae, 


Ab, ^eis, or quibus, &o. 

, Ab, qu6, qua, qu6. 

Note. — Qw» and quels are sometimes used in the dative and ablative, instead 
of quihte. Old is commonly regarded as one long syllable, but is sometimes 
used as two short ones (eid) ; so also the dative singul^ huiOj or hii4c. 122-1. 

(For the oonstruction of the relative, see § 99.) 

Obs. 1. Qui is sometimes used for the ablative singular in 
all genders, seldom for the plural. To all forms of the abla- 
tive, cum is frequently annexed ; as, quocuniy quibuscuniy &;c. 

Obs, 2. Quicunque^ or quicumque, and quivisy also used as 
relatives (293, Obs. 7), are declined like qui. 


126. — ^The Intebrogative Pronoun is used in 
asking a question ; as, Qvds fecit ? " Who did it ?" 

The interrogatives are : 

Ecquis? 1 

Eoquisnam \>U any cne f 

Numquis ? ) 

Cuius t iohosef 

Cujasf of wJiat country f 

Hie simple interrogative quia is thus declined : 

Qms, QUiE, QUOD, or quid? Who, which, what f 



which t what f 

K, quis or qui, 
G. cujus, 
2>. cuiy 
Ac. quern, ^ 


Ah. qud, 





quid or quod, 
quid or quod, 




JfMft Fern. JftuL 

N. qui, quae, qiUB, 

Q, quorum, qu&rum, quorum, 

D, queis or quXbus, &c., 
Ac, quos, quas, quSB, 


Ah, queis or quibus, dca 

(Tor the iDfleotioQ of the compound interrogatiTe^ Me 18M and 2.) 


1. All interrogatiye pronouns used in a dependent clause, 
and without a question, are indefinites (128) ; as, neseio quis 
sity " I know not who he is." In this sense, qui is often used 
for quis for the sake of euphony, when the following word 
begins with an *; as, qui sit apiritj " he shews who ne is.'* 
So also such adjectives as quantus, qu&lis^ &c. 

2. The interrogative quis is commonly used as a substantive 
without a noun following it; qui, as an adjective before a 
noun. Quis means " what man ?" or " Who 1" and applies to 
both sexes ; — qui means " which man," and has its feminine 
quce. This distinction, however, is often disregarded, especially 
as mentioned in Obs. 1. But, in the neuter gender, quid is 
always used as a substantive, and governs its noun in the 
genitive; as. Quid fitdndris commUitf "What crime has he 
committed 1" Whereas, quod is always used as an adjective, 
and agrees^ with its noun) as, Quodfadinus commlsit? 

NaU.—Qmd is often used elUptdcally thus : Qvui f " why F is for fft>p^ 
fuidf — As an interrogative inteipection at the beginning of a^sentenoOj^^u^f 

ru t &c., supply d/icam,^ " Why fihould I Bay mudi ?" &c. 

3. Cujus, a^umt *■' whose?" used instead of the genitive of 
quis, is defective. The parts in use are as follows : 

Singular. Plnral. 

Mom, Fern, Neut, Mdae. Fern, 

N, cujus, cuja, cujum, 

Ac, cujum, cujam, 

Ab. cuja^ 

N, cuji, cujee, 
Ac, cujas. 


4. Cvjas^ "of what country,'* is declined like an adjective 
of one termination (99-1). Nom. cujas^ gen. cujatUy &a 


128. — ^The Indefinite Peonoxjns are such as 
denote persons or things indefinitely. Besides the 
interrogatives used indefinitely (127-1), they are* 

Aliquis, 8ome one, QuiBpiam, some one, 

SiquiB, if any one, Unusquisque, e<ich one, 

NSquis, lest any^ no one, Quidam, a certain one, 

Quisque, eoc/t one^ every one, Quilibet» ) , 

^. r\ - ' y any one you please, 

Quisquam, any one. QuiYis, ) " f 

(For the iDflection of these, see 1S0-1| 2, 8.) 


129. — ^The Patrial Pronouns are those which have reference 
to one's country. They are nostras^ " of our country ;"m<ra#, 
*' of your cotmtry." They are both adjectives of one terminiv* 
tion. Nom. nostras^ gen. noairatis, &c. (99-1.) 


130. — The Compound Pronouns all belong to some of the 
classes enumerated above. 

131. — In the compounds of qui and quis, qui is always the 
first paii; of the word compounded; quis is sometimes the first 
part, and sometimes the last. 

1. The compounds of qui are quicumque, " whoever," " who- 
soever ;" gwlciam, " some ;" quiHbet, qulvis, " any one" '*whom 
you please." They are declined by adding the termination 
to .the different cases and numbers of qui. 





tf. quicunque, 
&. cujuscunque, 

N, quicunque, 

G. quorumcunque, 

cujttscunque, ^a 

quorumcuDque, &a 

Q01CUNQUX, vfhoevtr^ vfho9oever^ whatsoevefm 





Quidam, qusedam, quiddam, or quoddam. 

Quilibet, quaelibel^ quidlibet, or quodlibet. 

Quivis, qusBvis, quidvis, or quodvis. 

NaU, — Before dam^ m is changed into n; as, quendamy quorvndamy Ao. 

2. The compounds of quiSj when quis is put first, are quts- 
nam? " who?" quispiamj quisquanij "any one ;" quisque, "every 
one ;" and quisquisy " whoever, whosoever." 


N, quisnam, 
G. cujusnam, 
D, xiuinam, 
Ac, quemnam, 

QuiBNAif, whOy whicky whatf 


quidnam, or quodnam, 


quidnam^ or quodnam, 



AL, qudnam, 

N, quinam, qusenam, 

G, quorumnam, quarumnam, quorumnam, 
2>. quibusnam, quibusnam, quibusnam, 



Ae. quosnam, 


Ah. quibusnam, 


So decline : 


Quispiam, qusepiam, quidpiam, or quodpiam. 

Quisquam, qusequam, quidquam, or quodquam. 

Quisque, quseque, quidque, or quodque. 

Quisquis, quidquid, or quicquid. 

Obs, 1. Q^i8quam has quenqiMm in the accusative, without 





the feminine. The plural is scarcely used ; quieque is also 
used for quicique, Quisquis^ " whoever," has no feminine ter- 
mination except in the ablative ; and the neuter, only in the 
nominative and accusative. It is used as an indefinite adjec- 
tive pronoun ; and also instead of qulqui, not in use, as a 
double relative of the same meaning as quicunqtie. 131-1. 
The following are the parts In use : 


N. quisquis, 
Ac, quemquem, 
Ab, quoquo, ' 


quidquid, or quicquid, 
quidquid, or quicquid, 


The plural has the nominative mas<Miline qulqui^ and the 
dative quibusqutbita, Quisquis is sometimes used for the feini 

3. The compounds of quis, when quis is put last, have qua 
in the nominative singular feminine, and in the nominative 
and accusative plural neuter. These are : 

AHquis, some, Numquis, whether any t 

Ecquia, «A«^Aer any / Siquia, t/" any. 

SreqoLB, lent any. 

The last three are often written separately; as, ne quis^ num 
quis, si quis. These pronouns are thus declined t * 





JV. aliquis. 


aJiquid, or aliquod, 

G, alicujus, 



J), alioui, 

^ alicui. 


Ae, aKquem, 


al$quid, or altquod, 

F. aliq\ns, 


allquid, or aliquod, 

Ab. aliquo, 


aliquO. . 



i\r. aliqui. 



G, aliquorum, 



D, allquibus, 



Ac. aliquos, 



V, aliqui. 



Ab, aliquibus. 



J\^oi4nr-JBcquv8 and eiguis have sometimes ^uca in the nominative sinirniar 

§ 88 THE YSBB. 83 

Ob9, 2. Some of these are twice compounded ; as, ecquis- 
nam^ ecqucenam^ ecquidnam^ or ecquodnam^ *' who ?" unusquis- 
que^ unaquoBqtte, wiumquidgue, or unumqtto(lque\ ^*' every one ;" 
genitLve unwwujusqttey dec The foimer is scarcely declined 
beyond the nominative singular, and the latter wants the 
plural. . 

Obs. 3. All these compounds want the vocative, except quii* 
qme^ oHquis^ quihbet^ and quieunque. They have seldom, if 
ever, queis^ but guVmi in the dative and the ablative plural 

§ 38. THE VERB. 

132. — ^A Verb is a word used to express the 
aet^ bemg^ or atoUe^ of its subject. 

Ohs. 1. The use of the verb, in simple propositions, is to 
affirm. That of which it afiirms, is called its lubfeci, and, if a 
noun or pronoun, it is usually in the nominative case. But 
when the verb is in the infinitive, its subject is put in the 

1. yerbs are of two kinds, Tra/nsitwe^ and lifir 

ili^.— Thefle two dasses oomprefaend all the verbe in any lan^nage. A^ 
eordin^ to this diyision, TVatmtive verbe include those only wnlch denote 
transitiYe action ; L e. action jxum/ng over fh>m, or done by, one person or 
thing to another; and in^on^t^iM verbs, those which have nothing transitive 
in their meaning, but which represent tneir subject in a certain state or con- 
dition, and nothing more. For this purpose, not only are the terms Tra/nnr 
Hve and ^trannti^ more expressive and appropriate than Active and SeuUr, 
bat their use relieves the term ** Active," to be employed solely as the name 
of the form called the Active Voice; and the tenn *< XTeuter," to be appro- 
priated to the gender of nouns. 

2. A TRANSinvB'verb expresses an act done 
by one person or thing to another. It has 
two forms, called the Acfti/ve^ and the Paseive 
voice. 136. 

8. An iNTBAiireinvB verb expresses being^ or a 
^tdte of bemg^ or action conjmed to the actor. It 
is commonly without the passive form. 

84 THE VERB. ^ § 38 

Obs, 2. The verbs that express being simply, in Latin, are 
8um^ fio^ exxBtOy signifying, in general, " to be," or " exist." 
The state of being expressed by intransitive verbs may be a 
state of rest, as dormiOy " I sleep ;" or of motion, as cMo, " I 
fall ;" or of action, as currOy " I run." 

Obs. 3. The action expressed by an intransitive verb does 
not, like the action expressed by a transitive verb, pass over 
from the agent or a.ctor to an object, k has no immediate 
relation to any thing beyond its subject, which it represents in 
a certain state or condition, and nothing more ; and hence 
they may always be distinguished thus : — A transitive verb 
always requires an object to complete the sense ; as, dmo tb, 
" I love thee;^^ — the intransitive verb does not, but the sense is 
complete without such an object ; as, sedeo, " I sit ;" curro, " I run.'* 

Obs, 4. Many verbs considered intransitive in Latin, are 
translated by verbs considered transitive in English; as^placeo^ 
" I please ;" obedio, " I , obey ;" crSdo, " I believe ;" (fee. 

Obs. 5. Many verbs are used sometimes in a transitive, and 
sometimes in an intransitive sense. Such axefugio^ incUno^ 
timeo, &c.; as^fuge dextrum littus (tr.), "avoid the right hand 
shore ;" tempus fugit (intr.), " time flies ;" timeo Dawjuos (tr.), 
" I dread the Greeks ;" tirfieo (intr.), " I am afraid." — In some, _ 
the transitive and intransitive are distinguished by a difference 
in form and conjugation ; thus, jaudo^ jaceo; pendo, pendeo; albo^ 
albeo; Jugo^ fagio; placo, placeo; sedo, sedeo; <Szic. 

Obs. 6. Verbs usually intransitive assume a transitive sense, 
when a word of signification similar to that of the verb itself 
is introduced as its object ; as, vivere vltam^ " to live a life ;'* 
jurctre jusjurandum^ "to swear an oath." 

Obs. 7. When we wish to direct the attention, not so much 
to any particular act of the subject of discourse, as to the em- 
ployment or state of that subject, the object of the act — ^not 
being important — is omitted, and the transitive verb assumes 
the character of an intransitive ; thus, in the sentence, ptter 
legity "the boy reads," nothing more is indicated than the 
present state or employment of puer, " the boy," and the vei'b 
has obviously an intransitive sense : still, an object is neces- 
sarily implied, as he who reads must read something. Bui 
when we say ptter legit ITomerum, " the boy reads Homer,'' 
the attention is directed to a particular act, terminating on a 
certain object, "^omcn^m," and the verb has its proper 
transitive sense. 

§ 39 THE YERB. 86 


133. — ^Though the division of yerbj into TVansiiiv^ and 
TniransiHve comprehends all the verbs in any language, vety 
from something peculiar in their form or signification, they 
are characterized by different names, expressive of this peou- 
liarity. The most common of these are the following, viz : 
lUgular^ Irregular^ Deponent, Common^ Defective, Impersonal^ 
Redundant, Frequentative, Inceptive, and Desiderative, 

1. Regulab Verbs are those in which the se- 
condarjr parts are formed from the primary, 
accordmg to certain rules. 184. 

19<fte. — Under these are included ThinnHve, IiUra/naitive, Vtponeni, and 
Common verbs belonging to the four conjugationB. 

2. Irregular Verbs are those in which some 
of the secondary parts are not formed from the 
primary, accordmg to rule. 221. 

3. DEPpNEin' Verbs under a passive form have 
an active signification. 207-1. 

4. Common Verbs under a passive form have 
an active or passive signification. 207-2. 

5. Defective Verbs are those in which some 
of the parts are wanting. 222. 

6. Impersonal Verbs are used only in the 
third person singular. 223. 

7. Redundant Verbs have more than one form 
of the same part. 225. 

8. Frequentatevb Verbs express repeated ac- 
tion. 227-1. 

9. Inceptive Verbs mark the beginning or 
continued increase of an action. 227-2. 

10. Desiderative Verbs denote desire or in- 
tention of doing. 227-3. The three last are al- 
ways derivatives. 226. 

86 THE TSMB. — ^VOICE. § 41 


134. — ^To the inflection of Verbs belong VoiceSj 
MoodSj Tenaes^ Nwmhers^ and Persons. 

1. The Voices, in Latin, are two, Active and 

2. The Moods are four, the Indicatwe^ ^uh^v/no- 
tive^ Imperatwej and iTifinitwe. 

3. The Tenses are six, the Present^ Imperfect^ 
Perfect^ Pl/wperfec% Futv/re^ and Futwre-PerfecL 

4. The NuMBEES two, Smgvla/r and Plural. 

5. The Persons are three, Fire% Second^ and 

6. Besides these, to the Verb belong, Pqi/rticir 
ples^ Oervrnds^ and Snipmes. 

Y. The Conjugation of a verb is the aaprange- 
ment of its diffi^rent moods, tenses, <fec., according 
to a certain order. Of these, in Latin, there are 
four, called the Fwat^ Second^ Thi/rd^ and Fowrth 
(JovjugaMons. 184-1 — 3. 

Ohs, A few verbs in Latin are of more than one conjuga- 
tion, and a few have some of their parts belonging to one 
conjugation, and others to another. 

§ 41. VOICE. 

135. — ^VoiOB is a particular form of the verb 
which shows the relation of the eviiject^ or thing 
spoken of, to the action expressed by the verb. 

The transitive verb,*in Latin, has two voices, 
called the Acti/oe and the Pasewe. 

1 The AoTTo: Voice represents the subject of 

{ 4l THE YBRB.— VOICU. 87 

the verb as actuig on some object ; as, H/mo fe, ** I 
love thee.'* 

2. The Passive Voice represents the subject of 
tlie verb as acted upon ; as, amatmr^ " he is loved.'' 


1. In both voices, the act expressed by the verb is the same, 
but differently related to the subject of the verb. In the 
ac^vt voice, the subject is the actor ; in the passive, it is acted 
upon, as in the above examples. Hence, the same idea may 
be expressed with equal propriety in either voice, by simply 
changing the object of the active voice into the subject of the 
passive : thus, by the active voice, Ccssar vlcit GaUiam, " Caesar 
conquered Gaul ;" by the passive, Gallia victa est d Ccesdre^ 
" Gaul was conquered by Ccesar." 

This property of the transitive verb, enables the speaker or 
writer not only to vary his form of expression at pleasure, 
but also, by means of the passive form, to direct the attention 
to the act and the object acted upon, when the actor either is 
unknown, or, it may be, unimportant or improper to be men- 
tioned : thus, " America was discovered and inhMted before 
the days of Columbus." So also the attention may be directed 
by means of the active voice to the act and the actor, without 
regard to the object. See 132, Obs. 7. 

2. Intransitive verbs, from their nature, do not admit a dis- 
tinction of voice. They are generally in the form of the ac- 
tive voice, but are frequently used in the third person singular, 
passive form, as impersonal verbs. 223-3. Deponent in- ^ 
transitives, however, have th^ form of the passive. 

3. The passive voice, in Latin, is often used in a sense simi- 
lar to the middle voice in Greek, to express actively what its 
subject does to, or for itself; as, donee pauci, qui prcelio super- 
faercdnty paludibtis abdbrbntur, " till the few who had sur- 
vived the battle, concealed themselves in the marshes." Tag. 
The following are examples of the same kind : Columba — fer- 
TUR in arva volans. Yiro. — Nunc spicula vertunt infensi; faciA 
pariter nunc pace feruntur. Id. — E scopulo muitd vix arte 
BEvuLSus — ratem Sergestus agehat. Id. — Quis ignorat, ii, qui 
matkematici vocantur, in quantd ohscuritate rerum — versentur. 
Cic. — Cum igitur vehementius invbheretur in causam princi- 

88 THS VSBB. — KOOD& § 42 

pum consul Philippua. Id. — Cum amnes in omni genera sceH^ 


Circumdat nequidqnam ham^riB, et inntide femim 
OnroiTUB, ac densos fxrtds moritOruB in hostea. Yimo. 

In all such constructions, the words ^' a se " may be under- 
stood afler the verb. 

§ 42. MOODS. 

137. — ^MooD is the mode or manner of express- 
ing the signification of the verb. 

138. — ^The moods, in Latin, are four; namely, 
the Indicatwe, Svhjunctive^ Impei*ative^ and iw/- 

139. — ^I. The iNMOATrvE Mood asserts the ac- 
tion or state expressed by the verb, simply as a 
fact, and generally in an independent clause ; as, 
ecriboj "I write;" tempus fugit^ "time flies." 

140. — Obs, 1. The indicative mood is sometimes used in 
dependent clauses with si^ nl^', etsi^ tametai, etiamsiy to assert 
a fact as a condition or supposition ; as, si quid melius h&beSy 
arcesse. Or with ut or quum, " when," signifying time past ; 
as, Tempus fait guum homines vagahantur, Ut inquinavit cere 
tempus aureum, Hor. 

141. — Obs. 2. The indicative followed by si non, m, nisi, is 
sometimes used potentially, to express, not what did take 
place, but what would have taken place if something dse had 
not happened ; as, Tenus ^gypium penetravit, nisi exerdttcs 
sequi recusdsset, " He would have penetrated as far as iEgypt, 
if the army had not r^ifused to follow him." 624. 

142. — IL The SuBjrmcTivE Mood represents 
the action or state expressed by the verb, not as 
a fact, but only as a conception formed by the 
mind. It is generally used in dependent clauses 
in various vsrays, as follows : 

§ 42 THE VERB.— UOOD0. 89 

1st. It represents the action or state expressed 
"by it as coriditionol or contingent 

Thus used, it corresponds to the English subjunctive, or to 
the indicative used subjunctively (An. and Pr. Gr., 386) ; as, 
n redeat, videbimuSy *^ if he return, we shall see him." 

2d. It represents an action or state, as wLat 
may^ can^ will; mighty could^ wovld^ or should^ 
take place in certain circumstances. 

Thus used, it corresponds to the English potential (An. and 
PrrGr., 380) ; as, edimtta at viv&muSj non vivtmua ut eddmus^ 
" we eat that we may live — not live that we may eat ;" «t^- 
num datum credereSj '^ you would suppose that the signal had 
been given." 

3d. It is Bsed to express a fact in a dependent 
proposition, connected witli the leading verb by 
an adverb, conjunction, relative, or indefinite 

Thus used, it is commonly rendered by the indicative in 
English ; as, nescit qui sim^ ^^ he knows not who I am." 

143. — Obs, 3. The subjunctive mood is sometimes used in 
an independent proposition, in order to soften the assertion 
made ; as, Nemo iatud (ifn concedat^ " nobody probably would 
concede that to you." (625). 

144; — Obs. 4. The subjunctive is used also in independent 
propositions, to express a wish, desire, or command ; as, w/l- 
nam saperes^ " O that thou wert wise ;" quod b^ne vertat, " may 
it turn out well ;" sic eat^ " thus let her go ;" facicUy " do it 
See Obs. 5. 

145.— 06«. 5. When this mood is used in independent propositions^ Id 
a potential, optatiye, or imperatiye Bense, still it ought to be regarded ai 
Btricily subjunctiye, having the primary or leading clause evidently un- 
derstood, on which the meaning of the mood in ^ach case depends^ Thua 
** I may write," lieet mihi ut^ or est tU scrlbam; ** I shall, or will write.** 
futHruKi, estf or itit ut scrlbam; " I should write,** oportet, ceguum est utj or 
eet cur teribirem; ** I should have written,** oporiibatj Ac, ut ecripsUsem; 
"O that they were wise," percpto utinam eapirent; " may it turn out well.' 

90 THS YBRB. — ^MOODS. § 42 

j»rl00r gmod bine vertat; "do it»" fae lU faeUu; "let me do iC sine vt 
faeUoHf 4e. 

Beoee, it foUows tbat the pBiiicnlar EbgliBh amdliarj bj wfaidlt thia 
mood fhonld be tnmalated, depends, not upon the form of the Latin yerb^ 
ieeiiig §eribiran. fat examine, means equallj, " I might, could, would, or 
•hoold write^'' but i^Nm the ellipsis to be supplied. What this is^ must 

WKj% be gathered from the connectioD and sense of the passage. 

146. — Ob$. 6. From these observations^ it will be manifest that the 
Latin subjuncdve is in much more extensive use than either the subjunctiyo 
and potential mood in Knglish, or the subjunctive and optative mood in 
Oreek. Indeed, the proper use and management of this mood, ocmstitute 
one of the greatest difficulties in this language. For the oonstniction dl 
this mood, see § 139. 

147. — Obs, 7. When the ideas of liberty^ power ^ teiU, obligation^ 
dutj/f &c., involyed in the auxiliaries may, can^ will, skaU^ 
might, could, would^ should^ dec., are to be expressed in an 
absolute, independent, and emphatic manner, the subjunctiye 
mood is not used, but separate verbs expressing these ideas in 
die indicative mood. Hiese are such as hcet^ vdlo^ n6lo^ 
J908ium, debeo, &c., thus : 

We will go^ Jre vdiimut. 

They will not go, Ire tUilunL 

I may come^ Mihi venire Heei, 

I can read, Zegire poenun, 

Legire debee. 
Thou shouldst read, ^ Tibi legendum ett. 

It might have been done, 
(absolutely and sometimes }• FUri potuit, 


Te legire oportet. 

148. — Obi, 8. The future indicative is frequently used in 
dependent and hypothetical clauses, and consequently in a 
subjunctive sense ; as, si jubSbis Juciam, " if you order me, I 
will do it;" equivalent to aijubeas, &c. 

149. — m. The Imperattve Mood commauds, 
exhorts, entreats, or permits ; as, ecribej " write 
thou f itOj " let him go.** 

150. — Obe. 9. The present subjunctive is very often used 
Instead of the imperative, especially in forbidding, after n«. 

§ 43 THE yXBB.— TENSES. 91 

nemo, nuUus, &c.; as, valeas^ ''&rewell;" ne noceaa puhv^ 
" hurt not the boy." Obs. 4 and 5. Besides Jhis, the future 
aud future perfect mdicative, aud the perfect subjunctive, are 
also used imperatively. See 167-1, 169-3, and 173-4. 

151. — Obs. 10. The imperative mood has two forms in the 
second person, both singular and plural, distinguished in their 
meaning as present and future. The first, or shorter form 
commands to do presently ; as, scribe, " write now ;" — the se- 
cond, or longer form commands to do afterwards, or when i 
something else shall have been done ; as, scribiio, " write here- V 
afler." This distinction, however, is not always observed. 

152. — ^IV. The Infusttive Mood expresses the 
meaning of the verb in a general manner, without 
any distinction of person or number ; as, scribere^ 
" to write f scrip&isse^ " to have written ;" acribi^ 
" to be written." 

§ 43. TENSES. 

153. — ^Tenses are certain forms of the verb 
which serve to point out the distinctions of time. 

154. — Time is naturally divided into the Present, Past, and 
Future; and an action may be represented either as incom- 
plete and continuing, or as completed at the time spoken of. 
This gives rise to six tenses, which are expressed in Latin by 
distinct forms of the verb ; thus, 

p^^^ ( Action oontinuinff ; as, Mrifto, " 1 write, I am writing." PrutwL 
^^^^* \ Action completed ; as, aer^n, " I have written." Perfect, 

p ( Action continninff ; as, eerihibam, ** I was writing." Imperfeet, 

* • 1 Action oompleted ; as, aeript^am, " I had written." Pluperfect, 


m^jgg^^ I Action continuing ; as, tcnham, *' I shall or will write." ISUure, 
vvTUJts. ^ ^c^iQjj coppletoa ; as, eoripeero, " I shall have written." 

155. — ^In order better to express the time and the state 
of the action by one designation, these tenses, arranged in this 
order, might properly be denominated the Present, the Present- 
perfect; tie Past, the Past-perfect; the Future, and the Futwre' 
perfect. An. and Pr. Gr. 400. 

92 THE VERB. — TENSES. § 44 


156. — ^The tenses of the indicative mood, in 
Latin, are six : the Present^ the Imp&ff€€% the 
Perfect^ the Pluperfect^ the Future^ and the Fu' 

157. — I. The Present tense es:presses what is 
going on at the present time ; as, sc7'ibOy " I write," 
or "I am writing;" donnus (Bdificat/wi\ "the house 
is building." 

This tense is rendered with all the variety of the present 
tense in English; as, I write ^ do write^ am writing; — interro- 
gatively, do I write ? am I writing ? Like the English present 
also it is used : 

1. To express what is habitual or always true; as, qui dto 
dat^ bis dat^ " hb who gives promptly, gives twice." 

2. To express a general custom, if still existing ; as, apud 
Parthos signum d&tur tymp&no^ "among the Parthians, th«* 
signal is given by the drum." 

3. In historical narration, it is used with great eiFect for the 
past tense, to represent a past event as if it were present be- 
fore us ; thus (Lrrv), dicto paruere^ desiliunt ex iquis, provolant 
171 prlmum, &ic., " they obeyed, they dismount, they fly for- 
ward to the front," die. 

4. To denote an action which has continued for some time, 
and which still exists ; as, tot annos bella gero^ " for so many 
years I have waged, and am still waging war." Also after 
dum it is used to express a past event which had some con 
tinuance ; as, dum in Sidlia sum^ nulla statua dejecta esty " so 
long as I was in Sicily," &c. 

5. With certain adverbs of time, it is sometimes used, as 
in English, to denote what is yet future; as, gitam mox najifigo 
Ephesum, " as soon as I sail, or shall sail, for Ephesus." 

6. In the passive voice, the present tense represents its 
subject as at present acted upon, or as the object of an action 
present and continuing, and is usually rendered into English 
by the verb to be, and the perfect participle, as am&tur, " he is 
loved,'* and this rendering will always be correct when tba 

§ 44 THS YERB. — TSNSSa. 98 

Snglish verb in the present passiye expresses continuance; aa^ 
he his loved, feared^ hated^ respected, &c. 

158. — Obs^ Bat there are many rerba id which this rendering of tha 
preaent would be inoorreet, as it does nut express the present receiFiufif of 
an action, but rather the present and continuing effect of an act, which act 
itself is now past. In all such cases, it is more properly the rendering of 
llie perfect than of the preterU, and it is often so used. Thus, domut cediJictUa 
est ; ipiit peractum est ; epistdla scripta est, may be properly rendered, 
' &e house is built ;" ** the work is jSnished f *1he letter is written ;" be- 
cause in the English, as well as in Latin, the building of the house, the 
finishing of the work, and the writing of the letter, are represented as 
aets now past, and which are present only in their effects The proper 
rendering of such verbs in the present passive, in English, is by the verb 
to 6e, and the present participle in ing in the passive sense ; thus, dbmtu 
tedifiedtur, " the house is building f dpiu peragXtur, " the work is finishing ;* 
epitt^a scriifUur, * the letter is writing." When this mode of expression 
ia not authorized, and when the other would be improper, it will be 
necessary to express the precise idea of the present by some other form 
of expression. See An. and Pr. Eng. Or., App V, I and U, p 235. — Prin- 
<^ple8 of Eng. Gr., App. XIX, p. 211. 

159. — ^n. The Imperfect tense represents an 
action or event as passing and still unfinished at 
a certain time past, expressed or implied ; as, 
ddmum cedificabat^ "he was (then) building a 
house f iham forte vid sacra, " I was accidentally 
(viz. at the t4e spokea of, j going along the Ja 

^160. — This tense, strictly speaking, corresponds to the past- 
progressive in English (An. and Pr. Eng. Gr., 474-2. — Prin- 
ciples of Eng. Gr., 199-2). It is often rendered, however, by 
the past tense in its ordinary form, and should always be so, 
when the verb expresses a continued act or state ; as, amabat, 
'* he loved ;" timebat, " he feared." It is used in a variety of 
ways, as follows : 

1. It is used to denote what was usual or customary at 
some past time; as, scribebam, "I was accustomed to write." 

2. It is used to denote an action which had existed for some 
time, and was still existing at a certain past time ; as, tot an- 

94 THE YSBB. — TENSES. § 44 

nos beHa gereb^m^ "for so many years I had been, and then 
gtill was ■ *^ar." 

3. Son t denotes an action desired, intended, or at- 
tempted, * accomplished ; as, ForsSna eum terrebat^ 
" Porsena attem nei to frighten him." 

4. It is som< :imes used hypothetically, instead of the ino- 
perfect or pluperfect subjunctive ; as, anceps certamen erat, nisi 
equites supervenissent, " the battle would have been doubtful, 
unless, &c." 141, and 624-5. 

5. The same observations made in 158, in reference to the 
present passive, are applicable in all their extent to the im- 
perfect ; as, amabatur, " he was loved ;" domus cedijlcabdtur^ 
" the house was building," not " was built," nor " was being 
built ;" opits peragebatur, " the work was finishing," &c. 

161. — in. The Perfect tense is used in two 
different senses, Defimte and iTvdejmite. 

162. — ^The J^erfect-deJmite^ve^^TeseJits an action 
or event as completed at tlie present time, or in 
a period of time of which the present forms a 
part ; as, scripsi^ " I have written ;" Jiujus ad rne- 
moria/m nostra/m moruwmefrvta Tnans&rvM duo^ " two 
monuments of him have remained to our time." 

163. — ^The Perfeciriridejmite represents an ac- 
tion or event simply as past ; as, eoripsi^ " I 

164. — The first, or Perfed-defijiiie, corresponds to the English present- 
perfect (An. and Pr. Gr., 407) ; — the second, or Perfect-dndejinitey corre*' 
ponds to the English past tense (Aa and Pr. Gr., 415). In this sense, it 
is commonly used in historical narratives like the Greek aorist; thus, CcBsar 
exercitum JinVyus Italice adni&fit, Jtubicon transiitf Rcmam occupant. 
." Caesar marched his army," c&o. 

1. This tense, used indefinitely, is sometimes coupled with 
the imperfect, the former denoting a transitory, the latter a 
continued action ; thus, Conticuere omn^s, intentlque ^a tene- 
BANT, " All were silent, and with eager attention kept their 
eyc5 J?a;crf upon him." Viro. 

2 It is sometimes used like the present, to express i^hat is 

§ 44: THE VIBB.^-^rSNBXS. 96 

true at any time ; thus, Filix qui potuit r9rum cognondSre 
eomsaSj '^ Happy that man who was able to investigate the 
causes of things !? Ymo. 

3. It is sometimes used in the sense of the pluperfect, viz . 
in narratives after such conjunctions as postquam, u6t, ubi 
prlmumy ut (when), ut prtmum, quum, quum prlmumy ^mul 
ut, t^ul aCy 6z;c., having the general meaning of the English 
" as soon as," when followed by a verb denoting past time ; 
as, QucB postqtuzm evolvit — liffdvit, ^' After he had separated 
these things, — he bound them," 6ec. Ovid. 

4. It is also used poetically for the imperfect and the plu- 
perfect of the subjunctive; as, nee viniy nisi^ dz;c., **nor would 
I have come, unless," dz;c. (141, and 624-5.) ^ 

5. In the passive form, this tense is compound, consisting 
of the perfect participle of the verb, and the present or perfect 
tense of sum as an auxiliary ; as, am&ius sum^ or amdttis Jui^ 
** I have been loved." 

Ifbte, — ^In all oomponod tenses, the participle must be in the same gender 
and number with the nominative to the vern. 

165. — ^IV. The Pluperfect tense represents an 
action as completed at, or before, a certain past 
time expressed or implied ; as, senpseraniy " I had 

166. — ^This tense corresponds to the past-perfect in English, 
and is rendered by it. It bears the same relation to the per. 
feet, that the imperfect does to the present. 

1. The pluperfect is sometimes used, especially by the 
poets, for the perfect indicative, and also for the pluperfect 
subjunctive ; as, dixeram a principio, ut de republlcd sileretuVj 
Cic, " I have said from the beginning," &c. ] Si inena non Iceva 
/uissetj IMPULERAT, (kc, ViRa<, *^ he would have impelled" (141, 
6i 624-5.J The same idiom is found in English, ^^ he had »m- 
pelled" tOT " he would have impelled." 

2. In the passive form, this tense, like the perfect, is com- 
pound, consisting of the perfect participle, and the imperfect 
or pluperfect of sum used as an auxiliary ; as, amdlus eram, or 
amdius fueram^ " I had been loved." 

IfoU. — ^In these compound forms, the participle Beems to be oonsidered 
nometimes u little diflferent from an adjective. In such oaees, sum becomeA 
the verb, and is rendered bv its own tense : as, dpusperactwn ist, *• the work 
it fiuiftbed f^JinUueJatn labor xbat, ** the labor was now flnished!.^' 

96 THE VERB. — TENSE& $ 45 

16Y. — ^V. The Future tense expresses what will 
take place in futfwre time ; as, sanba/m^ " I shall, 
o;' wiU write." 

1. This tense is sometimes used in the sense of the impe- 
rative ; as, Vxque% vlna^ " filtrate the wine." Hor. 

2. The participle in rus, with the verb «i/m, is frequently 
used instead of the future, especially if purpose or intention ia" 
dignified ; as, scriptuma aum^ " I am going to write." (214-8.) 

3. In the passive voice, the future tense expresses the future 
enduring of an act that will be going on hereafter ; as, domus 
mdiJkabUwr, " the house will be building." 

^ 168. — ^VI. The Future-perfect intimates that 
an action or event will be completed at, or before, 
a certain time yet future ; as, ecripsero^ " I shall 
have written f viz, at, or before, some future time 
or event. 

1. This tense, sometimes called the future subjunctive, 
properly belongs to the indicative mood, both in significatioix 
and construction. For the future subjunctive, see 170-1. 

2. Though the proper rendering of this tense be shall kave^ 
yet, generally, the have, of the shall, and frequently both, are 
omitted ; as, qui Antonium oppresserit, is helium confecMt, " he 
who shall cut off Antony, shall put an end to the war." 

3. This tense is also used imperatively ; as, memineris hi^ 
" remember thou ;" ille viderit, " let him see to it.|^' 

4. The future perfect, in the passive voice, has two forms, 
made up of the perfect participle, and ero, ovfuero. The first 
denotes the enduring of an act that will be completed in future 
time indefinitely ; as, domus cedifiddta Srit, " the house will be 
built;'' the second denotes the enduring of an act to be com- 
pleted at, or before, a certain future time; as, ddmus cedificdia 
fuerit, " the house will have been built" 


169. — The tenses of the subjunctive mood are the Pretent^ 
the Imperfect, the Perfect, and the Pluperfect. 

§ 46 |THB VERB. — TENSES. 97 


1 70 — 1. There is no distinct form of a future in the sul> 
jiinctive ; all the tenses of this mood sometimes incline to » 
future signification. But, when a future subjunctive is required, 
the future participle in rus^ with the verb sum in the subjunc- 
tive present, is used ; as, hand dubUo guin factUrus iit^ **" I 

doubt not that he will do it." 


2. The tenses of the subjunctive mood, in Latin, like those 
of the potential, in Englbh, are much less definite, in respect 
of time, than the tenses of the indicative, being modified bj 
the time and meaning of the verbs, with which they stand 

3. All the tenses of the subjunctive mood, are often render- 
ed like the corresponding tenses of the indicative, 142, 1st. 
and 3d. 

171. — ^I. The Pbesent subjunctive is generally 
rendered by may or can^ expressing present 
liberty, or ability; as, scriba/m^ "I may write. 

1. This tense is oflen used in the sense of the imperative 
mood, to express a command, entreaty, or exhortation; -la, 
amem, " let me love." This use is commonly elliptical, 1 44. 
and 145. 

2. Afler qtutsi^ tanquam, and the like, it is sometimes reie 
dered as the imperfect, or perfect indefinite of the indicative 
as, quasi intelhgant^ " as if they understood." 

3. When a question is asked, it is frequently rendered as 
the indicative ; ^s, Elbquar an sileam? " shall I speak, or be 
silent?" Sometimes by should; as, singula quid referam^ 
" why should I relate every thing 1" Sometimes by would; asj 
In faxAnus jurdsse putes^ " you would think they had sworn to 
-cojnmit wickedness." 

172. — ^11. The Imperfect subjunctive is com 
monly rendered by the signs mighty covld^ would^ 
or slhould^ expressing past libe^'ty^ power ^ wiU, ov 
obligation ; as, scriberem^ " I might, could, would, 
or should write." 

1. This tense may relate either to what is past, or present, 
or future ; as, si fQ,ta fuissent ut caderem, " if my destiny had 
been that I should fall ;" si possem^ sanior essem^ ** If I could, 1 


tS THB TEBB. — TENSES, i § 45 

would be wiser ;" post kcBc prceeipitem ddrw^^ " afterwards, I 
would throw him down headlong." 

2. Sometimes, the imperfect is rendered £B the pluperfect; 
as, si quia dicSret, nunquam putdrem^ ^., / if any One had 
said it, I never would have thought," 4cc. j 

3. Afler a verb or clause denoting hindr^ce, the subjunc- 
tive imperfect, and sometimes the present, with quominus^ ««, 
may ofleu be rendered hy from with the present participle; 


8i te tua infirmXtaa valetudlnis tenuit, quo minds ad ludos ysNUUES, ^ If 
your weak state of health has prevented you frmn cotning to the games." 
So, Ne quUimpedlrStur quo minus ejtis reima rauKBfirua,'*That no one might 
be hindered from enjoying," Ac Kkp. — Impedltiut ne port&ret, "Being 
hindered from carrying." Sall. Jug., 89. — Me impediet quo nUnia — vestrum 
ju8 defendam^ ** Shall hinder me from defending your right" Cia 

4. In historical narration, afler ut or quum (cwwi), " when," or 
other words denoting time, the imperfect subjunctive is trans- 
lated like the perfect indefinite or aorist ; or, when it expresses 
a continued action, like the perfect indicatiye ; as, cum ab his 
queer Sret, " when he inquired 'of these ;" cum id ultro polli- 
ceritur, " since of his own accord he promised that ;" cum 
summus mons tenereiur^ " when the top of the mountain was 

173. — in. The Perfect subjunctive is used to 
denote an act or event spoken of as already past, 
or wliich will be past at some future time, but 
about which there is at present some contingency 
or uncertainty, in the mind of the speaker. 

This tense is commonly rendered by the signs may have; 
as, fortasse scripserim, " perhaps I ma^ have written," imply- 
ing, " if so, I have at present forgotten it." 

This general idea is expressed with much variety in English, 
according as the tense stands connected with other words in 
the sentence. This will be best explained by a few examples. 

1. It is sometimes rendered like the present; as, ut sic 
dixSrim, " that I may so speak." Sometimes like the imper- 
fect; as, ubi ego audiverim? "where should I have heard it?" 
fortasse yrraverim^ " perhaps I might be in an error." 

2. Thi \ tense sometimes inclines very much to a future 

§ 45 . THE VERB. — TENSES. 90 

signification, and is rendered hj shouldy would^ could, can, will, 
shall; as, Citius crediderim, "I should sooner believe." Juv. — 
Libenter audierim, "I would gladly hear." Cic. — CicerOfnem 
cuicunque eorumfadile opposuerim, *^ I could easily match Qcero 
with any of them ;" — non facile dixSrimy " I cannot well tell ;'* 
— nee tdmen exclushim alios^ ^^and yet J will not exclude 
others." — Si paulUlum mddo quid te fugh'it, ego perihim, " If 
any thing however trifling escape you, I shall be undone." 

3. After quasi, tanquam, and the like, it is sometimes 
rendered by had; as, qudsi affuMm, " as if I had been present ;" 
perinde ac si jam vicerint, "just as if they had already con- 

4. It is sometimes used in concessions ; as,^r(a sitpecunia^ 
"suppose the money *were gotten." Sometimes as the im- 
perative, with the idea of urgency ; as, hcsc dicta smtpatribu^f 
*^let these things be told quickly to the fathers." 

174. — ^IV. The Pluperfect subjunctive denotes 
an action or event contingent at some past time, 
but regarded as to be perfected before another 
action or time subsequent to it, and connected 
with it ; as, 

Quodcunque jussisset me fa^Hirum esse dixi, " I said (then) 
that I would do whatever he should order." Here his order- 
ing was contingent at the time referred to, (then) ; but it was 
to take place before the doing connected with it. So, Id re- 
spondertmt se facififros esse, cum ille vento AquilOne Lemnum 
venisset, " They replied that they would do that, when he should 
return to Lemnos with a north wind." In such constructions, 
the leading verb is usually in the past tense, or in the present 
used for the past. It is variously rendered by would, could, 
might, had, might have, could have, would have, should have, or 
ought to have; as, si jussisset, paruissem, " if he had commanded, 
I would have obeyed." Hence, observe : 

1. That though the action or state is oflen future in respect 
to the time of the leading verb, yet it is past with regard to 
the action or state dependent on it. 

.2. After quum, it is used in the sense of the pluperfect, to 
express an action antecedent to another past action connected 
with it; as Ca^ar quum hoic dixisset, prof edits est, ^'when 


100 THE VEBB. — TENSES. § 47 

Csesar had said these things, he departed." Thus used, guum^ 
with the pluperfect, may be elegantly rendered by the perfect 
participle in English; thus the above example may be rendered, 
" Cflftsar, having said these things, departed." 


175. — The Imperative mood, in Latin, has only one tense, 
namely, the present. Still the act from the nature of this 
mood is necessarily fixture ; as, 8cnbe, " write thou." The 
command is present ; the act commanded, fiiture. Still the 
two forms of the second person mark a distinction of time. 
See 151, Obs. 10. 

The other tenses used imperatively, are the fiiture and 
fiiture-perfect indicative, and liie present and perfect subjunr 
tive ; which see. 


1Y6.: — ^The tenses of the Infinitive are four, 
tlie Present^ the Perfect^ and the Futwre^ and, in 
the active voice, the FuPu/re-perfect 

In Latin, the tenses of the infinitive express its action as 
past, present, or future, not with regard to the present time, 
as in the other moods, but with regard to the time of the lead 
ing verb, on which it is dependent. 

177. — The infinitive is used in two difierent ways; viz : 
without a subject, or with it. 

178. — I. The infinitive without a subject, follows a verb, or 
adjective, and is always translated in the same way, whetlier 
the preceding verb be present, past, or fiiture ; thus : 


DieUur scribirey He is said to write, or to he writing (now). 
** teripsisaef **• to have written (now). 

■ aeripturua eaae^ " to be about to write (now). 
* aeripturua fuiase^ " to have been aboat to write fheforeiKvw) 

§ 47 THE VERB. — TENSES. 101 


JHethiOuit •crtbir^ He was laid to write, or to be writa^ (tb«B> 

* MTtpctM^ «* to haye written, Ao. 


DSmuididUurcBdificari, The houee is said to be bmlding (now)^ 
« tBdiJieatae§ae, v « to be built (now). 

* adifieOtafuisM, '^ to have been built (before now)b 

" cBifi/Sed^n Iri. " to be about to be built (now^ 

' Pin. 

Ddmmi ^&cdMuT€tdifiedin^ The house was said to be bnikUng (Uien), te 

iVii^ — ^When the particijrfe in tiy, of the English verb, has not a pssslve 
sense, the present inHuitive psssive must be tnnslatea different^; as, 
ofnori, ** to be loved." 

179.-^n. The infinitiYe, with a subject, is usually translated 
by a distinct proposition, dependent on the preceding verb ; 
and the translation of the same tense of the infinitive must 
differ according to the tense of the verb on which it depends, 
as follows : 

1. The Present Infinitive represents the action, or state, 
expressed by the verb, as present and going on at the time of 
the leading verb, and, consequently, must be rendered into 
English^ in the time of the leading verb ; as, dldt se scribire^ 
"he says that he is writing ;"-LPass., ddmum OBdific&ri, " that 
the house is building ^^^-^ixit se scribSrSy *^' he said that he w€is 
writing ;'' — Pass., ddmum adijicdri, ''that the house was build- 
ing." As an exception, see No. 5 below. 

2. The Perfect Infinitive represents the action, or state, 
expressed by the verb, as past at the time of the leading i^g^b, 
and must be rendered accordingly ;Tre., afler the preseut/by 
the English present-perfect, or past ; as, dlcit se scripsisse, " he 
fiays that he hagjwritten," or, " that he wrote;" — Pass., d6mum 
adificdtam esse^ " that the bouse is built ; — csdificdtam fuisse^ 
*' has been built:" — ^After a past tense (or the present used for 
the past, 143-3^, by the English pluperfect; as, dixit se 
scripstsse^ " he said that he had written." — Pass., by the im- 
perfect, or pluperfect; as, ""(i^t^m oedijic&tam esse^ ''that the 
house was built;" adijicdtam fuissSj " had been built" 

3. The Future Infiniive represents the action, or state, 
expressed by the verb as future at the time of the leading 

102 THS VERB.— TSKSfiS. § 47 

verb, and must be rendered aocordingly ; as, ckcit se geripiOrum 
esse, " he says that he will write ;" — rass., domum cedificdtum 
irt, ^* that the house will be built ;'^ — dixit ee scripturum esse^ 
•* he said that he would write ;'* — Pass., d6mum (xdijicdtum Irt, 
*' that the house would be built." For all these, see 180. 

4. The future infmitive actiye is compound, being made up 
of esse, or Juisse J and the participle in rue, agreeing in gendei*, 
number, and case, with the accusative before it, or with the 
nominative of ^e leading verb. With esse, it corresponds to 
the future indicative; with Juisse, to the future-perfect; as, 

IHcit eo9 teriptHroa eue. He bajb that they will write. 

Diait m teriptitrum eue, He taid that he would write. 

2/leit te Beripturum fuUte, He says that he would have written. 

Dixit tarn Mript^rwn fuitie^ He said that she would have writteo. 

JHdUur Kriptums eue^ He is said to be aboat to write. 

Note 1. — JBn€ smd/uitse, in the Mure infinitive, are generaUy understood ; 
thns, diaoU $$ torippdrvm; and so of others. 

5. When the leading verb is in the future tense, the infini- 
tive mood will be properly translated in its own tense, not in 
that of the leading verb ; as, dlcet se scribSre, " he will say that 
he is writing ," duet se scripsisse, '^ he will say that he has 
written ;" dlcet se script&rum esse, '^ he will say that he will 
write ;" se seript&rum Juisse, •' that he would have written." So 
«Iso in the passive voice. 

6. The perfect infinitive passive is made up of esse or fuisse^ 
and the perfect participle in t^, agreeing in gender, number 
and case with the accusative before it, or with the nominative 
of the leading verb, when that is in the passive voice ; as, dicil 
Uteras scriptas esse, '' he says that letters were written ;" literce 
dicuntur scriptas esse, ^Metters are said to have been writ- 
ten," 6zc Esse and Jmsse are sometimes understood. See 
Note 1 above. 

7. The future infinitive passive is also a ooncpound tensei, 
eoBisisting of the former supine, and %n, the present infinitire 
passive oi eo; as, scriptum Iri, "to be about to be written." 

8. The future infinitive of deponent verbs (207) is made 
with esse orfuisse, and the participle tn rvs, as in the active 
voice (Nq. 4 above), and not like the future infinitive passive. 

0. When the verb in the active voice has no supine, and 
consequently no participle in rus, tl^ere can, of course, be no 
future infinitive. In this case, the want of it is supplied by 

§ 47 THE VERB. — ^TENSES. ^ lOS 

the foture infimtive of sum; viz. JuHtrum esse^ or fire fol- 
lowed b7 ut, and the subjunctive in the present or imperfeot, 
as the leading verb may require. Thus, dixit fdre ut lugtrei^ 
" he said that he would mourn ;'' dicitfire ut lugeat^ '* he says 
that he will mourn«" 678^ 

J!hU 2. — ^This form of expression is often used in both the aetive and 
th* passive voice, even when the verb has the regular form of the fktare 

10. Fore^ the infinitive of 9um^ is used with all participles 
in us; as, Commissum cum equitatu praliofdre vidibat, Cjes, — 
Deinde addisy te f^e ventUrum, Cic. — Mitteiuios f5re legdios. 

11. The infinitive mood with a subject, i. e. with an accusa- 
tive before it, is usually rendered as the indicative, the par- 
ticle that being commonly placed before it. The following 
«)xamples will illustrate the method of translating the different 
tenses of the infinitive, when preceded by the leading verb in 
present, past, or fiiture time. 


1 Dieit me 9eribire, He says that I write, or am writing. 

2 Dixit me •eribire^ He said that I jnrote, or was writing. 
8 Dioet me ecribirB, He will say that I am writing. 

4 I>lcit me teripHeee^ He says that I wrote, or did witta. 

6 Dixit me aeripeieee. He said that I had written. 

6Dieet ma aeripneee. He will say that I have written, or did wntab 

7 J}leit me teriptUrum esee. He says that I will write. 

8 Dixit me aeriptOnim e$ae, He said that I would write. 

9 Dicet me teriptHrvm ecM, He will say that I will write. 

10 Dicit me eeriptUrumfuisaef He says that I would have written. 

11 Dixit me eariptftrumfuieeet He said that I would have written. 

12 Dieet me teriptUrum fuieaef He will say that I would have wiitteo. 


1 8 Dleit litSras eerlbi, ' He says that letters are written, or writing. 

14 T>ixit litirae scrlbi. He said that letters were written, or writing. 

1 5 Dlcet litirae acTlbi, He will say that letters are written, or writing. 

16 Dlcit lith-as scriptcu esse. He says that letters are, or were written. 

17 Dixit litiras ecriptae eese^ He said that letters were, or had been written. 

18 Di^et litirae scriptae esse. He wiU say that letters are, or were written 

104 THE VERB. — ^TENSES. § 48 

19 Dleitlitiras script asfuiMey He says that letters have been written. 

t?0 Dixit litiras seriptasfuisse, He said that letters had been -written. 

91 IHcet litiras scriptaafutMe, He will say that letters have been written. 

22 Dlcit litirds scriptum In, He says that letters will be written. 
28 Dixit litSras scriptun Ire, He said that letters would be written. 
24 Dlcet litiras scriptum iri, He will say that letters would be written. 

Note 8. — When the preceding verb is of the imperfect, or plnperfect tense, 
tlie English of the infinitive is the same as when it is of the perfect indefinite, 
i. e. is the same as the infinitive after dixit, in the preceding table. 

Note 4. — As the perfect definite (162) connects the action completed with 
the present time, the infinitive after it, in this sense, will generally be 
translated as it is aiter the present ; as, dixit me scribere, — scripsissey — scriptu- - 
rvm esse. ^^ he has said that 1 am writing, — ^was writing, — win write." i. e. aa 
it is in Examples Nos. 1, 4, and 7. With dixit used indejiniteiy, tne infini- 
tive would be rendered as in Examples Nos. 2, 5, and 8. 

Note 6. — Because memory always refers to something past, the infinitive 
present after memini,*^! rememoer," is translated by the past tense; as, 
memini me dicere, *' I reme;nber that I said," (not " that I say "). Mtmity^ 
me dixisse is also a proper formula to ex]>res8 the same thing. 

Exe. 1. Wben the present infinitive expresses that which is always true, 
it must be translated in the present, after any tense (167-1); as, doctua 
irat Deum guhernHre mundunif " he had been taught that God govern* 
the world." 

Bxc. 2. Wben the present infinitive expresses an. act subsequent to (lie 
tinxo of the governing verb, it is translated, after any tense, by the poten- 
tial, with shouldf wovld; as, necesse est {fuit, fwtroJt ) to fr «, '*it is (wa^ 
had been) necessary that you should go." 

181.— § 48. NUMBER AND PERSON. 

1. Every tense of the verb has two numbers, the singular, 
and the plural, corresponding to the singular, and the plural 
of nouns and pronouns. 

2. In each number, the verb has three persons, called ^r*f, 
second, and third. The first asserts of the person speaking ; 
the second, of the person spoken to ; and the third, of the per- 
son or thing spoken of. . In the ImJ>erative, there are only 
two persons, the second, and the third. 


The following table shows the personal endings, both sin- 
gular and plural, of all regular verbs, in all conjugations, in 

§ 48 THE YSBB. — TENBBS. 105 

all the tenses of the indicative and subjunctive moodsi except 
the perfect indicative active, and the compound tenses in the 
passive voice : 


Passivs Voics. 



Singular. PluraL 

1. — , m, 


1. r, mur, 

2. s, 


2. ris, or re, mini, 

3. t, 


3. tur, ntur. 

3. The subject or nominative of the verb in the first person 
singular, is always e^o; in the plural, nos; — in the second per- 
son singular, tu; in the plural, vos. These are seldom ex- 
pressed, being sufficiently indicated by the termination of the 
verb; as, sc^bo, "I write;" scribimuSj "we write;" scribis^ 
** thou writest;" scribHiiSy " you write." 

Obs. Verbs in the first person plural, or in the second per- 
son singular, are sometimes used instead of the third person 
with an indefinite subject ; as, qitam multa fauAmtbs causd ami- 
corunij " how many things, we do (i. e. men do) for the sake 
of fi'iends !" — cemires, " you would see," i. e, " one, a person^ 
or any person, would see." Sall. 

The subject of the verb in the third person, is any person 
or thing spoken of, whether it be expressed by a noun, pro 
noun, infinitive, gerund, or clause of a sentence ; as, vir tcribit, 
*' the man writes ;" illi legunt^ " they read ;" hiuUre jucundnm 
est, "to play is pleasant;" iricertum est quam longa vitafutura 
sit, " how long our life will be, is uncertain." 

4. Two or more nouns or pronouns together may be the 
subject of one verb. If these happen to be of different per 
sons, tlie verb takes the first person, rather than the second or \ 
third, and the second rather than the third ; as, ego, et tu^ et 
tile scribimus, *' I, and thou, and he write." 

5. Pronouns, participles, or adjectives used substantively, 
or having nouns understood to them-, are of the third person. 
Qui takes the person of the antecedent. Ipse may be joined 
to any person, according to the sense. 

6. To verbs also belong Participles, Oerundsy and Supines 




182.— § 49. PARTICIPLES. 

1. Participles are parts of the verb which contain no 
affirmation, but express the meaning of the verb considered as 
a general quality' or condition of an object; as, &9na7i8j ^Mov- 
ing ;" doctus^ " learned." 

2. Participles belong partly to the verb, and partly to the 
adjective. From the former, they have signification^ voice^ 
and tense; from the latter, declension; those in ns are of the 
third declension, and declined like prudens (99-2) : all others 
are of the first and second, and declined like bdnus (98-1). In 
construction, they have the government of the verb, and the 
concord, or agreement of the adjective (§ 98). 

3. When the idea of time is separated from the participle, 
it becomes a participial or verbal adjective, and is capable of 
comparison; as, doctus^ doctior^ doctisHmitSj '^learned, more 
learned, most learned." 

4. To the same class, also, belong participles whose mean- 
ing is reversed or modified by composition with words, or 
participles never combined with other parts of the same verb ; 
as, innocens^ indoctus, impranstts, ne/andua, 6zo. The perfect 
participle with the negative prefix in, frequently denotes a pas- 
sive impossibility, usually expressed in Latin by adjectives in 
His or bllis; as, invictus ^mlles^ "an invincible soldier;" incor- 
ruptus cUviSy " an incoiTuptible citizen." 

/ 5. The time of the participle, like that of the infinitive, is 
/ estimated from the time of the leading verb ; i. e. the accom- 
/ panying action or state expressed by the participle is present 
past, or future, at the time indicated by the leading verb, 
with which it is connected ; thus, vldi eum venientem, " I saw 
him coming ;" Numa, ChiHbus ndttcSy rex credtus est, " Numa^ 
bom at Cures, was made king ;" elephuntes amnem transitun 
minimos prcemittunt^ " elephants, about to cross a river, send 
the smallest first." 

IToU 1. — The perfect participle, both of deponent and common verbs, often 
expresBes an action neurly, or entirely, contemporaneous with that of the 
leading verb. In such cases, it is better rendered, into English, by the pres- 

addvxit. Cjes. — Uirc arte Pollux — fnlsuSy arces attigU igneas. Hon. — Oolumba 
fixamque refert del apt a sagittam. Vmo. — Ftten bis ^ni qv€m^£ secuti^ 
oamirieparHiCffy^gent. So also the perfect participle of the active vci b, »ee 


6. The future passive participle in duSy sonietimes expresses 
bare futurity; as, his (scil. ventis^ quoque habendum aera 
permlsitf *' to these also, he gave tne region of the air to be 
possessed." But, in conjunction with the verb *ttm, and fre- 
quently also in other constructions, it denotes necessity^ pro- 
priety, or obligation, and hence, by inference, futurity ; as, 
Delenda est Carthago, "Carthage must be destroyed." Fojcta 
narrahxs dissimulanda tibi, " you were relating facts which you 
should have concealed." 

7. The participle in dus, of transitive verbs, is often used in 
tihe oblique cases, in the sense of the gerund. Thus used, it is 
called a Gerundive participle, and agrees with its substantive 
in gender and number, and both take the case which the 
gerund would have in the same place ; thus, tempus petendm 
pdcis, by the gerund, is petendi pdcetn, "time of seeking 
peace ;" rerttm repetund&rum causd, " for the sake of demand- 
ing redress ;" by the gerund, repetundi res, 

Ifote 2. — Gernnds and gerancUveB of the third and fourth ooningatioDS. 
often have wuku, &c., instead of endui, as in the preceding examples. 

8. The Latin language has no perfect participle in the ac- 
tive voice, nor present participle in the passive. The want of 
the former is made up in two ways : First, by the perfect 
participle passive, in the case absolute ; as, Ccssar, his dictis, 
profectvs est, " Caesar (these things being said, i. e.), having 
said these things, departed ;" and Secondly, by quum, with the 
pluperfect subjunctive ; as, Oassar, quum hcec dixisset, profectu^s 
est, " Caesar (when he had said, i. e.), having said these things, 

J^ote 8. — The want of the present participle i>a8siTe, is made up either by 
the perfect j>arti<nple, or by the fntare participle in €hi8, hoih. of wnich appear 
to be BometiiD^s used in a present sense ; as, AOius eodlatpiced teetue eahgind^ 
** Notus flies forth (beisist) covered with pitchy darkness."^' Ovid. — Volvenda 
dies en atttUU uUro, '' Lo ! revohmg time (lit. time bemg rolled on) hath of 
itself brought about." Yirg. — Or by the gerondiye form of expression, as in 
No. 7 ; see also No. 5, Inote 1. 

9 Transitive verbs have four participles, of which the pres- 
ent in ns, and the future in rus, belong to the active voice ; 
the perfect in tus, stcs, or xus, and the future in dtis, to the 

10. Intransitive verbs have two participles, namely, the 
present in ns, and the future in rus; frequently also the flituro 
passive in dus, and also the perfect passive. 


11. Neuter passive verbs have commonly three participles; 
namely, the present, perfect, and future in rus, 213. 

12. Deponent verbs of a transitive signification, have 
generally four participles ; those of an intransitive significa- 
tion commonly want the fiiture in dus^ except that the neuter 
in dum is sometimes used impersonally. 

13. Common verbs have generally four participles, of which 
the perfect only is used both in an active and passive sense ; 
as, adeptus victoriam, "having obtained the victory;" victorid 
adeptdy " the victory being obtained." The rest are active. 
207, Obs. 2. 

14. Some intransitive verbs, though they have no passive, 
yet have participles of the perfect passive form, but still with 
an intransitive signification ; such are, cosndiua^ " having sup 
ped ;" pransus, " having dined ;" jurdttts^ '* having sworn." 


1. The Gerund is a kind of verbal 'notm, used only in the 
singular number. It represents the action or state expressed 
by the verb as a thing now going on, and at the same time, if 
in the nominative, or in the accusative before the infinitive, as 
the subject of discourse ; and if in the oblique cases, as the 
object of some action or relation. They are construed in all 
respects as nouns, and also govern the case of their verbs. 
§ 147. 

In meaning and use, the gerund resembles the English pres- 
ent participle, used as a noun (see Eng. Gr,, 1S5; An. and 
Pr. Eng. Gr., 462), and the Greek infinitive with the arjticle 
prefixed. See Gr. Gr., § 173. 

2. Supines are defective verbal nouns of the fourth declen- 
sion, having only the accusative and the ablative singular. 

The supine in um has an active signification, and governs 
the case of the verb. 682, 


> The supine in u has usually a passive signification, and 
governs no case. 





1. Rboitlar Vkrbs are those in which the secondary parts 
are formed from the primary, according to certain rules, 185. 

2. The Conjugation of a verb, is the regular combination 
and arrangement of its several voices, moods, tenses, numbers^ 
BSJtA persons, 

8. Of regular verbs, in Latin, there are four conjugations, 
called the First, Second, Third, and Fourth. These arc dis- 
tinguished from each other, by the vowel before re, in the 
present infinitive active ; thus, 

The F^rst Conjugation has d long before re of the infinitive. 
The Second '* has e long before re of the infinitive. 
The Third " has i short before re of the infinitive. 

The Fourth " has f long before re of the infinitive. 

Fxc, D&re, and its compounds of the first conjugation, have' 
d short. 

4. The primary tenses, or parts of the verb in the active 
voice, from whicm all the other parts are formed, are four; 
namely, o of the present indicative, re of the present infinitive, 
i of the perfect indicative, and um of the supine. The giving 
of these parts, in the order just mentioned, is called conjugat- 
ing the verb; thus. 




lit. Supine, 

























The manner of conjugating each verb being accurately as 
certained from the Dictionary, the other tenses r- \y be formed 
with certainty by the rules laid down in the nex action.* 

* ThoQgh general niles may be, and have been. laid do to form the 
piimarj^ tenses from the general root, or stem of tne verb, y ere is each 
a maltitnde of exceptions in the third oonjngation, (and som ^he others 
also,) which it i» impossible to bring under any rule, that it wii. ^ound in- 
dispensable, after ali, to leuru the conjugation of each verb from diction- 
ary, cr from the table of irregular conjugations (§ 81). For this rt n, they 
are here omitted in the text as useless for any practical purpose. 1\ ^ prin- 
cipal methods proposed ore in substance the two foUowlng : 

110 THB VBBB,— rOBMATlOir OF TENSES. § 52 



L Indicative Mood. 

1. The Present is a primary tense. 

2. The Imperfect is formed from the present bj changing : 

In the 1st Conjugation, o into dham; as, dm-o^ am-abam^ 
*' 2d '* eo into ebam; as, mon-6o, mon-e^am, 

« 8dand4th » o into *am; as, •{ *"*^;?' ""^^fT' 

8. The Perfect is a primary tense. 

4. The Pluperfect^ in all conjugations, is formed from the 

Firgt. The general root or stem that rans throngh the whole verb, conaiatB 
of the letters preceding the infinitive terminations, -dr«, -ertf^ -^^ -^€. 

To form the primary tenses, there is added to the general root as follows : 

Pr, Ind, Pr, hf. Per/, Ind, UL JSf^nns. 

-ftre, -ftvi, -fttnm. 

-6re, -ui, ^ -itum. 

-16, -Sre, -i, <& -si, -turn, db -sum. 

-Ire, -Ivi, -Itmn. 

In the perfect tense of the third conjugation, observe : 

1. If the root of the verb ends with a vowel, the tenninatlon added is i; 
as, aoiio, root acu, perfect acuL 

2. If the root of the verb ends with a consonant, the nsnal termination is 
n, which, in uniting with the root, causes the ibllowing changes, viz : 

Ist. If the letter preceding H he e, fjf, hj or qu^ it unites with the «, and forms 
x; as, d/uco {ducsi)., d/uxi; Jingo {^fing-H^finxi; traho {trah-H)f traaif 
eoquo {cogu-si)^ ooxL 

Sd. The letter b before n is changed into^i; as, tertbo, teri^pn, 

8d. When d precedes m, either the d or the « is rejected ; as, dtftndo^ drfmM, 
elaudo, elauri, 

ith. The 9 is dropped in many verbs which cannot be brought under any de- 
finite rule ; as, lagOf Ugi; emoj emL 

In the supine of the third conjugation, observe : 

1. When the root of the verb ends in a vowel, the supine adds ^cim, and 
lengthens the vowel preceding it ; as, aouo^ aeiUum. 

2. When the root ends with a consonant, the supine adds ^«m, sometimei 
#um. In uniting with the root, the following changes for the sake of euphony 
take place, viz : 

1st. The letter h before turn is changed into p; as, teribOf seriptium* 

.2d. The letters ^, A, and qu^ before Uim^ are changed into e; as, rego^ \ 
trahOj tractvm ; o5qv»f cootum. 

In the Ist Conj. 


" 2d " 


" . 8d " 

-o, t 

«* 4th " 



perfect, by changing i into iram; as, amdv-i^ amav-h'ani; mo- 
itfi-t, monti-eram^ 6ec. 

6. The Future is formed from the present by changing — 

In the 1st Conjugation, o into &bo; as, dfjpOy am-dbo. 
*^ 2d '* eo into ^o; as, mon-eo^ mon-4bo, 

« 3dand4U»« o into «»; »^, {l^^Co/S^n. 

6. The Future-perfect, in all conjugations, is formed from 
the perfect, by changing • into ^o; as, amdv-i, amav-h'o; ma- 
9i«-i, monu^ro, &c. 

II. Tlie Sidjunctive Mood. 

7. The Present Subjunctive is formed from the present in- 

• * 

9i« The letter g before mim^ when a vowel precedes, nnites with the f, and 
forms x; f\»^figo (Jig-8um)^Jwum; wnen r precedes, the g is rejected; 
as, tergo^ tersum. 

4th. The letter d before turn is rejected ; as, de/endoj d^enmm. 

Secondly. The general root being foand as before j then, to form the Hcond 
root, in the first, second, and fourth conjugations, (i. e. the root of the perfect 
tense,) add av for the first, u for the second, and iv for the fourth ; as, am, 
amo/f) ; mouj monu ; aud^ a/udiit. 

To form the third root, (1. e. the root of the supine,) in the same conjuga- 
tions, add to the general root the syllables dtu, Uu, and Uu ; as, am, cbmdtu : 
mcny monitu / aud,, audUu, 

The three roots being thus found, the primary tenses are formed as fol- 
ia ws, viz: 

1. Fi-om the first root, the present indicative is formed, 

In the iBt Conjugation, by adding -o, as, am, &m-o. 

'* 2d *' " -eo, as, mo», mon-eo, 

" 8d " " w), or -ia, as, reg. reg-o. 

" 4th " ** -*o, as, (jmdy cmdrio, 

2. From the same root, the present infinitive is formed. 

In the Ist Conjugation, by adding -^€, as, am, amrart. 

" 2d ** " -«r«, OS, mow, mo»-^«. 

" 8d " " -ert, as, reg. reg-ere» 

** 4th " " -dre, as, aua, audHre. 

8. From the second root, in all conjugations, the perfect is formed by add- 
Uig i/ as, amdv^^ monu-i, audifhi. 

4. From the third root in all conjugations, the first supine is formed hy 
odding m ; as, arndtu-inj momttMn, <&c. 

The third conjugation is ro irregular in the formation of its roots, that no 
rules are attempted. 

The first of these methods is substantially that offered in the Grammar of 
2iumpt. The second is the plan of Andrews and Stoddard, whicli they carry 
out by applying it to ail the t«ases, Mcoudury on well as primary. 


112 THS YSBB. — ^F0B3CATI0N OF fENSES. § 52 

dicative, — in the first conjugation, by changing o into em; as, 
&rti-o^ arn^rn; — in the second, third, and fourth, by changing o 
into am; as, mon^^ monl-am; rlg-o^ reg-am; audi^' atuii-am, 

8. The Imperfect Subjunctive^ in all conjugations, is formed 
from the present infinitive, by adding m; as, amdrCy amarem; 
montre^ monerem; regh'e, regerem^ &c 

9. The Perfect Subjunctive is formed from the perfect indic- 
ative, by changing % into irim; as, am&v-i^ amav-irim; monu-i^ 
mofiu-erim^ &c. 

10. The Pluperfect Subjunctive is formed from the perfect 
indicative by changing t into issem; as, amdv-iy amav-isse^n; 
monu-iy monu-issem, dec 

in. The Imperatwe Mood. 


11. The Present Imperative is formed from the present in- 
finitive, by taking away re; as, am&re, dma; monSre, mdriB; 
regere, rigi; audire, audi. 

IV. The Injmitwe Mood. 

12. The Present Infinitive is a primary tense. 

13. The Perfect Infinitive is formed from the perfect indlo* 
ative, by changing i into isse; as, am^v-i, amdv-isse; monu4^ 
nu>nu-issey &c. 


14. The Future Infinitive is a compound tense, made up of 
esse or fuisse, and the fiiture participle in rus; as, esse ovfuisse 
amaturus^ -a, -urn; esse ovfuisse monituruSy -a, -um^ dec. 

V. Pa/rtidples^ Gerv/nds^ and Supines. 

15. The Present Participle is formed from the present in- 
dicative by changing, 

o, in the 1st Conjugation, into an«; as, dm>o, dnirans. 
€0, " 2d " into ens; as, mon-eo^ mSn-ens. 

o, " 3d and 4th « into en*; as, i ^^^,^' ""^^T"' 
• ( fltwat-o, audi-ens. 

16. The Future Participle is formed from the former supine 
by changing um into Qrus; as, afndt-um, amat-urus; mon\t-u^ 
manit-Urus^ dec. 


17« The Gerund is formed from the present indicatiye bj 
changing, , 

Oy in the 1st Conjugation, into andum; as, dmro^ am^ndum. 
eo, ^^ 2(1 ^ into endum; as, nuyii^Oy mon-endum* 

o, « 3dand4th'« into ^t*m/ as, ^ '*'^;?' reg^um. 

1 8. The FoTTMST Supine is a primary part of the verb. 

19. The Latter Supine is formed from the former hj drop- 
ping m; as, amdiumy amdiu; monUumy moniiu. 



1. In the Indicative mood, the present passive is formed 
fi-om the present active by adding r; as, amo, dmor; numeOy 
moneor^ &c. ; — the imperfect and the ^ture passive, from the 
same tenses in the active voice, by changing m into r; as, 
amabamy amdbar; — or adding r to bo; as, moneboy mon^oty &c. 

2. In the Subjunctive mood, the present and the imperfect 
passive are formed from the same tenses in the active voice, 
by changing m into r; as, dmemy dmer; moneamy moneary &c. 

3. The perfect, pluperfect, and future-perfect indicative, and 
the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive, are compound tenses, 
made up of the perfect participle passive, and the verb sum 
as an auxiliary, as e^diibited in the paradigm of these tenses. 

4. The Imperative passive, in all verbs, is formed by adding 
re to the imperative active ; as, £mA, amdre; m.6n6, m/mere, &c. 
Hence, the imperative passive is like the present infinitive 

5. The Present Infinitive passive is formed from the present 
infinitive active, by changing re in the first, second, and fourth 
conjugations, into ri ;- as, amd-re, amdr-ri ; mon9-re, monl-ri ; 
audUre, audlrri; and by changing ere in the third conjugation 
into i ; as, reg-h'e, reg-u But arcesso has arcesHri. 

The Perfect Infinitive is a compound tense, made up of the 
perfect participle, and esse or fuisse prefixed ; as, esse or fuisse 
amcUuSy ay um, dz;c. 

114 THE VBBB. — SUM. § 54 

The Future Infinitive is also a compound tense, made up 
of the former supine and frt, the present infinitive passive of 
eo ; as, amatum irt, monitum m, &;c. 

6. The Perfect Participle is formed from the former supine, 
by changing um into us; as, mmdt-umy amdt-us; monii-uni^ 
monit-uSy &c. 

Hhe Future Participle is formed as the active gerund (185-17), 
hj putting dtts instead of dum; as, gerund, amandum^ participle, 
amandus ; gerund, manendum^ participle, monendus^ dec. 


The irregular verb sum is sometimes called a substantive 
verb, as it denotes being, or simple existence ; as, sum^ " I 
am," '* I exist." Sometimes it is called auxiliary, because it 
is used as an auxiliary verb in the inflection of the passive 
voice. It is conjugated thus : 

Pres. tnd, Pres. In/, Perf. Ind. 

Sum, esse, f\ii 


Present Tense, am. 

S^ng, 1. Fgo Sum,f /am, 

2. Tu Es, ITioul arty or you are^ 

3. Ille Est, He is; 

Plur. 1. JVbs Sumus, Wears, 

2. Vos Estis, Te, or you are, 

3. Illi Sunt, They are, 

* This verb^beiniar irreipbar, properly beloings to % 88, bat is inserted h«re, 
because, as an aaxillaiy, it is mach used in the inflection of regular verbs. 

t In the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative moods, everj part of the 
verb must have its nominative expreased or understood. See 181-9. The 
nominatives e^o, iu, HIb, of the singular, and «mw, vos, iUL of the plural, are 
here prefixed m the present tense, to show their place and their use ; but in 
the following tenses, and in the following conjugations, they are omitted. 
Bttll they are to be regarded as understood, and may be supplied at plea&are. 

X See 118, Mte^ In the plural, " you " is much more common than " y©,'» 
which is now seldom used. 

§ 54 



ImPSBFBOT, tfOf . 


Sing, 1. 










Thxni wast^ or you were^ 
He was; 

We were. 

Ye, or you were, 

They were. 



Pkbfsct Definite, have been; Indefinite, 

1. Fui, I have been, 

2. Fuisti, Hiou hast been, 

3. Fuit. He has been; 

1. Fuimus, We have been, 

2. Fuistis, Ye have been, 

3. Fuerunt, or Ai^re, TJiey have been, 

Plupxbfkct, had been. 
















FuSraDt« . 

/ had been, 
Thou hadst been^ 
He had been; 

We had been, 
Ye had been, 
They had been. 

Future, shall, or wilL 

Ero, I shall, or will be, 

Eris, Thott shall, or toili be, 

Erit, He shall, or will be; 

Erimus, We shall, or will be, 

Eritis, Ye shall, or will be, 

Erunt, They shall, or will be. 

FuTUBX-PxBFECT, shaU, OT wHl hovs been. 





IshaU, or will have been, 
Thau shall, or unit have been. 
He shall, or will have been; 

We shall, or will have been, 
Ye shall, or uill have been. 
They shaU, o: toill have been. 


116 THE VERB.— SUIC § 54 

Present Tense, may^ or can. 

Sing, 1. Sim, 

2. Sis, 

3. Sit, 


I may, or can be, 

Thou mayst, or canst biy 

Me may, or can he; 

Plur, 1. Simus, 

2. Sitis, 

3. Sint, 

We may, or can be, 
Ye may, or can be. 
They mxiy, or can be. 



could, would, or should. 


Sing. 1. Essem, 

2. Esses, 

3. Esset, 

J might, &c., be,^ 
Thou mights t, &;c., be^ 
He might, &c., ic; 

Plur, 1. EssSmus, 

2. Essetis, 

3. Essent, 

We might, ^,c., itf, 
yj? might, &c., Ae, 
3^A^ might, &c., 6«. 

Perfect, may have. 

Sing, 1. Fugrim, 

2. Fueris, 

3. Fuerit, 

I may have been, 
Thou mayst have been^ 
He may have been; 

Plur. 1. Fuerimus, 

2. Fueritis, 

3. Fugrint, 

We may have been^ 
Ye may have been, 
TJiey may have been. 

Pluperfect, mighty couldy would, or should have. 

Sing, 1. Fuissem, 

2. Fuisses, 

3. luisset. 

I might, &c., have been. 
Thou mightst, &c., have been'^ 
He might, &c., have been; 

Plur, 1. FuissSmus, 

2. FuissStis, 

3. Fuissent, 


We might, <kc., have been^ 
Ye might, &c., have been, 
They might, &c., have bun. 


Sing, 2. Es, or Esto, 
3. Esto, 


Be thou, 
Let him be; 

Phir. 2. Este, or estote, 
3. Sunto, 

Be ye, 

Let them be. 

§ 55 




Prbs. Esse, To be (177). 

Pkrf. Fuisse, To have been. 

Fdt. Esse ^tlirus, a, am, To be about to be. 

F. PsRF. Fuisse fut&rus, a, um, To have been about to be. 

FcTTURB. FutOrus, a, um, Ab&at to be. 

Synopsis of thx Moods JlKd Tenses. \ 

IfuUeaiiw. 8ub}unetive. Imperative. Infinitive. PartifiipU, 




SraiD^ _ 





Fur. -. 





68, or esta 


6686 futOruS, 

£111886 futOnis. 


Obe. 1. The compounds of sum; namely, adsum^ absum^ 
cksum, insum^ inter sum^ obsum^ prcesum, subaum^ supersum^ are 
conjugated like the simple verb ; but insuniy and subsum, want ' 
the perfect, and the tenses formed from it. FrOsum^ and 
possum from p6iis and sum^ are very irregular. 221-1, 2. 

Obs. 2. Instead of Essem^ f6rem is sometimes used, and albo 
fire^ instead of fuisse. ^ 

Obs. 3. The participle ens is not. in use, but appears in two 
compounds, absens, and prcesens. Also, the supine and gerund 
are wanting, but the inflection in the persons and numbers is 

^ote. — The ffreat irregularity of this verb arises fVom the different parts 
being formed from diflFerent themes or roots, viz : the parts beginning with e 
from tOj the root of the Greek stfii, and those beipining with/ from /w, the 
same as the Greek d>vta. In ancient times, tins verb was conjugated /uo^ 
fukrt^ fui (fwvi )^uiwn, Fuere was contracted /are, and fuerem^ forem ; 
And iToxn juiumy waa. formed futHarui. Henoe, also, the ancient forms 
futferimy fwyeroy &Q. 

188.— § 55. EXERaSES ON THE VERB SUM. 

1. Oive the designation of the verb^— conjugate it ; — give the tense^ mood, 
pereon, mtmbeVy and translation of tJie following words, always observing 
the aam^ order: thus, — Sum, verb intransitive, irregular, found in the 

118 THE VEBB. — SUM. s § 

present indicatiYe, axitiye, first person singular, *' I am ;" — Fuify verb in- 
U'ausitiye, irregular, found in the perfect indicatiye, actiye, third person 
singular : definite, ** he has been f indefinite, ** he wa^."* . 

^. Est erat, ^rit, iu^raixi, fuerim, ftiero, sit, esset, fuisti, fui- 
mus, filenii^!, fuSre, ^runt, sirit, suinj^s, eran^, es^nt, fuissent, 
esse, esto, sunto, fuisse, es, 6ras, fueras, fuiStis, futurus esse, 
futurus, siiit, dzc, ad libitum. 

2. IVanslate the follomng English words into Latin, naming, the part of 
the verb used; thus, — ** I will be," ^o, in the future indicatiye, actiye, first 
person singular. The Latin word for /, thou, he, we, you, they, to be omittAd 
or inserted at plea8iire.f 

We are, they were, y'ou have been, thou hast been, they 
will be, he may be, I shall have been, to be, be thou, let them 
be, about to be, to be about to be, we should be, we should 
have been, I may have been, they will have been, they may 
have been, they have been, you were, thou wast, he is, they 
are, 6zc,, ad libitum, 

8. The verb sum forms the eoptda connecting the subject and the pre 
dicate in a simple proposition, the predicate of which is not a yerb. Thus 
in the proposition : " Man is mortal" man is the subject* m^ortal, the pre- 
dicate ; and is, the copula. With the yerb sum as a copula in different 
tenses, and the exercises § 23-1, form simple sentences ; thus, casa est {Srai, 
fuit, Ac.) parva, t the cottage is, (was, has been, Ac.) small ;" plural, c&sa 
sunt parva^ ** the cottages are smalL** 

In this way, translate into English the following propositions (see p. 66) 

Poeta Srat clarus, — 5pus magnum erit, — ntibes densae suntg 
— sestas callida fiiit, — urbs antiqua fuit,'— &o. ^ ^ 

Translate the follomng English sentences into Latin : 

' Life is short, — the day was clear. — the boys are docile, — 
the shepherd will be ^^ithful, — the apples are sweet, — &c. 

♦ In these and all foHowirtg exercises on the verb, it ^ill be of prreat im- 
portance, in order to form habits of accuracy, and as a preparation for fatare 
exercises in translating and parsing, to require the pupil, m this manner, to 
state every thing belonging to a verb, in the order nere indicated, or in and 
other the teacher may direct, always, however, observing the same ; any 
also, for the saving of time and unnecessary labor, to state them in the iewest 
words possible, and without waiting to have every word drawn from him by 
questions. Let it be observed, also> that the term active here has no reference 
to the class of the verb, but only to its form, being that of the active voice. 186-2. 

t ^' B. It will be a profitable exercise to require each pupil to write out 
the Latin for these and other English words that may be dictated, — carefully 
to mark the quantity of long and short vowels, and to pronounce them oor< 
rectly after they are written. 




Pres, Ind, Fres, Inf. Rerf, Ind. Svpine, 

Amo, amare, amavi, amatum, To lo9$. 

Present Tsnsb, Uwe^ do lov^ am loving, 157. 

Sing. 1 . Am-o, / love, do love^ am loving^ 

2. Am-as, Thou lovest, dost hve, art loving, 

3. Am-aty JSe loves^ does love^ is loving; 

■Plwr, 1. Am-amus, We hve^ do hve^ are loving, 

2. Am-atis, Ye, or you hve^ do love, are loving^ 

3, Am-antj ITieg love, do love^ are loving 

Imperfect, hved, did love^ was loving, 159. 

Sing, 1. Am-abam, I loved, did love, was loving, 

2. Am-abas, Thou lovedst, didst love, wast loving 

3. Am-abat, Me loved, did love, was loving; 

Plur, 1. Am-ab&mus, We loved, did love, were loving, 

2. Am-abatis, Ye loved, did love, were loving, 

3. Am-abant, They loved, did love, were loving. 

Perfect Def., have loved; Indef., loved, did love. 161. 

Sing, 1. Am-avi, I have loved, loved, did love, 

2. Am-avisti, Thou hast loved, lovedst, didst hve^ 

3. Am-dvit, He has loved, loved, did love; 

Plur, 1. Am-aviinus, We have loved, loved, did love, 

, 2. Am-avistis, Ye have loved, loved, did love, 

3. Am-avSrunt, or)rrL i i j i j j-j » 

-av^re i ^^^ "^'^^ loved, loved, did love» 

Pluperfect, had loved, 165. 

Sing. 1. Am-avSram, I had loved, 

2. Am-averas, Thou hadst loved, 

3. Am-averat, ffe had loved; 

Plur, 1. Am-averamus, We had loved, 

2. Am-averatit», Ye had loved, 

3. Am-averant, They had loved. 



Future, shall, or will love. 167. 

Sing. 1. Am-&bo, I nhall, or will love, 

2. Am-abis, Thou ehalt^ or wUt love^ 

3. Am-abit, ffe shall, or m/Z love; 

Plwr. 1. A)h-abimus, TFi? shall, or iri// ^e, 

2. Am-abitis, Ye shall, or m// love, 

3. Am-abunt, 2%€y «Aa/^ or will love. 

FuTUBB-PERFXCT, <Aa//, or will have loved. 168. 

Sing. 1. Am-avSro, I shall, or will have loved, 

2. Am-av^ris, TAot« «Aa/^, or mZ^ have loved^ 

3. Am-av^rit, JETi? shaU, or iriZZ Aaw loved; 

Plur. 1. Am-averimus, TF« «AaZZ, or will have lovedy 

2. Am-aventis, Ye shall, or m^ have loved, 

3. Am-aydrint, 7%ey shaU, or «n'^ Aave ^«aL 

Present Tense, may, or can love. 171. 

Sf'n^. 1. Am-em, I may, or can love, 

2. Am-es, 7%ou mxiyst, or can«^ /ova, 

3. Am-et, He may, or caw fovc; 

Plur. 1. Am-5miis, TFe may, or can love, 

2. Am-Stis, Ye may, or can fove, 

3. Am-ent, They may, or can love. 

Imperfect, might, could, would, or should love. 172* 

Sing. 1. Am-arem, J might love, 

2. Am-ares, Thou mightst love^ 

3. Am-aret, He might love; 

Plur. 1. Am-ar6mus, We might love, 

2. Am-aretis, Ye might love, 

3. Am-arent, They might love. ~ 

Perfect, m^xy have loved. 173. 

Sing. 1. Am-averim, I may have loved, 

2. Am-av§ris, Thou mayst have hved^ 

3. Am-averit, He may have loved; 

Plur. 1. Am-averimus, We may have loved, 

2. Am-averitis, Ye may have loved, 

3. Am-avSrint, They may have loved. 




Plupebfsct, mighty eould^ vfotUd^ or $hould have. 174. 

Sing, 1. Am-avissem, . / might have lovedy 

2. Am-avisses, Thou mighUt have loved^ 

3. Am-avisset, He might have loved; 

Phur, 1. Am-aviss6mu% We might have loved^ 

2. Am-avissetis, Ye might have lovedy 

3. Am-avissent, . They might have hved. 


Sing. 2. Am-ft, or flm-ftto, 
3. Am-ato, 

Plur. 2. Am-Ate, or «n-«tdte, 
3. Am-antOy 


Prks. Am-are, To love 178 and 180. 

FsRF. Anirayisse, To have loved^ 

FcjT. Esse am-atOrus, a, um, To be about to love^ 

F.-Pbrf. !Fuisse am-attirus, a, um, To have been about to love, 


^ Love thxm^ 149. 
Let him love; 

Love yej 
Let them love. 



Am-atorus, a, um, 

About to love. 


Nom. Am-andum, 
Gen. Am-andi, 
Dat. Am-ando, 
Ace. Am-andum, 
Abl. Am-ando, 


Of loving, 

To loving. 


With,Jrom, &o., loving. 


Former^ Am-&tum, To hve. 

Latter, Am-fitu, To be hved, to love. 

Synopsis of thb Moods and Tensbs. 













SubjuncHve. Imp, 

Amem, Am^ 




Esse amatQrus, 
FuiBBe amatAnu. 

A mans. 



After the same manner, inflect : 

Ore-o, cre-fire, cre-ftvi, cre-atum, To create, 

R6g-o, rog-are, rog-avi, rog-atum, To ask,. 

V60-0, voc-are, voo-avi, voc-atum, To calL 

D5m-o, dom-are, dom-ui, dom-itum, To tarn^ 


1. Give the designation of the verb^ conjugate it; give the tenser — mood,—^ 
voice^ — -perton, — number ^ and translation of the following wordSy always obsenh" 
ing the same order ; thus, — Amo, a yerb transitiye, first conjugation, dviOf 
aniarej amOvij atnotum. It *is found in the present indicative active, first 
person singular, " I love," " I do love," " I am loving." 

* Amabat, amaverat, 2,met, amaveritis, amabunt, creavinius, 
creaverat, domuerat, domuisset, amav6ro, domuero, vocaverim, 
voca, vocare, doma, creavisse, domuisse, amaturus, domiturus, 
amans, amandum, amatu, domitum, domabam, domabo, — 
creat, crearet, amaret, amavisti, amav^re, domuistis, amato, 
amando, amaverunt, creare, vocavenint, vocaverint, vocabunt, 
vocaretis, domabitis, &c., &c., ad libitum, 

2. Translate the following English words into Latin^ giving the part of 
the verb used; thus, — ** I was loving," amobam, in the imperfect indicative 
active, first person singuJiar. 

He will love, I might love, I had loved, I might have loved, 
he shall love, I may love, he created, I called, I may have 
called, he will tame, he has tamed, he would have tamed, love 
thou, let them love, to love, about to love, of loving, to have 
loved, they were loving, they have loved, thou hast created, 
thou hast tamed, <kc., ad libitum, 

8. 77»« Infinitive with a subject. The> infinitive, after anoUier verb, and 
with an accusative before it as its suiyject, is translated, into English, in 
the indicative or potential mood ; and tJie accusative in Latin is made 1h« 
nominative in English ; as, dlcit me amdre, " he says that I love." Th« 
accusatives are thus translated : 

iftf, that I ; nos, that we ; homtnemj that the man. 

TCf \hat thou : vos, that you ; homines, that the men. 

lUuf t, that he ; ilhs, that they; fernXnas, that the womeo. 


InfiiutiyeB, after yerbs of the present^ pasti and future tensai^ art 
rendered as in the examplesi 180, or aooording to the following 
mlea ; Tiz. : 

- BuLS I. When tlie preceding verb is of the present or future 
iense^ the present infinitive is translated as the present indicative; 
the perfect infinitive ^ as Vie perfect indicative ; and the future in- 
finitive^ as Ae future indicative. 180, Nos. 1, 4, 7; also 3, 6, 9. 

Rule. II. When the preceding verb is in past time (t. e, in 
the imperfect^ perfect^ or pluperfect tense), the present infinitive 
is translated as the imperfect, or perfect indicative; the perfect 
infinitive, cls the pluperfect indicative ; '^and the future infinitive, 
as the imperfect suhjunctive, 180, Nos. 2, 5, 8. 

KuLS III. The future perfect of the infinitive with a subject, 
is always translated as the pluperfect subjunctive, whatever be the 
tense of the preceding verb, 180, Nos. 10, 11, 12. 

4. According to the preceding ruletf and the examplee referred to^ trans- 
late the foUowing eenteneee into English — obeerving that dlcitf*'he Bays,* 
is present time; dixit, **he laid," past; and dleet, ''he will eaj," 

J)tcit me vocSre, — te am&re, — nos am&visse, — vos amattiros 
esse, — noa amaturos iiiisse, — illos dom&re,-f^te amaturum 
esse, — ^illos rogaturos esse, — ^homines rogatiXros fuisse. 

JDixit me vocare, — te am&re, — nos amavisse, — ^nos amaturos 
esse, — nos. amaturos fuisse, — vos domare,-^te amaturum 
esse, — ilium rogavisse, — vos rog&re, — ^illam rogaturam esse. 

JDixit nos vocare y^dlcet ilium creSre ; — dlcit te creaturum 
esse; — dixit se amaturum (179, Note 1); dlcit illos creatU- 
res, — ilium vocaturum, — vos domitOros esse, — domituros 
fiiisse, — me rogare, — te rogavisse, — vos rogaturos, &c. 

6. Translate the follouting English into Latin, taking care to put t/u 
participle of the future infinitive in the same gender, number, and case, as 
the aecus€Uive preceding it 

He said that I loved, — ^that I was calling. He says that 
they will tame — that I would have created, — that they will 
call, — that he loves. He will say that I love, — that I have 
loved, — that I will love. He said that I had called, — tJiat 
they would have called, — that they tamed, — that they would 
tame, — that he would have tamed. He says that 1 am asking, 
. — that they are asking, — that they are calling, — that we did 
call,— that they do ask, — that we will ask, &;c. 


191.— § 58. PASSIVE VOICE. 

Prea. Ind. Fres. Inf. Ferf, Fart, 
Amor, amAri, amatus. To he loved 


Pbxssnt Tense, am hved, 157-6. 

S. 1. Am-or, lam loved, 

2. Am-fi.ris, or -Are, Thou art loved^ 

8. Am4ttur, Me U loved; 

F, 1. Am-fimur, We are loved, 

2. Am-ammi, Ye are loved, 

3. Am-aatur, They are hved. 

Imperfect, was loved, 160-5. 

& 1. Am-&bar, I was hved, 

2. Am-ab&ris, or -ab&re, Thou wast hvedj 

3. Am-abatur, He was hved; 

P, 1. Am-abamur, We were hved, 

2. Am-abamini, Ye were hved, 

3. Am-abantur, They were hved. 

Perfect, have been loved, was loved, am hved. 164-6 

S* 1. Ain-atus*sum, or fui, I have been hved, (kc, 

2. Am-atus es, or fuisti, Thou hast been hved, 

3. Am-atus est, or fiiit. He has been loved; 

P. 1. Am-ati siimus, or fiiimus. We have been hved, 

2. Am-ati estis, or fiiistis. Ye have been loved, 

3. Am-ati sunt, fiierunt, or fiiere, They have been loved. 

Pluperfect, had been hved. 166-2 

S, 1. Am-atus gram, or fugram, I had been loved, 

2. Am-atus eras, or fueras. Thou hadst been loved. 

3. Am-atus erat, or fiiSrat, Me had been hved; 

P. 1. Am-ati eramus, or fueramus, We had been loved, 

2. Am-ati eratis, or fueratis, Ye had been hved, 

3. Am-ati erant, or fuerant, They^ had been loved. 

* See 164-5. Mte.—Fui &nd fuisH, are very seldom found -with the perftol 
participle. M-o, as well a&fuero, is used in the futare-petfeot. les-A. 

^ 58 THX TraB.^^FIB8T QOJSfJV^XTlOn. 1S5 

TuTtmM^ 9haU^ or wU be hved. 167-8. 

& 1. Am&bor, Ishall^ or «n7/ 6f loved^ 

2, Am^b^ris^ or -abdrey TVtcm 8halt^ or wt// ^ /atr«( 

3. Am-abitur, He shall^ or will be loved; 

P. 1. Am-abimur, We shall^ or im^ be hved^ 

2. Am-abimini, Pe shaU^ or irt// 6€ 2at;«d^ 

3. Am-abuntur, They ehaU^ <x will be loved^ 

!FuTuiu![-FBRrKCTy thoU^ or will have been laved. 168-4. 

S. 1. AiQ-&tus fuSro, I shall have been loved^ 

2. Am-&tus fu^ris, Thou wilt haitt been loved^ 

3. Am-Sttus fiigtit, Se will have been loved; 

P, 1. Am-&ti fiieiimus, * We shall have been loved, 

2. Am-ftti fuerftis, Ye will have been loved, 

3. Am-Sti fu^rint, They will have been loved. 

Prxsxkt Tenict, may, or can be loved, 

S* 1. Am-er, Imay^ or tan be hved, 

2. Am-eris, or -^re, Thou maysty or canst be lovedf 

3. Am-etur, ITe may, or can be loved; 

P. 1. Am-dmur* We may, or can be loved, 

2. Am-emini, Ye mjay, or can be loved, 

3. Am-entur, They may, or can be loved* 

Jhpsrfeot, might, could, would, or should be loved, 

S. 1. Am-^rer, I might be loved, 

2. Am-ar6ris, or -ar6re, Thou mightst be loved, 

3. Am-aretur, He might be loved; 

P. 1. Am-ar^mur, We might he loved, 

2. Am-aremini, Ye might be loved, 

3. Am-arentur, They might be loved, 

PxRFBOT, may have been loved, 

S, I. Am-&tus sim, or fu^rim, I may have been loved, 

2. Am-fttus sis, or fuSris, Thxm mayst have been loved^ 

3. Am-atus sit, or fiiSrit, He may have been loved; 

P, 1. Am-ati simus, or fiierimus. We may have been loved, 

2. Am-fiti sitis, or fiieritis, Ye may have been loved, 

3, Am-&ti siot^ or fu^rint, They m>ay have beik loved. 




Pluperfect, mighty could, would, or should have been loved 

S. 1. Am-atus essem, or fuissem, I might have been loved, 
2* Am-atus esses, or fuisses. Thou mightst have been loved^ 
3. Am-&tus esset, or fiiisset, He might have been loved; 

P, 1. Am-ati ess^mus, or fuissemus. We might have been loved, 

2. Am-&ti essStis, or fuiss^tis, Ye might have been loved, 

3. Am-&ti essent, or fiiissent, Theg might Iiave been loved 


Stng. 2. Am-ftre, or-&tor, 
3. Am-ator, 

Plur, 2. Am-amini, 
3. Am-antor, 

JBe thou loved. 
Let him be loved; 

Be ye loved. 

Let them be loved. 







Am-ari, To be loved. 178, and 180. 

Esse, or fiiisse am-&tus. To have been loved, 
Am-atum iri, To be about to be loved. 

Am-atus, a, um, 
Am-andus, a, mn. 

j Loved, being' loved, having been 

( loved, 

S To be loved, proper, or neceS' 

sary to be loved. 

Synopsis of the Moods and Tenses. 
Indicative, Bubjunetive, Imper, Infinitive, Partidples 






AmfttuB sum, 

AmatiJts ^razn, 

Axnatufl fuSro. 


Amatus sim, 
AmatOB essem. 




Esfte, or 
Fuifise amatusy 


> Amatns. 


After the same mamier, inflect : 



To be created. 

To be asked. 

To be called. 

To be tamed. 



1. Oive tfte denfffuOum of the verb,'—oot^gaie it ;^^ve the tenae, wwot^ 
voice, person, nwnber, and trandationy of thefoUcwing foorda, alwayM follom- 
wg the tame order; thna, — Amor, yerb tnmutiye, fint ooDJogation ; Smo 
etmore, amOvi, atnOium, — ^fotind in the present indicatiTe paaaiye, first per- 
■on singular, " I am loy ecL* 

Amabatur, amantur, am&tas est, amabitur, amabar, amarS- 
tur, amentur, amatus sim, amatus fuSro, amati fuerunt/ amati 
essemus, amabamini, am&ris, amatus esset, amati fiiissent, 
amnbuntur, amantor, am&re, amatus esse, amatus, am^^tum iri,* 
amandus, amemini, amaremini, amantur, creatur, crearetur, 
Yocabitur, domantur, voc&tus sum ; &c. 

2. Trantlaie the following Englieh wordf into Zatin, giving titepartof 
the verb tued; thus, '^ I am loyed,** itmor, in the present indicatiye passiye, 
first person singular. 

He is loved, they are loved, I have been loved, they were 
created, he had been called, they will be tamed, I might be 
loved, they may have been loved, to be loved, to have been 
calledil had been called, being called, they are tamed, they 
have been tamed, he will be loved, they will have been loved, 
they may be called, I may be called, he might have been 
created, they will be loved, 42C. 

8. IVanslate the following aenteneee into Englieh, according to the 
ndee 190. 

JDicit eum am&ri, — illos voc&tos esse, — me voc&tum iri, — te 
amatum iri, — me cre&ri, — eos domfiri, — ilium am&tum iuisse, 
— nos domitos ' esse, — nos domitum iri, — illos amari, — ^illos 
vocatum iri. 

Dixit eum amari, — illos vocatos esse, — ^me vocatum iri, — te 
am&tum iri, — ^me creari, — eos domari, — ilium amatum fuisse, 
— nos domitos esse, — nos domitum iri, — illos amari, — ^illoa 
vocatum iri, — te amari. 

Dfcet eum amari, 6z;c., as in the preceding. 

4. Translate the following English into Latin, taking care that the par" 
ticiple of the perfect infinitive be put in the same gender, number, and ease, 
eu the ficcusative before it 

He says that I am loved, — that he was loved, — that he will 
be called, — that they were created, — that we were tamed. He 



said that I was called, — that we were created, — that they had 
been created. He will say that I was loved, — that I will be 
loved, — that they will be called, — that you are called, — that 
he will be called. He said that they had been tamed, &c.,,^^ 

Pbomisouous Exercibss on the Aohvb and the Passivb 


5. Give the designation^ &c., cm directed No. 1. Amilbo, 
am&rem, amar^tur, am£ktus sim, &mant, vocatur, crearentur, 
domantur, domitum iri, creari, fimant, amabuntur, amSirent, 
amavissent, amav^rat, ametis, amatis, amabatis, amavSris, 
ima, amavisse, amandum, amSitur, vocatum iri, vocatus es, 
vocati grant, vocatus esset {dlcit se, " he says that he "), anaa 
tlirum esse, {dixit se^ ^ he said that he,") amSre, am&ri, {noSy 
'^ that we,") vocatos ess6, amanto, amabunt, amavistis, ama- 
vere, amaretis, (vo«, ^' that you,") rogare, rogavisse, rogatoft 
esse, rogaturos fuisse, rogabunt. 

Conjugate and inflect the following verbs like Amo; viz : 

AccQso, I aectue, Certo, /afntiie. "RepSTO, I repair 

^BiSmo, I vcUue, Co^to, I think. HHgOylaak, 

Amb&lo, /loa/A;. FesiSno, I hasten, BerYo^Ikeep. 

COro, / care, Navigo^ / sail. Y Ito^ / <Mm. 



Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Perf. Ind, Supine, 
Moneo, mon6re, monui, monitum. To adwise 

Pbesent Tekse, Jadvise^ do advise^ am advising, 157. 

S, 1. Mon-eo, ladvise^ 

2. M5n-es, Thou advisest^ 

3. M5n-et, He advises; 

P. 1. Mon-gmus, We advise^ 

2. Mon-etis, Ye advise^ 

3. Mon-ent, They advise. 


Impkrfxct, advUed^ did adv%H^ woi advising. 159 

8. 1. Mon-Sbam, I advised j 

2. Mon-ebas, Thou advisedst^ 

3. Mon-dbaty He advised; 

' P. 1. Mon-eb&muSy We advised^ 

2. Mon-eb&tis, Ye advised^ 

3. Mon-^&bant^ They advised, 

PsRVECT Def., have advised; Indef., advised^ did advim 161 

S. 1. Monu-i, I have advised^ 

2. Monu-i^, Thou hast advised^ 

3. Monu-it, He has advised; 

F, 1. Monu-imus, We have advised^ 

2. Monu-istis, Ye have advised^ 

3. Monu-dnmt, or-dre, Thetf have advised. 

Plupsbrct, had advised, 165. 

S, 1. Monu-^ram, I had advised, 

2. Monu-^ras, Thou hadst advised,, 

3. Monu-^rat, He had advised; 

P. 1. Monu-er&mtis, We had advised ^ 

2. Monu-er&tis, Ye had advised^ 

3. Monu-^rant^ They had advised. 

FuTUBB, shaU^ or wiU advise. 167. 

8. 1. Mon-Sbo, I shall^ OT will advise^ 

2. Mon-^bis, ^Tbu shalt, or icrt7/ acfm^ 

3. Mon-^bit, He shall^ or tm^ advise; 

P, 1. Mon-ebimus, TFij shall^ or tw/Z advise^ 

2. Mon-ebitis, Ptf «AaZ/, or tm// advise^ 

3. Mon-dbunt, 2%€y «^Z/, or will advise 

Futuke-Perfsct, shaU^ or will have advised. 168. 

& 1. Monu-^ro, I shall, or will have advised^ 

2. Monu-^ris, TAott «^7f, or wilt have advised^ 

3. Monu-^rit, He shall, or trt^ Aav^ advised ; 

P. I. Monu-erimus, We shall, or will have advised^ 

2. Monu-eritis, Ye shall, or will have advised, 

3. Monu-Srin^ They shall, or tot7/ have advised. 


PfiXSXKT Tbksx, may^ or can advise, 171. 

A 1. Mon-eam, I may^ or can advise^ 

2. Mon-eas, Thau maysty or canst advite^ 

3. Mon-eat, Me may^ or can advise ; 

P 1. Mon-efimus, We may^ or can advise^ 

2. Mon-e&tis, Ye may, or can advise, - 

8. Mon-eant, TA^y may, or can advise. 

Impbbfbct, might, could, would, or should advise, 172. 

jR 1. Mon-€rem, J might advise, 

2. Mon-^res, jT^oi^ mightst advise, 

3. Mon-eret, ^6 mt^A^ advise ; 

P. 1. Mon-erfimus, We might advise, 

2. Mon-eretis, Ye might advise, 

3, Mon-6rent, They might advise. 

PsBFSOT, may have advised. 173. 

8. 1. Monu-^rim, I may liave advised, 

2. Monu-^ris, ^at« mxxyst have advised, 

* 3. Monu-6rit, lie may Iiave advised ; 

■" .- 

P. 1. Monu-erimus, We may have advised, 

2. -Monu-eritis, Ye may have advised, 

3. MoDU-erint, They muy have advised. 

Pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have advised. 174. 

S, 1. Monu-issem, I might have advised, 

2. Monu-isses, Thou mightst have advised, 

3. Monu-isset, He might have advised ; 

P. 1. Monu-issemus, We might have advised, 

2. Monu-issetis, Ye might have advised, 

3. Monu-issent, They might have advised. 


B. 2, M6n-e, or -6to, Advise thou (149), 

3. Mon-Sto, Let him advise; 

P. 2. Mon-ete, or etOte, Advise ye or you. 

3. Mon-ento, Let them advise. 

§ 61 



mFDnnvE mood. 

Prxs. Mon^re, To advise (178 and 180), 

PsRF. Monu-isse, To have advised^ 

Fur. Esse moniturus, To be about to advise^ 

F.-PxBF. Fuisse monitCtrus, To have been about to 


Piles M5n-ens, 
!FuT. Mon-itlirus, 

Nom, Mon-endum, 
Gen. Mon-endl, 
Dat. Mon-endo, 
Ace, Mon-endum, 
Abl. Mon-endo^, 

FoRMEB, Mon-itum, 
Lattsb, Mon-itu, 

About to advise. 



Of advising^ 

Tb advising, 


With, &c., advising. 


To advise, 

To be advised, or to advin. 

Stnopsis of the Moods Am) Tenses. 

IndUative. Bul^junctive, Imper. Infinitive, PartieipUs, 




















Eflse momtOrus, 




FmBse monitOrus. 

Afler the same mann 

er, inflect • 

Doo-eo, doc-5re, docu-i, 

doo-tum. To teacti. 

Jub-eo, jub-6re, juss-i, 

jus-sum, To order. 


30, vid 

•$re, vid-i, 

vi-sum, ! 


To see. 


1. GHve the designation, &c., as directed 190-1. — Mon^bo, 
monuit, moneret, monu^t, mdne, monuisse, mdnens, mo- 
nendum, mon&bat, mdnent, monento, monuisti, monudre, 



monuerfttis, monuissent. — Ddcent, jub^bat, juss^rat, yiddret^ 
Fid eat, vidSbit, docueris, doce, docttirus, jusstirus, yisum, jussu, 
ddcens, &c. 

2. Translate the following into Latin^ 6z;c., <u directed 190-2. 
— I have advised, I will advise, he maj advise, I might advise, 
he will have advised, they advise, they had advised, they 
might have advised, thou hast advised, ye have advised^ I did 
advise, he was advising. — He teaches, they taught, we had 
ordered, we would have ordered, I saw, I have seen, thou wilt 
see, he may see, they would have ordered, &c. 

3. Translate according to the rules 190-3, 4. — Dldt (he says) 
me monere,-=--nos monuisse, — illos mongre, — vos monittiros 
esse, — me moniturum fuisse. — Dixit (he said) se monei'e, — nos 
videre, — eum vidisse, — ^nos visHros esse, — me visurum esse, — 
me visurum fuisse, — vos vidisse, — se docSre, — ^nos docuisse, — 
vos docturos esse^ — ^illam {that she) vistb^m esse, — iUum 
docturum esse, &;c 

4. As directed 190-3 and 5. He says that I advised ; he 
said tha* a advised, — that I had advised, — ^that I would advise. 
Ife i»ays that 1 will advise, — that I would have advised. He 
said that he {se) saw, — had seen, — would see, — would have 
seen. / advise that you should order. He says that 1 am 
advising, — that we will order, &;c. 

195.— § 62. PASSIVE VOICE. 


Pres. Ind. Free. Inf. Per/. Part. 

Moneor, mon^ri, monitus, To be adviied. 

* Pbssent Tense, am advised. 157-6. 

& 1. Mon-eor, lam advised^ 

2. Mon-eris, or -Sre, Thou art advised^ 

8. Mon-^tur, He is advised; 

P. I. Mon-6mur, We are advised^ 

2. Mon-emini, Ye are advised, 

8> Mon-entur, Tkey aire advised. 


Impbrtxot, foas'adviietL 16(MS» 

& 1. Mon^bar, I was advised^ 

2. Mon-ebaris, or -ebftre, Thau wast advised^ 

3. Mon-eb&tur, He was advised; 

P. 1. Mon-ebamur, We were advised^ 

2. Mon-ebamini, Ye were advised^ 

3. Mon-ebantUT, They were advised. 

Pbbtxct, have been^ wasy am advised 164-5. 

S. 1. Mon-itus sum, or fui, I have been advised^ ^ 

2. Mon-itus es, or fuisti, Thou hast been advised^ 

3. Mon-itus est, or fuit, He has been advised; 

P. 1. Mon-iti sumus, or fuimus, We have been advised^ 

2. Mon-iti estis, or fuistis, Ye have been advised^ 

3. Mon-iti sunt, fu&nnt, &c., They have been advised. 

Plupebfbgt, had been advised. 166-2. 

S. 1. Mon-itus ^ram, or fueram, I had been advised^ 

2. Mon-itus gras, or fuSras, Thou hadst been advised^ 

3. Mon-itus £rat, or fu^rat, He had been advised; 

P. 1. M(m-iti erSmus, or fuer&muSjPTe had been advised^ 

2. Mon-iti erS,tis, or ^er&tis, Ye had been advised^ 

3. Mon-iti Srant, or fuSrant, They had been advised. 

JTuTURX, shally or wiU be advised, 167-3. 

8. 1. Mon-ebor, IshaU^ or wiU be advised^ 

2. Mon-eberis, or -ebSre, Thou shalt, or wilt be advised^ 

3* Mon-ebitur, He shall, or will be advised, 

P. 1. Mon-ebimur, We shall^ or will be advised 

2. Mon-ebimini, Ye shall, or will be advised, 

3. Mon-ebuntur, They shall, or will be advised. 

Future-Perfect, shally or will have been advised. 168-^. 

& 1. Mon-itus fugro, I shall have been advised, 

2. Mon-itus fu^ris. Thou wilt have been advised, 

3. Mon-itus fu^rit, He will have been advised; 

P. 1. Mon-iti fuerimus. We shall have been advised, 

2. Mon-iti fueritis. Ye will have been advised, 

3 Mon4ti fu<^rint, They wiU have been cdvieed. 




Present TBN8s,#fnay, or can he advised. 

8. 1 Mon-ear, 

2. Mon-egris, or -e&re, 

3. Mon-^&tur, 

P. 1, Mon-eamur, 

2. Mon-eamini, 

3. Mon-eantur, 

I may be cufvised^ 
Thou mayst be advised^ 
He may be advised; 

We may be advised^ 
Ye may be advised, 
They may be advised. 

^ Imperfect, might, could, would, or should be advised. 

8. 1. Mon-6rer, 

2. Mon-er6ris, or -erere, 

3. Mon-er^tur, 

P, 1. Mon-eremur, 

2. Mon-eremini, 

3. Mon-erentur, 

/ might be advised. 
Thou mightst be advisid, 
He might be advised ; 

We might be advised. 
Ye might be advised. 
They might be advised. 

Perfect, may have been advised. 

8, Monitus sim, or fugrim, 
Momtus sis, or fugris, 
Monitus sit, or fuSrit, 

F, Moniti simus, or fuerlmus, 
Moniti sitis, or fueritis, 
Moniti sint, or fu^rint, 

I may have been advised, 
Thou mayst have been advised^ 
He may have been advised; 

We may have been advised. 
Ye may have been advised. 
They may have been advised. 

Pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have been advised. 

8. Monitus essem, or fuissem, I might have been advised, 
Monitus esses, or fuisses, 27iou mightst have been advised 
Monitus asset) or fUisset, He might have been advised; 

P. Moniti essSmus, or fuiss^mus. We might have been advised^ 
Moi^ti essStis, or fuissetis, Ye might have been advised^ 
Moniti essent, or fuissent. They might have been advised.- 


& 2. Mon-6re, or -^tor, 
3. Mon-3tor, 

P. 2. Mon-emini, 
3 Mon-entor, 

Be thou advisedj 
Let him be advised; 

Be ye advised. 

Let them be advised. 

§ «3 



mFDnnyE mood. 

Pbxs. Mon^ri, To be advised (178-180), 

Pkrf. Esse, or fuisse momtus, To have been advUed^ 
FuT. MoQ-itum in. To be about to be advised. 


Pxmr. Mpn-itUB, a, um, 

tj, -• r J _ { To be advised, proper, or neces- 

F€T. Mon^dus, a, um, | «,ryto6*«i^X 

j Advisedy being advised^ or Aa^ 
( tn^ ofen advised^ 

Sthopsib of ths Moods and Tknsss. 

Jnidie€Uive, Subjtmethe, Itnper Infinitive, Participles, 


Moneor, (Mooear, 

M(H2Sbuv Monerer, 

Momtus sum, 

Monttos dram, 

Mc«dtu8 essem. 

MonSre. Moofiri, 

iEsse, or 
Fuisse m(Hutus, 

Monitum Iri 

F.-PKEF^Momtua fiifira 

After the same manner, inflect : 


Doceor, doc^ri, • doctus, 
Jubeor, juberi, jussus, 

Videor, vid^, visus, 

To be taught. 
To be ordered. 
To be setn. 


1. Give the designation^ &;c., as directed 192-1. Moneor, 
monetur, monebatur, monebitur, momtus est, moniti estis, 
moneamur, moneretur, momtus fu^ro, monere, mongri, mo 
nitus, momtus esse, monendus. Videretur, vlsus, visum iri, 
docerentur, doceantur, dooemini, doceamini, jubebitur, jussi 
fu^runt, juberentur, jubetor, &c. 

2. Translate the following into Latin^ as directed 192-2 : I 
was advised, he has been advised; — ^he may be advisedk we. 
will be advised, we were advised, I 4m advised, theyj^pwht * 
have been advised. Be ye advised, to be about to be aSiris^lfA 
to be advised, he may have been seen; — they should be ordered, 
we will be seen, they m ill be taught, having been taught, ne- 
cessary to be taught, let them be taught; they have been 


ordered, we might have been ordered, to be about to be 
, ordered, being ordered, they may have been ordered, 6zc. 

Promiscuous Ezsroisss ok thb Sscoin) Oonjuoatiok. 

8. CHve the designation, &;c., as directed 190-1, 192-1. Mo- 
ndbam, monu^rat, monu^rit, mon^bunt, moneam, m5ne, mo- 
nSbar, monitus es, monuit, monSri, doctus sum, docear, 
docSrer, docebitur, docento, docentor, docentur, jtibet, jus- 
s^runt, juss^rint, jubebo, juberentur, jussus esse, jtibe, video, 
vident, viderStur, vide, vidistis, videratis, vidSrent, vidSro, 
videndum. videns, visurus, vidisse, visum iri, videri, mone- 
buntur^ THDneantur, viderentur, jussdrim, jub^bam, jubfirer, 
$' videntur, docudrunt, doce, d5cens. 

4. Translate the following into Latin, as directed 190-^^ 
192-2 : I am advised, he advises, they will advise, ye have 
advised, they will have advised, he will be advised, he is 

' taught, he has taught, they will teach, I will see, they may 
see, they are seen, he has been seen, to order, to have been 
ordered, ordering, about to order, to have seen, I might see, 
I might have been seen, they will not (non) see, he will not 
see, I do not advise, he is teaching, he is not teaching, he will 
not order, I will order, dec 

5. As directed 190-3, 192-4. Dlcit se monere, — ^nos monu- 
isse, — eum monittirum esse, — vos vid^e, — eum visum iri. 
Dixit se monSre, — nos monuisse, — eum moniturum esse, — 
vos videre,— eum visum iri. IHcet se mongre, &c., — vos mo- 
nuisse, — homines monituros esse, — feminam monituram esse, 
vos jubfire. 

6. As directed 190-5. He says tliat he advises, — that he will 
advise, — that we have advised. He said that I advised, — that 
he had advised, — that they would have advised, — that 1 would 
order, — would have ordered, — would not have ordered, — wat 
taught, — had been taught, — would be taught, &c. 



Pres. Ind, Pres. Inf, Perf. Ind. Supine. 
B^-o, r€^4re, rex-i, rect-um, To ruU 


Presxkt Tsnsb, ruUj do rule, am ruling. 157. 

8, 1. l^-o, I rule, do rule, am rulinffj 

2. Reg-is,* Thou rulest, dost rule, art ruling^ 

3. Ke^-it, He rules, does rule, is ruling; 

P. 1. Re^-imus, We rule, do rule, are ruling^ 

2. Re^4tis, Ye rule, do rule, are ruling^ 

3. Beg-unt, TJiey rule, do rule, are ruling, 

Imfkrfxct, ruled, did rule, wa>s ruling, 159. 

S, 1. Ke^-ebam, I ruled, did rule, wa^ ruling, 

2. Re^-ebas, Thou ruledst, didst rule, wast rulim 

3. Re^-Sbat, He ruled, did rule, was ruling ; 

P, 1. Re^-ebamus, We ruled, did rule, were ruling, 

2. Re^-ebatis, Ye ruled, did rule, were ruling, 

3. Re^-6bant, Tkeg ruled, did rule, were ruling, 

PjERfECT Def., have ruled; Indef., ruled, did rule, 161. 

S, 1. Rex-i, I have ruled, ruled, Jid rule, 

2. Rex-isti, Thou hast ruled, ruledst, didst ruJe^ 

3. Rex-it, He has ruled, ruled, did rule; 

P. 1. Rex-imus, We have ruled, ruled, did rule, 

2. Rex-istis, Ye have ruled, ruled, did rule, 

3. Rex-grunt, or -€re, They have ruled, ruled, did rule. 

Plufbrfsot, had ruled, 165. 

S. 1. Rex-Sram, I had ruled, 

2. Rex-^ras, Thou hadst ruled, 

3. Rex-Srat, He had ruled; ' 

P. 1. Rex-eramus, We had ruled, 

2. Rex-era,tis, Ye had ruled, 

3. Rex-^rant, Theg had ruled, 

FuTURX, shall, or m// rule, 167. 

S, 1. R^g-am, I shaU, or will rule, 

2. R^^-es^ Thx)u shalt, or wilt rule, 

3. R^^ et, . He ^hall, or will rule; 

P, 1. Re^-^mus, We shall, or will rule^ 

2. Re^-Stis, Ye shall, or will rule, 

3. Re^-ent, They shall, or will rule, 

III ■ - -■ ■ _ 

* C7aDd g are hard before a. o, «, and soft like 8 andj before 4 and k 17-8* 
Soft g is here marked inltauos, and Bonnda Uke^'. 


FuTURE-PXRFBCT, shall^ or toill have ruled, 168. 

S. 1. Rex-^ro, I shall, or will have ruled^ 

2. Kex-^ris, Thou shall, or wilt have ruled, 

3. Rex-^rit, He shall, or will have ruled; 

P. 1. Kex-erimus, We shall, or vnll have ruledy 

2. Rex-eritis, Ye shall, or will have ruled, 

3. Rex-Sriut, They shall, or toill have ruled^ 

Present Tsksb, may, or can rule. 171. 

S, 1. . RSg-am, / may, or can rule, 

2. R^g-as, Thou may si, or canst rule^ 

3. R^g-at, He may, or can ruZs/ 

P. 1. Reg-fimus, TFJ? fnay, or can rule, 

2. Reg-fttis, Ye may, or can rt*/«, 

3. Reg-ant, They may, or can rule. 

Imperfect, mighty coutd^ would^ or should rule. 17% 

S. 1. Re^-^rem, I might rule, 

2. Re^-Sres, !7%(m mightst rule^ 

3. Re^-^ret, JJc m^A^ n*fe; 

P. 1. Re^-erSmus, We might rulCj 

2. Re^-eretis, Ye might rule, 

3. Re^-drent, 2%cy mt^A^ ru/e. 

Perfect, may Aavc ruled. 173. 

5. 1. Rex-^rim, I may have ruled, 

2. Rex-Sris, ^%ot£ mayst have ruled^ 

3. Rex-erit, He may have ruled' 

P. 1. Rex-erimus, We may have ruled, 

2. Rex-eritis, Ye may have ruled, 

3. Rex-grint, They may have ruled. 

Pluperfect, mighty couldj would^ or should have ruled. 174. 

S. 1. Rex-issem, I might have ruled, 

2. Rex-isses, !7%ot« mightst have ruled^ 

3. Rex-isset, iJc might have ruled; 

P. 1. Rex-issSmus, We might have ruled, 

2. Rex-issdtis, Ye might have ruled, 

3. Rex-issent| They might have ruled. 

» 64 




iSw 2. R^^-e, or -ito, 

P. 2. Re^-ite, or itOte, 
3. Beg-unto, 

Eule tkouy (149,) 
Let him rule; 

Rule ye, 
Let them rule. 

iNrnriTivE mood. 

Prxs. Re^-Sre, 
Pkrp. Rex-isse, 
FuT, Esse recturus, 
F.-PitRF. Fuisse recturus, 

To rule (178-180), 

To have ruled^ 

To be about to rule^ 

To have been about to ruU, 




Rect-urus, a, um. 

About to rule. 


I^om. Re^-endum, 
Gen, Re^-endi, 
Dot, Re^-endo, 
Ace. Re^-endum, 
Abl. Re^-endo, 


Of ruling J 

To ruling^ 


With, dec, ruling. 


FoRMiER, Rect-um, 
Latter, Rect-u, 

To rule. 

To be ruled, or to rule. 

Stkopsis of ths Moodb and Tenses. 

Indicative, Su^nctive, Imp, 


















Infinitive, FariidpUe, 



Ene rectOniB, 
Fuisse rectOruib 


After the same manner, inflect : 

L^o. leg^re, ISgi, lectum. To read. 

Soribo, scrib^re, scripsi, scriptum. To write. 

Geedo, caed^re, ceadi, csesum, 

To elay. 






Pres. IncL Pres. Inf. Per/, Jjid. 
Capio, Capere, cepi, 

To take 


Pres. Cap-io, -is. 



Imp. Capi-^bam, -ebas, -ebat; -ebamus, 

Pkrf. Cep-i, -isti, -it; -!mus, 

Plup. Cep-€ram, -€ras, -€rat; -eramus, 

FuT. Capi-am, -es, «et; -6mus, 

F. P. Cep-^ro, -^ris, -erit; -erimus, -eritis, -6rint. 


-itis, >iunt. 

-ebatis, -ebant, 

-istis, [-^^^J^ 

-eratis, -erant. 
-etis, -ent. 


Pres. Capi-am, -as, -at; -amus, -atis, -ant. 

Imp. Cap-Srem, -€res, -eret; -eremus, -eretis, -erent. 

Perf. Cep-6rim, -€ris, -6rit; -erimus, -eritis, -erint. 

Plup. Cep-issem, -isees, -isset ; -issemus, -issetis, -issent. 


Prss. cape, or -ito, -ito; -ite, or -itote, -iunto^ 


Pres. Cap-^re, Fut. Esse capturus, 

Ps&F. Cep-isse, F. Perp. Fuisse capturus. 


Pbks. Capiens, Fur. Capttirue, a, urn. 


iVom. Capi-endum, Former, Captum, 

Oen. Capi-endi',^c, Latter, Captu. 

So also: 





To seim* 



1. Give the designatUm^ dzc, cu directed 190"-1. — Regebam, 
rexisti, rezgram, regain, regerem, rex^ro, rexisset, r^ge, 
rexisse, regens. Scnbit, scrib^bat, scrips! t, scribSmus, scribe 
iQus, iegunt, leg^ret, l^get, l^ge, legerunt, legSrant. Capiunt, 
capi^bat, capiunto, caperem, oepit, cepSrlm, ceperam, cepissem, 
capit, capere, capiendum, ^c. 

2. Translate the following into Latin, as directed 190-2. — 
He rales, we are ruling, he has ruled, we will rule, they will 
have ruled, ye might rule, they may rule, we will rule, they 
were ruling, he had ruled, they might have ruled. He hsis 
read, they will read, we shall read, to have read, to have 
written, to write, writing, write thou, let them write. 

3. Translate according to the Rules 190-3, 4. {iHcit, " he 
says,") me regSre, — me scribSre, — se rexisse, — nos recturos 
esse, — ilium scripsisse, — me scripttirum fuisse, — vos lecttlros 
esse, — me capdre, — vos cepisse, — vos captQros esse, — vos 
captCtros fuisse. (i>m/, "he said,") me regere, — ^me rexisse, 
— me rectarum esse, &c. 

4. As directed 190-5. — He says that I rule, — that he ruled, 
— ^that we write, — that they will write, — that he is about to 
write. He writes that he rules, — that you are reading, — that 
you will write. He said that he was writing, — that you had 
written, — that we would write, — would have written. He wOl 
say that I am ruling, — was ruling, — will rule, dec. 

200.— § 66. PASSIVE VOICE. 

Pres. Ind, Pres. In/, Per/, Part, 
Rggor, ^^g-h rectus, To be ruled. 


Pbbssnt Tsnse, cm ruled, 157--6. 

8 1. Reg-or, lam ruled, 

2. Re^-§ris, or -$re, Thou art ruled^ 

3. Re^-itur, He is ruled; 

P, 1. Re^-Imur, We are ruled, 

2. Re^-imini, Ye are ruled, 

3. Reg-untur, They are ruled. 


Imfsrfsct, tP€t8 ruled. 160-^5. 

Sm 1. Re^-^bar, Iwaanded, 

2. Re^-ebaris, or -ebftre, !I%ou wast ruUd^ 

3. Re^-ebatur, He was ruled; ' 

P. 1. Re^-ebamilr, We were ruledy 

2. Re^-ebamini, Ye were ruled, 

3. Re^-ebantur, They were ruled, 

PxBFBCT, have been ruled, was ruled, am ruled. 164-5 

S, 1. Rectus sum, or fiii, I have been ruled, 

2. Rectus es, or fuisti, Thou hast been ruled, 

3. Rectus est, or fuit, He has been ruled; 

P. 1. Recti siimus, or ftiimus, We have beefi ruled, 

2. Recti estis, or fuistis. Ye have been ruled, 

3. Recti sunt, fuerunt, or faeire,They have been ruled. 

Pluperfect, had been ruled. 166-2. 

S. 1. Rectus ^ram, or fuSram, Ihcul been ruled, 

2. Rectus eras, or fiieras, Thou Jiadat been ruled. 

3. Rectus Srat, or fuerat. He had been ruled; 

P. 1. Recti eramus, or fueramu^, We had been ruled, 

2. Recti eratis, or fueratis, Ye had beeii ruled, 

3. Recti firant, or fueranfc, They had been ruled. 

TuTURB, shall, or will be ruled. 167-3. 

S. 1. R<^g-ar, I shall, or will be ruled, 

2. Re^-eris, or -fire. Thou shall, or wilt be ruled 

3. Re^-etur, He shall, or will be ruled; 

P, 1 . Re^-emur, We shall, or will he mJed, 

2. Re^-emini, Ye shall, or will be ^uled, 

3. Re^-entur, Tliej/ shall, or will be ruied. 

Future-Pbrfect, shaU, or will have been ruled, 168-4. 

S, 1. Rectus fu6ro, I shall, or will have been ruUd^ 

2. Rectus fueris. Thou shall, or wilt have been ruled, 

3. Rectus fueiit, He shall, or will have been ruled ^ 

P. 1. Recti fuerimus, We shall, or will have been ruled ^ 

2. Recti fiieritis, Ye shall, oi will have been ruled, 

3. Recti fufirint, They shall, or will have been ruled 

5 66 THB ySRB. — THntD CONJUGATION. 148 

Prksent Tenbx, mayy or can he ruled. 

jSL 1. R^g-ar, / may, or can be ruled^ 

2. Keg-aris, or -&r^ Thou oiayst or canst be ruled. 

3. Reg-atur, He may^ or can he ruled; 

Pm 1. Reg-amur, We may, or can be ruled^ 

2. Reg-amini, Te may, or can be ruled, 

3. Reg-antur, They may, or can be ruled. 

Imperfect, might, could, would, or should be ruled, 

Sw 1. Re^-^rer, I might be ruled, 

2. Re^-ereris, or erdre, 7%ou mightst be ruled 

3. Re^-eretur, He might be ruled ; 

J*, 1 . Re^-eremur, We might be ruled, 

2. Re^-eremini, Ye might be ruled, 

3. Re^-erentur, They might be ruled. 

Perfect, may have been ruled, 

6 1, Rectus sim, or fii^rim, I may have been ruled, 

2. Rectus sis, or fuSris, Thou mayst have been ruled, 

8. Rectus sit, or fuerit, He may have been, railed; 

P, 1. Recti simus, or fuerimus, We may have been ruled, 

2. Recti sitis, or fiieritis. Ye may have been ruled, 

3. Recti sint, or fuerint. They may have been ruled. 

Pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have been ruled. 

S. 1. Rectus essem, or fuissem, I might have been ruled, 

2. Rectus esses, or fuisses. Thou mightst have been ruled, 

3. Rectus esset, or fuisset, He might have been ruled ; 

P. 1. Recti essemus, or fuissemus, We might have been ruled, 

2. Recti essetfs, or fuissetis. Ye might have been ruled, 

3. Recti essent, or fuissent. They might have been ruled. 


S. 2. Re^-Sre, or -itor, Be thou ruled, 

3. Re^-itor, Let him be ruled ; 

P, 2. Re<7-imini, Be ye ruled, 

3. Reg-untor, Let them be ruled. 



§ 6a 


Pkrf. Esse, or fuisse rectus, 
FuT. Rectum iri, 

To be ruled (178 and 180), 
To have been ruled. 
To be about to be ruled. 


Psiur Rectus, a, um, 
FuT* Beyendus, a, um^ 

Ruled, being ruled, hawing 

been ruled. 
To be ruled, proper, or n^- 

cessa'y to be ruled. 

Stnopsis of thx Moods and Tensbs. 

JfuUeative, Subjunetiife. Imper, Infinitive, 







Rectus Buni, 
Rectus Sram, 
Rectus fuSra 

Rectus sim, 
Rectus essem. 



Esse, or fuisse reetos. 

Rectum iri 


After the same manner, inflect : 

L^gor, l£gi, lectus, To be read, 
Scribor, scribi, scriptus, To be written. 



csedi, caesus, 

To be slain. 


Free. Ind. 


Pres. Inf. Perf. Part. 

cSlpi, captus, To be taken, 

2. 8. 1. 8. 

Cap-ior, | g™* ^ \ -itur ; -imur, -imioi, ' 

Imp. Capi-ebar, j |^^J[^"' (••ebfttur; -ebfimur, -eban^Lhi, 

PtfRp. Captus sum, or fui ; captus es, or fuisti, <&c 

Plup. Captus dram« or fuSram ; captus Sras, or fuSras, <fec 

F.-P. Captus fdSro^ captus fuSris, captus fudrit^ <&« 





§ 67 



0"!^-, IS"" 




2. 8. 1. 2. 

V -star, -Amur, -mnini, 

Imp. Cap-^rer, -J "^I?""' ^ i -erCtur ; •eremur, -eremlni, •«reEitiir. 

Pjckf. C&ptus sim, or fu^rim; captua sis, or fiiSris, <&c. 
Plvf. Captus essem, or faiflsem ; captua efisee, i)r fuiases, <fea 

impBrative mood. 

2. 3. 2. 

Prss. Cap-Sre, or -itor, -iter; -inuni, 




Pres. C&p-i, 

P^RF. Esse, or fuisse captus, 

FuT. Captum iti. ^ 

Perf. Captus, a, um. 
FuT. Capiendus, a, um. 

So also : 


r&pi, raptus, To be seized. 


1. Give the designation^ &c., as directed 192-1. — Regitur, 
regetur, regimini, rectus est, rectus fugrit, regerer, regar, 
rSgor, regere, reguntor, rectus, rectum iri, rectus esse, regi, 
regebatur, reguiitur, regentur, rectus sim, rectus esset. Capiar, 
capiuntur, capiuntor, capiebatur, captus sum, &;c. 

2. Translate the following into Latin, as directed 192-2. — 
He is ruled, I was ruled, they will be ruled, they have been 
ruled, we might be ruled, he might have been ruled, they 
were ruled, ye had been ruled, to have been ruled, being 
ruled, to be ruled, let them be ru^ed. They are taken, they 
will be taken, let them be taken, th«y have been taken, he will 
be taken, they might be taken, be thou taken, &c. 

Promiscuous Exercises on the Third Conjugation. 

3. Give the designation, &lc., as directed 190-1 and 102-1. 
— Regebat, rexerunt, rexerat, rdget, rexit, rexerint, legit, i^\t, 




l^get, l^gat, legSrit, scripserit, scripsisse, scribitur, scriptus est, 
scriptum iri, legi, legere, legisse, rexisse, lectus esse, legitcr, 
rectus, regens, scripturus, scribendus, lectu, scribSre, scripsere, 
legeie, logere, legimini, capiunt, capiuntor, captus sum, capitur, 
capitor, ceperunt, ceperint, scriptum esse, rexi, i-egi, regaio, 
regoret, <&o. 

4. Translate the following into LaHn^ as directed 190-2, 
192-2. — I rule, I am ruled, he rules, they are ruled, they have 
ruled, they have been ruled, they will rule, he might rule, 
they might be ruled, we will read, he may have been taken, 
they will have been ruled, he might have written, to be ruled, 
rule thou, let him be ruled, they were writing, they might 
write, to have written, to have read, to have ruled, to hava 
taken, they had written, had ruled, had read, had taken. 


Free. Ind, Pres. Inf, Per/, Ind. Supine. 
Audio, au(^e, audivi, auditum, To hear 

Present Tense, hear, do heoTy am hearing, 157. 

S. 1. Aud-io, I hear, do hear, am hearing, 

2. Aud-is, Thou hearest, dost hear, art hearing^ 

3. Aud-it, He hears, does hear, is hearing; 

P, 1. Aud-imus, We hear, do hear, are hearing, 

2. Aud-itis, Ye hear, do hear, are hearing, 

8. Aud-iunt, They hear, do hear, are hearirig. 

iMrERFECT, heard, did hear, was hearing. 159. 

51 1 . Audi-6bam, I^ard, did hear, was hearing, 

2. A udi-6bas. Thou heardst, didst hear, wast hearing, 

3. A udi-ebat, JSe heard, did hear, was hearing; 

P, \, A idi-ebamus, We heard, did hear, were hearing, 

2. A idi-ebatis. Ye heard, did hear, were hearing, 

8. A\ di-6bant, They heard, did hear, were hearing. 


Pkrfect Def., have heard; Indef., heard^ did hear. 161. 

S, h AudiY-i, / fiave heard, heard, did hear, 

2. Audiv-isti, Thou hast heard,' heardst, didst hear, 

3. Audiy-it, He has heard, heard, did hear; 

P, 1. Audiv-tous, We have heard, heard, did heaf, 

2. Audiv-istis, Ye have heard, heard, did hear, 

-^^ ' ' h Tfiey have heard, heard, did hear, 
-6re, ) 

Plupbrfkct, had heard. 165. 

S. 1. Audiv^ram, I had heard, 

2. Audiy-dras, Thou hadst heard, 

3. Audiy-^rat, Se had heard; 

P. 1. Audiy-er&mus, We had heard, 

2. Audiy-erfttis, Ye had heard, 

3. Audiy-^rant, They had heard. 

FuTUBX, ihall^ Qr will hear. 167. 

8. 1. Audi-am, I shall, or will hear, 

2. Audi-es, Thou shalt, or mlt hear^ 

3. Audi-et, He shall, or will hear; 

P. 1. Audi-fimus, We sliall, or will hear, 

2. Audi-etis, Ye shall, or will hear, 

3. Audi-ent, They shall, or will hear. 

FuTURB-PERTXCT, shaU, OT will have heard. 168. 

S. 1. Audiy-€ro, I shall or will have heard, 

2. Audiy-^ris, lliou shalt, or wilt have heard^ 

3. Audiy-drit, He shall, or will have heard ; 

'^. 1. Audiy-eHmus, We shall, or will have heard, 

2. Audiy-eritis, Ye shall, or toill have heard, 

3.' Audiy-erint, Thei/ shall, or will have heard, 

Present Tense, may, or can hear, 171. 

S. 1. Audi-am, I may, or cun hear, 

2. Audi-as, TAoti mayst, or cans/ A^ar, 

3. Audi-at, He may, or can A^ar; 

P. 1. Audi-&mus, TFc may, or can hear, 

2. Audi-atis, Ye may, or can Acar, 

3. Audi-ant, They may, or can hear. 


Impurfect, mighty could, would, or should hear. 1 72 

S. 1. Aud-irem, - 1 might hear, 

'2. Aud-ires, Thou mightst hear, 

3. Aud-iret, He might hear; 

P. 1/ Aud-ir6mus, We might hear, 

2. Aud-iretis, Ye might hear, 

3. Aud-Irent, They might hear. 

Perfect, may have heard, 173. 

S. 1. Audiv-^rim, Imxiy have heard, 

2. Audiy-^ris, Thou may%t have heard^ 

3. Audiv-erit, He may have heard ; 

P. 1. Audiv-erimus, We mxiy have heard, 

2. Audiv-eritis, Ye may have heard, 

3. Audiy-^rint, They may have heard. 

Pluperfect, might, could, would, or should hear, 174. 

S. 1. Audiv-issem, I might have heard, 

2. Audiv-isses, Thou mightst have heard^ 

3. Audiy-isset, He might have heard; ' 

P, 1. Audiv-issemus, We might have heard, 

2. Audiv-issetis, Ye might have heard, 

3. Audiv-issent, They might have heard. 



S. 2. Aud-i, or -ito, Hear thou (149), 

3. Aud-ito, Let him hear; 

P. 2. Aud-ite, or -itOte, Hear ye, or you, 

3. Aud-iunto, Let them hear. 


Pres. Aud-ire, To hear (178-180), 

Perf. Audiv-isse, To have heard, 

Fdt. Esse audhurus, To he about to hear, 

F.-Perf. Fuisse auditurus, To have been about to kear, 


Pres. Audiens, Hearing, 

FuT. Aud-itunis, a, um, About to hear. 

§ 69 




iV<w». And-ienduin, 
Oen. Aud-iendi, 
2>a/. Aud-iendo, 
Acc^ Aud-iendum, 
Ahl, Aud-iendo, 

FoRMKR, Audit-um, 
Latter, Audlt-u, 


Of hearing^ 

To hearing^ 


With^ 6kc., hearing. 


To heaTf 

To be heard^ or to hear. 








Synopsis of thb Moods and Tenses. 

JfuReaiive, B^thjunetive, Imper, 











EsM anditOrus, 
Fuiase auditOroa 



After the same manner, inflect : 










To fortify. 
To come. 
To bind. 


1. CHve the designation^ &o., a« directed 190-1. — Audio, 
audiunt, audivit, audiet, audirent, audi, audivisse, audiv^rant, 
audiverunt, muniant, munient, munivSrunt, munivgrint, mu- 
niunto, muniunt> ven^rat, venisset, vinxisti, vinxisse, yinciet, 
vindrent, vinciebam, veniens, ventum, venturus, &c. 

2. Translate the following into Latin^ 62c., a^ directed 190-2, 
^-1 have heard, he heard, they were hearing, we will hear, 
vou might hear, they could have heard, hear thou, let them 
hear, to have heard^ hearing, to be about to hear, he shall have 
come, they will bind, let them bind, to have bound, binding, 
of binding, with binding, he had come, he had bound, they 
will fortify, I was hearing, they would have heard, the men 


(Jiomtnes) may have heard, about to hear, of hearing, they 
had bound — may have bound — will have bound ; bind ye, 1 
have bound, to bind, to have bound, about to bind, binding, 
to have been about to fortify, to have fortified. &c. 

8. Translate according to the rule 190-3, 4. — IHcit (he says) 
me audire, — vos audire, — eos audivisse, — hominem auditiirum 
esse, — hominem auditQrum fuisse, — homines auditaros esse, 
— feminam, f., {that the woman) venttiraih esse, — venttiram 
fuisse. Dixit (he said) se (that he himself) venturum esse 
— eum (that he, viz. some other person, not himself) ventti- 
, rum fuisse, — nos venturos esse, — &c. 

^ 4. As directed 190-5. — He says that I hear, — that we hear, 

/ — that they have heard. — that they will hear, — that he (hirn- 

self) will come, — that he (some other) will come, — that the 
men will come, — that the women will come. He said that 
he (himself) came, — that he (another) came, — that they had 
come, — ttiat they ^rould come, — that they would have come, 
— that the women would come, — would have come, (Ssc He 
will say that I hear, — that I heard, — that I will hear 

205.— § 70. PASSIVE VOICE. 

Pres. Ind, Fres. Inf Perf Part 
Audior, audiri, audltus, To be heard. 

Present Tense, am heard. 157-6. 

& 1. Aud-ior, lam heard , 

2. Aud-iris, or -ire, Thou art heard, 

3. Aud-itur, He is heard; 

P, 1. Aud-imur, We are heard, 

2. Aud-imini, Ye are heard, 

3, Aud-iuntur, They are heard* 

Imperfect, was heard, 160-5. 

jSL 1. Audi-ebar, I was heard, 

2. Audi-ebaris, or -eb&re, Thou wast keard^ 

3. Audi-ebatur, He was heard; 

P, 1. Audi-ebamur, We were heard, 

2. Audi-ebamini, Ye were heard, 

3. Audi-^bantur, They were heard* 


PxRFXCT, have been heard, toas heard, am heard. 164-^. 

S. 1. Auditus* sum, or fui, I have been heard, 

2, Auditus es, or fuisti, Thou hast been heard^ 

3. Auditus est, or fult, JSe has been heard; 

P. 1. Auditi sumus, or fuimus, We have been heard, 

2. Auditi estis, or fuistis. Ye have been heard, 

3. Auditi sunt, fuerunt, or fiiere, They have been heard. 

Pluperfect, had been heard. 166-2. 

S. 1. Auditus* eram, or fuSram, I had been heard, 

2. Auditus Sras, or fueras, Thou hadst been heard, 

3. Auditus 6rat, or fu6rat, He had been heard; 

P. 1. Auditi eramus, or fuer&mus, ^ We had been htard, 

2. Auditi er&tis, or fueratis, Ye had been heard, 

3. Auditi erant, or fugrant, They had been heard. 

Future, shall, or will be heard. 167-3. 

S. 1. Audi-ar, I shall, or will be heard, 

2. Audi-^ris, or -^re, Thou shall, or wilt be heardy 

3. Audi-etur, He shall, or will be heard; 

P. 1. Audi-emur, We shall, or wilt be heard, 

2. Audi-emini, Ye shall, or will be heard, 

3. Audi-entur, They sliall, or wiU be heard, 

Future-Perfect, shall, or will have been heard. 168-4. 

S. 1. Auditus fuSro, I shall or will have been heard, 

2. Auditus fu^rts. Thou shalt, or wilt have been heard, 

3. Auditus fuerit, He shall, or will liave been heard ; 

P. 1. Auditi fuerimus, We shall, or will have been heard, 

2. Auditi fuerltis, Ye shall, or will have been heard, 

* 8. Auditi iuSrint, They shall, or will have been heard, 

Pbssskt Tense, may, or can be heard, 

S. 1. Audi-ar, Imjay, or can be heard, 

2. Audi-aris, or -are, Thou mayst, or canst be heard^ 

3. Audi-atur, He may, or can be heard; 

P. 1. Audi-amur, We may, or can be heard, 

2. Audi-amini, Ye may, or can be heard, 

3. Audi-antur, They may, or can be heard. 

* See 164-6, and Note. 



§ 70 

Imperfbct, might, could, would, or should he lieard. 

S, 1. Aud-irer, 

2. Aud-ireris, or -irere, 

3. Aud-iretur, 

P, 1. Aud-iremur, 

2. Aud-iremini, 

3. Aud-irentur, 

/ might be heard, 
Thou mightst he heard^ 
He might he Iteard; 

We might he heard^ 
Ye might be heard, 
l^hey might he heard. 

Perfect, may have been heard. 

S. 1. Auditus sim, or iuerim, 

2. Auditus sis, or fueris, 

3. Auditus sit, or fuerit, 

P. 1. Auditi simus, or fiierimus, 

2. Auditi sitis, or fueritis, 

3. Auditi sint, or fuerint, 

I may have been heard. 
Thou mayst have been heard. 
He may have been heard ; 

We may have been, heard. 
Ye may have been heard. 
They may have been heard. 

Pluperfect, might, could^ would, or should have been heard. 

S. 1. Auditus essem, or fuissem, I might have been heard, 

2. Auditus esses, or fuisses, Thou mightst have been heard, 

3. Auditus esset, or fuisset, He might have been heard ; 

P, 1. Auditi essSmus, or fuissemus. We might have been heard, 

2. Auditi essetis, or fuissetis, Ye might have been heard, 

3. Auditi essent, or fuissent, They might have been heard 


j& 2. Aud-ire, or -itor, 
3. Aud-itor, 

P. 2. Aud-imini, 
3. Aud-iuntor, 

Be thou heard. 
Let him be heard; 

Be ye heard. 

Let them he heard. 


Pres. Aud-iri, 

Pbrf. Esse, or fuisse auditus, 

FuT. Auditum iri, 

To he heard (178-180), 
To have been heard, 
To he about to he keardm 

Pjerf. Auditus, a, um, 
Tut. Audiendus, a, um, 

( Heard, being heard, having 
( been heard. 

{ To be heard, proper, or ne- 
\ cessary to he heard. 




Smopsis OF TBI Moods ahikTkkbxs. 

IfuUeaHve. BubjuneHpe, Jmper. InJinUiiv*. Pmrtieipim 







Audltus sum, 

AodituB Sram, 
Audltus fuSra 


Audltus sim, 






Esse, or fuisse 
Auditum Iri. 

I Audita! 

After the same manner, inflect : 










To be/ortijied, 
To be polished. 
To be bound. 


1. CHve the designation, &c., as directed 192-1. — Audior, 
audiar, audiebatur, audltus sum, audiStur, audimini, audiemmi, 
audiamini, audiremini, audltus fudris, audire, audiri, audiun- 
tur, audiuntor, audientur, audiantur, auditi sunt, auditus grat, 
muniebantur, munitus fugrit, munltus esse, munltus, munitur, 
vincitur, vincietur, vinciatur, vincitor, venitur. 

2. Translate the following into Latin, a^ directed 192-2. — 
He is heard, we were heard, he has been heard, they will be 
heard, ye may be heard, he should be heard, hear ye, to be 
heard, to be about to be heard, I was bound, he will be bound, 
they would be bound, we may have been bound, to be forti- 
fied, being fortified, to be about to be fortified, to have been 
fortified, &o. 

> -f 

Promiscuous Exercises ok the Fourth Ck)NJUoATioN. 

3. Give the designation, &c., cm directed 190-1, 192-1. — 
Audiyit, audiy^re, audiebatur, audiretur, audiuntur, audiuntor, 
munient, muniverint, mlini, munire, munitor, muniens; ve- 
niat, ventum, veniendi, v5ni, ventre, ventum €rat, vinciunt, 
vinciuntor, vincirent, vinxisset, vinctus esset, vinctus fuerit, 
venit, venit, &c. 

4. Translate the following words into Latin, as directed 190-2, 
192-2. — I was heard, he heard, he has heard, we were heard 


164 PXFONBNT yxBB& § 72 

ye had been heard, thej will be heard, they may be heard, 
they might have been heard, let them come,, they should come, 
they will come, they will have come, 1 might have been bound, 
thou hast been bound, thou wilt be bound, thou art bound, 
thou wast bound, to be about to be bound, being bound, ne- 
cessary to be bound, binding, &c. 

5. As directed 190-3. — IHcU {he wye) se audire, — se audi- 
visse, — eum audit^um esse, — eos audituros fuisse, — eum au- 
ditum esse, — nos audltum iri. Dixit (he said) nos audiri, — 
vos auditos esse, — iUos audituros esse, — feminas audituras 
fuisse, — ^feminas auditum iri, — vos vincire, — vos vinciri, &c* 

6. Tranelate as directed 190-5. — He says {dlcit) that he was 
heard, — that he will hear, — that he bound,^-that he was bound, 
-^Ihat he ¥dll come, — that we will not (non) come. Ife said 
{dixityiha^he {himself) heard, — that he {some other) heard, — 
^that we would hear, — ^that they would not be heard, — ^that 
we were bound, — that we had been bound, — that we would be 
bound, — ^that he had polished, — that they had been polished, — 
would be poiliabed, — would have polished, — would not be pol^ 
ished ; — to have been poiished,-^bound, — fortified, — ^proper to 
be fortified. lie will say {dioet) that we will hear, — will be 
heard^-— will be bound,— *poli&hed, &c. 


1. Deponent verbs* are those which, under a 
passive form, have an active signification; asj 
Idquor^ " I speak f morior^ " I die." 

2. Common verbs are those which, under a pas- 
sive form, have an active or passive signification ; 
as, crimimor^ " I accuse," or " I am accused," 

Ohs, 1. All deponent verbs seem to have been originally 
passives. Hence, there are many verbs which, though found 
ui the active voice, are used as deponents in the passive. 

Ohs, 2. In common verbs, the passive sense is generally 

* So called from depj^w). ** I la^ aside,'^ beoause, thougli in the pw^iuvQ 
hrau tfaev bAve foid am* tine passive sense. 

§ 73 DBPOKEsrr verbs. 16& 

oonfined to the perfect participle ; thus, we can say adeptu* 
vietoriamj " having obtained the victory ;" or, vktorid adeptd^ 
"the victory being obtained." Hence, adipiscor is called a 
common verb, though in all its parts, except the perfect par- 
ticiple, it is usually deponent, or has an active signification. 

Ohs. 8. Deponent verbs are conjugated and inflected like 
the passive voice of the conjugations to which they belong ; 
except that they have also the participles, gerunds, supines 
and future of the infinitive, like the active voice. 182-12, 13. 


Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Per/. Part. 

Miror, mirftii, mirfttus, To admire. 

[Inflected like Amor, 191.] 

pREB. Mir-or, -&ris, or -&re, dz;c., I admire, am admiring, &o. 
Imp. Mir-&bar, -ab&ris, or -abare, / admired, vmis admiring. 
PxRF. Miratu^ sum, or fui, &c., I have admired, I admired. 
Plup. Miratus eram, or fugram, / had admired. 
FuT. Mir-abor, -aberis, or-abere, / shall, or will admire. 
F.-Perf. Miratus fu^ro, 4sc., / shall, or mil have admired^ 


Prks. lufo-er, -eris, or -ere, &c., I may, or can admire. 

Imp. Mir-&rer, -areris, or -arere, / might admire. 

PxRF. Mir&tus sim, or fiigrim, &c. , I may have admired. 

Plup. Mir&tus essem, or fuissem, / might, &c., hjave admired. 

Pbjbb. Mir-ftre. or -fttor, &c., Admire thou, &c. 149. 


Mirari, To admire. 178-80. 

Perf. Miratus esse, or fuisse. To have admired. 

FuT. Miraturus esse. To be about to admire. 

F.-Pbrf. Miraturus fuisse, To have been about to admyitn. 


156 DSPONBNT ySBBS. § 74 


Prbs. Mlrans, AdmUing. 

Perf. Miratus, Having admired. 

F. Act. Miraturus, a, um, About to admire, 

T3« T) -kr* J \ To he admired^ deeerving, 

Y, Fabs. Mirandus, a. um, < ^ > j • j 

3. ADD. iHainu^uo, a, i*ii*, -j ^^ jpro^CT to be admired. 


J^Tom. Mirandum, Admiring, 

Oen, Mirandi, dca, 0/ admiring, 


FoRUER,Miratum, To admire. 

Latter, Mird.tu, To be admired. 

Stnofsib of the moods and tenses, as in Amor. 191. 



Deponents of the second conjugation are few in number. 
Of these, medeor^ " to heal," has no participle of its own. In- 
stead of the perfect participle, medicdtus is used. Mereor has 
merui^ as well as meritua sum^ in the perfect indicative. Meet 
has no imperfect subjunctive. 

Free. Ind. Fres, Inf. Ferf. Fart. 

PoUiceor, poUioSri, pollidtus, To promise. 

[Inflected like Moneor. 195.] 


pRXS. PoUio-eor, -firis, or -Sre, &c., /promise^ &CL 

Imp. Pollio-ebar,-eb3iis, or -eb3xe,&a,/j9romt«e(^ 6sc 

Perf. Pollicitus sum, or fui, &c., / have promised, iiso, 

Plup. Pollicitus Sram, or fueram, &o., I had promised, 6zc. 

FuT. Pollic-Sbor, -ebSris, or -eb5re,&c., / shall, or will promises 

F.P«aF.PomriftU8 &o, or faSro, &c, \ ^ **"'''. «J "•" **"* 

' ( promised. 

f 76 DEPONENT YEBBa 167 


Psxs. Pollice-ar, -ftris, or-ftre, 6ze,ylinay, or can promigej &o 

Imp. PoUic-erer, -erdris, or -erSre, / might, &c. , promise. 

PsRF. Pollidtussim, or fuSrim,&a,/ may have promisedy jea 

Plup* PoUicitus essem, or fuissem, / might, dec. , have promised 

Pais. Pollio-dre, or -^tor, ^o., Promise thou^ dea 


Pres. PoUicgri, To promise. 178-180. 

PsRF. Pollidtus esse, or fuisse, To have promised. 

Fur. Polliciturus esse, To be about to promise, 

F.-PBaF. Polliciturus Aiisse, To have been about to promise 


pRss. PoUicens, Promising. 

Perp. Pollidtus, Having promised. 

F. Act. Polliciturus, a, um, About to promise. 

F. Pass. Pollicendus, a, um. To be promised, &c. 


Nom. PoUicendum, Promising. 1. Pollidtum, To promise. 
Osn. Pollicendi, &c. 2. PoUidtu, To be promised. 

Stvopbib t>f the moods and tenses, as in 195. 



Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Perf. Part. 
Utor, titi, ^us. To use, 


pRBS. Ut-or, .^ris, or -€re, &c., luse, do use, am using, ^c 
Imp. Ut-6bar, -ebaris, or -eb&re, Iused,diduse,wasu8ing,^o, 
Perf. Usus sum, or fui, &;c., Jhaveu8€d,used,diduse,6zc. 

Plup Usus gram, or fu^ram, Ace, I had used, 6zc, 
FuT. Ut-ar, -eris, or -ere, &c., I shall, or will use, &c. 
F ^SRF. Usus 6ro, or fudro, 6so., IshaU^ or wiU have used^ dsc 

156 wsfosnaiT vbss. % 76 

suBJUironvB mood. 

Pkk8. Ut-ar, -dris, or -jire, &c., I may, or oan iMtf, dsa 

lup. Ut-Srer,-ereris, or -erere,d«^/mi^A^ could ^ec., u«e. 

PsEF. Usus siaXj or fu^rim, dcc^ I may Juufg used, ^c 

Plup. Ususeasen^ or fiiissem,^^,/mt^A/^iv«MM^, &o 

Pkbb. Ut-Sre, or -itor, 4ec., €r«0 ^Aou, 4bo. 


Prks, Uti, To use. ]178-180. 

E^XRF. Usu8 esse, or fVasse, To have used, 

FuT. Usurus esse, To be about to use, 

F.-PxR7. Usuru9 fiiisse. To have been about to um^ 

Preb. Utens, Using^. 

Perf. Usus^ Having used. 

F. Act. Usurus, a, um, 4hout to use, 

F. Pass. Utendus, a, um, To be used, &a 


I^om, Utendum, Using, h Usum, To use, 

Qen. Utendi, ofuwng^ ^c. 2. Usu, To be used, to tua 

Synopsis of the moods spd tenses, as m 2/OQ. 



Pres, Ind, Pres. Inf. Perf. Part. 

Metior, metlri, mensus, To measure. 


PiUES. Met-ior, -Iris, or -Ire, <kc., / m.easwre, am measuring. 
Imp. Meti-6bar, -ebaris, or -eb&re, / mea>sured, wcls measuring, 
PsRF. Mensus sum, or fai, dzc, I have msasured, measured, 
Plup. Mensus€ram,orfu§ram,&a,/Aarf wi<a«*rerf. 
FuT. Meti-ar, -$ris, or -6re, &c., / shall, or will measure, 
F.-Pbrf. Mensus 6ro, or fuero, dba, lskM,OT%s^hamnmM$ured, 

§ 77 DEPOmENT TBBB& 169 


Prss. Meti-ar, -Sris, or -fire, &c., / may, or can measure. 

Imp. Meti-rer, -reris, or -rfere, I mipht, ^,^ measure. 

PxRF. Mensus sim, or fu^rim, / may have measured, 

Pldp. Mensus essem, or fuissem, I mighty dec, have measured^ 

Prss. Met-ire, or -Itor, dec, Measure thoUy dea 

nnrarrnvE mood. 

pRES. Metari, To measure, 178-180. 

PsRF. Mensiis esse, or Aiisse, To liave measured. 
Fur. MensOrus esse, To be about to measure. 

To have been about to mea- 

F.-PKBjr tiensurus fUisse, < 


Prbs. Metiens, Measuring. 

PsRP^ Mensus, Havitig measured. 

F. Act Mensurus, a, um. About to measure. 

F. Piuvr Medendus, a, um, To be measured, &o. 


Nom, Metiendum, Measuring. 1. Mensum, To measure. 
Q¥i. Metiendl,0/measuringy6io, 2. Mensu, To be msasured, 

Stnopsis of the moods and tenses, as in 205. 


1. Mlror, 1 admire. 8. Dtor, /w»«. 

2. PoUiceor, I promise. 4. Metior, I measure. 

1. Oive the dengnatian* of the Mr6, — conjugate it; — give the tense^ mood, 
penon, number, and translation of the following words, always observing 
ihf same order; thus, — Mlror, verb tranaitiye, deponent, first conjugation, 

* In parsing deponent verbs, it is necessary, in givii^^ the designation, to 
Ktate whether the verb, as there used, is trcmeitive or vntranHti/ve. But in 
statiugthe part of the verb used, it is unnecessary to mention the voice, because 
deponent verbs have only the passive form. 


Mlror, mimri, nUrOhu. It is found in Uie presoit indicatiYe, first penoD 
iimgiiliu' ; <* / admire, do admire, am admiring* 

Mirab&tur, mirabitur, mirantur, mirabuntur, mirarentuXy 
Dollicitus sum, pollidtus erat, pollidtus fuerit, poUicerentur, 
utitur, tisus est, ud, usonis, titetis, utendum, uter^tur, titar, 
metiris, metiuntur, methintor, metimini, mensus Srat, mensus 
sit, mensi fuSrunt, utSre, utere, pollioere, pollidtus, gpollicens. 

2. TVandaU ihe/olUwinff English vorde into Latin, naming the part of 
the verb wted; thus, " I haye admired," mirOitu* tym, in the perfect indio- 
atiye, first person singular. 

They will use, we shall measure, let them measure, about 
to use, we have used, they may have used, he will have used, 
they will promise, they would have promised, we might ad- 
mire, I would have used, use thou, let them use, promise ye, 
let us use (171-1), let us admire, they have promised, pro- 
mising, having promised, to measure, let us measure. 

3. Translate the following into English^ according to the 
rules and examples 190-^, 4. — Dtcit {he says) me mirari, — vos 
polliceri, — nos miratos esse, — eos pollicittiros esse, — homines 
mensuros esse, — feminas pollicituras esse, — te uti, — se mirari, 
— eum mirari, — me menstirum esse, — vos ustiros (179, Note 1). 
Dicltur (he is said) pollicitus esse (179-6). Dixit {he said) se 
mirari, — nos poUicitos esse, — eos pollicituros, — vos mensos 
esse, — feminas mensuras, — eum pollicitum. 

4. Translate the follotoing into Latin^ according to direction 
190-5. — He says (dlcit) that I am using, — that thou admirest, 
—that he has measured, — ^that we will promise, — ^that the 
men will measure, — that the women will use, — that you will 
measure, — that I would have used, — that they would have 
admired, — that they admired. JSe said {dixit) that I was 
using — had been using, — that you were measuring, — that be 
measured, — that they had promised, — that they would use. 

r , ' 


- 1. Nbuter Passive Verbs are those which, with an in- 
transitive meaning throughout, have a passive form in the 
perfect, pluperfect, and future-perfect indicative, and in the 


perfect and pluperfect subjunctiye ; but an active form b ^thd 
other tenses. They are the following : 

Second Conjugation. 

Audeo, audSre, ausus, To dare. 

Gaudeo, gauddre, gavlsus, TorejoioB. 
Soleo, BolSre, solitus. To he wmL 

Third Conjttgation. 
FidOy fidSre, fisua, To truet. 

' So also the compounds of /Wo, eon/tdo, '' I trust,'' and 
difidoy *^ I distrust," which have also amfldiy and diff%di^ in 
the perfect. Neuter-passives are inflected thus 


Pres, Ind. Pres, Inf. Per/. ParU 
Audeo, audere, ausus, To dare. 


Prsb. Aud-eo, -es, -et, &c., / dare, do dare^ am daring. 

Imp. Aud-ebam, -ebas, 6bat, &c, I dared^ was daring^ dtc 
Perf. Ausus sum, or fill, &c., I have dared ^dared^did dare 
Plup. Ausus 6ram, or fu^ram, I had dared, 
FuT. Aud-6bo, -6bis, -Sbit, &c, I shall, or tnll dare. 
F.-PxRF. Ausus fuSro, 6bc^ I shall have dared. 


pRss. Aud-eam, -eas, -eat, &c., I may, or can dare. 

Imp. Aud-erem, -^res,-eret, &c., I might, could, &c., dare. 

Pkrf. Ausus sim, or fuSrim, &c., Imay^ have dared. 

Plup. Ausus essem, or fuissem,^c.,/ might, &c., have dared. 

impeiiativ;e mood. 

Pres. Aud-^ or -6to, &a, Dare thou^ 6do. 

. infinitive mood. 

Prbb. Audere, To dare. 178-180. 

Perf. Ausus esse, or fuissei To have dared. 

FuT. AusQrus esse. To be about to dare. 

F.-PBRF.AusuruB fuissey To have been about to Tares 



Pres. Audens, Daring. 

Perf. Ausus, a, um, Having dared, 

F. Act. Austirus, a, um, About to dare. 

F. PA8a.Audendus, a, um, | ^if ''''' ^' ^''^"^ 


Nom. Audendum, Daring. 1 . Ausum, To Sare. 

Gen, Audendi, &c., Of daring, 2. Ausu, To he dared, to dare 

2. The following verbs are cdlled Neutral FcumveSy namely, 
Jh, '* I am made," or " I become ;" vapulo, " I am beaten ;" 
veneo, " I am sold," They have an active form, but a passive 
signiAcation, and serve as passives to facia, verbSro, and vendo, 
Fio has the passive form in the preterite tenses. 221. 



1. The perfect and pluperfect active, in both the indicative 
and subjunctive, are often shortened by a syncope, as follows ; 

let. In the first c(xijugatioD, avi and ave often drop vi and ve before 9 or 
r» and circumflect the a ; thus, for amcmUi, amaviasemy amaviram, amch 
vSrOt amavirimf <&c., we often have amdstiy amdsaem, amdraniy ofudro, amd- 
rim, <&c. Also in the second and third conjugations, m drops vi in the 
same situation ; as oomp^^t^ for eomplivitti ; deUram, for deUviram ; do^ 
crSasemf for decrevUsem ; <&c. But ovt is syncopated only in the prieterite 
verb nCm^ and the oompounda of moveo; as, n6ranty for wmirant; n69»6^ 
for novi$8e ; eommouem, for eommtmUBem, ^ 

2d In the fourth conjugation, m frequently loses vi before «; as, cntdiati, 
for audiviiti ; audissetn, for audivisaem. Sometimes the v only is dropped 
between two vowels; as, audii^ for audlvi; ttudiihram, for audiviram do. 
And so also with other preterites of the same form, with the tenses derived 
from them ; aa, petit, for p&tlvi ; Oram, for iviram ; <bc • 

2. The perfect indicative active, third person plural, has two 
forms, irunt, ire. Both forms have the same meaning; the 
fu>st is more conmion with the earlier, and the second, witb 
the later writers. 


3. In the passive voic^, there are two forms of the second 
person Singular, namely ris and re. The termination re isi 
rarely used in the present indicative ; in the other tenses, re is j 
more common than ris, especially in Cicero. 

4. The imperatives of dlco, duco,/acio, and^^ro, are usually ,• 
written rftc, duc,fac,/€r; also in their compounds, except in 
those of/acio, wiuch change a into i; as, con/ice, perfice, &c. 

5. In the old forms of the language, the present infinitive 
passive was lengthened, especially among the poets, by adding 
er; as, amarier, for amdri; legier, for Hgi; &c. 

6. The terminations rimus and rltis m the future-perfect 
indicative, and perfect subjunctive, have the i sometimes long, 
and sometimes short. It is marked short in the preceding 
paradigms. The pupil may be accustomed to give it both 

7. In the passive voice, the perfect and pluperfect have two 
forms. Of these, the perfect participle with fui and fueram 
expresses the completion of past action more emphatically- 
than "when joined with sum and Sram, Thus, pransus sum^ 
means " I have dined, I have lust dined ;" pransus fai^ means 
**I have dined some time ago. 182-14. 

5-8. The verb sum^ through all its tenses, with the future 
participle in rus^ is used to express the intention, at the time 
referred to, oT doing a thing presently ; or that the action is, 
or was, or will be, on the point of being done. ••When this 
idea is to be conveyed, this form of expression is used in pre- 
ference to the future, which simply denotes that an act will be 
effected in future time. This, which is inflected as follows, is 
sometiipes (jailed the — , . .- / * . , , 



Prbs, Amaturus (a,um) sum, lam about to love. 
Imp. Amaturus ^ram, I was about to love, 

Perf. Amattirus fui, I have been about to love* 

Plup. Amaturus fueram, I had been about to love* 
FvT. Amaturus ero / shall be about to love* 

(AmatHrutfuiro is not used) 



Pre8. Amaturus sim, / may he about to love. 

Imp. Amaturus essem, I mighty &c., be about to love. 

Perf. Amaturus fuerim, I may have been about to love, 

Plup. Amaturus fuissem, / mighty &c., ha%i been abou i to love» 


Pres. Amaturus esse, To be about to love, 

Perf. Amaturus fuisse, To have been about to love, 

'9. in like mamtier, the future participle in dus^ expressing 
propriety or necessity of doing at the time referred to, is joined 
wiUi all the tenses of the verb sum, and thus forms what is 
calle^Uhe — , 


Thus, Pres. Amandus sum, I deserve^ or otight to be loved, dec. 
Imp. Amandus gram, /deserved, or ought to be loved, dzc 

And so forth through all the other tenses, as with the parti- 
ciples in rus, No. 8. In analyzing such expressions, however, 
it is better to parse each word of the compound separately, 
and combine them by the rules of syntax. A stronger ne-^ 
cessity is expressed by the gerund, witii the verb est ; thus, 
. scribendum est mihi epistdlam, is " I must write a letter," i. e. I 
am compelled to do it; whereas, scribenda est mihi epistola, 
means simply, "1 should write a letter." See Syntax, 700. 

10. The future Infinitive passive is a compound of tri, the 
present infinitive passive of eo, " to go," used impersonally, 
and the supine in um ; so that amatum iri, literally is " to be 
going to love." 

11. The verbal adjective in bundvs is rendered like the 
present participle, but with increased strength ; thus, errans, 
" wandering ;" errabundus, "wandering to and fro ;" moriens, 
'*• dying ;" moribundvLS, " in the agonies of death ;" <fec 

12. The meaning andiise of the gerundive participle aL 
ready mentioned 182-7, will be more fully explained In 
Syntax, 707-711. / 



215. — Verbs are compounded chiefly with prepositional 
which modify the simple verb according to their respective 
meanings; thus, eo^ *'^l go/' in composition with different pre- 
positions, is modified by them ; as, cuieo, " I go to ;*' abeo, " I 
go from ;" ezeo, " I go out ;" ineo^ " I go in ;" Ac. In the for- 
mation of compounds, due regard must be paid to the follow- 

General Rules. 

1. Compound verbs form the perfect and supine in the same 
manner as simple verbs; as, &mo, amdre^ amdviy amaium; 
red-dmo^ red-amdrej recUimdvi, recUamdtum. 

2. Simple verbs which double the first syllable in the per- 
fect, drop the reduplication in the compounds ; as, pello^ pe- 
puli; re-pello, re-puli. Except proe-curro, re-pungo^ and the 
compounds of do, sto, disco, and posco, 

3. Compound verbs which change a of th« present into t, 
have e in the supine ; as, yhcio, per-Jicio ; supine, perfectum. 
Except verbs ending in do, go ; with the compounds of haheo, 
placeo, 9€tlio, sapio, and statuo, 

4. Verbs which are defective in the perfect, likewise want 
the supine. 

5. The following changes, which happen to the preposition, 
and to the simple verb, in a state of composition, merit atten- 

Ut A-is used in composition before m and r. Ab ib used before yowela, 
and d,ft h^j, l, n, r, «. Before firo and fugio, it becomes au; as, aufiro^ 
aufugio. AIbSb used before e and i ; as, abtcSdo, abatHli. 

2d. Ad changes d into the first letter of the simple verb beginning with c 
/> 9* K ^y P* fi *r t : <^i aeeurro, afficio, agg6ro. In some writers, it remains 
Qoaltered ; as, adficio, 

$d. Am (i. e. ambi, from u/i^i, circum), before c, ^,/, A, is changed into an ; 
is, anquiroy anhilo. Sometimes it assmnes its own 6 ; as, ambio, 

4th. Oireum remains unaltered. The m is sometimes changed ; *a8, 0tr- 
cvndo for circumdo ; or omitted ; as, circueo for circumeo. 

6th. Cofij before a vowel or A, drops the n ; as, cocUeo, cohibeo ; before /, its 
n becomes I ; and before 6, m, p, it becomes m ; and befoTc r, it changes n 
into r ; as, coltlgo^ eomblbo^ comnieo, ccmp&roy eorripio. With Uro, b is 
inserted after con^ making eomburo. 

166 tlST OF VERBS. § 81 

6th. JH is used before d, g, Z, m, n, v ; as, didiieo, digladior. Dis and some- 
times di are used before r; as, dUrumpOy dirumpo; likewise before j; as, 
dUjudieo, dijudieo. Dis is used before c, /), 9, «, i; as, discumboy dispelUK 
Before «p and ft, 9 is removed ; and before /, it is changed into/; as, dit- 
pidoy dittOf diffiteor. Before a yowel, it assumes r; as, dirimoy &om 

^th. B is found before 6, d^ffylytn, «, r, and before /* and « ; as, «W6o, eiSc^ 
«;icio, w^Ao. Sx is used before vowels, and also before A, c,p, q, ^, »; as, 
ex&ro, exhibeo, expUio ; before/, x becomes/; as, effido. 

8th. In sometimes changes n into the first letter of the simple verb ; as, 
illildo; but befor« 6, m,;>, it changes n into m; as, imfttto, immineo^ im- 

9th. Ob generally remains unaltered. The b is sometimes omitted, as hi 
omtUo ; OT changed into the first letter of the simple verb, as offiro, 

10th. Re assumes d before d, also before a vowel, or A ; as, reddo, redSmo, 
redeoy redkibeo. Pro, likewise, sometimes inserts i as m prodeo, 

11th. Sttb changes b into the initial consonant of the simple word, before 
«./> ffy w»» Pi ^ *> *^' *^<^^f ^'ff^fOi mgglSro. Bubmitto and mmmitto, submoveo 
and 8ummoveo, are both used. 

12th. Trans is generally contracted into tra, before dj, « ; as, trOdo, traji- 
do, trdno ; and sometimes before / and m ; as, ircUuceo, trameo. Post be- 
comes pos in postuli. Few if any changes take place in the other preposi- 
tions. Other prefixes consist of verbs, as in calefacio, of ccUeo; of adverbs, 
as in benefadoy from bine; of participles and adjectives, as in tnansuefacio 
from mansuetwt, magniflco from magnus; of substantives, as in signifUo, 
from signum ; of a preposition and noun, as in animadverto, from ad and 
animus, with verto. 



[Owing to the irregularity of many verbs in the perfect and supine in the 
third conjugation, and of not a few in the other conjugations also, no rules 
that could be given would be of much practicftl utility. The only effectual 
way to attain -accuracy and readiness in the conjugation of verbs, is, to com- 
mit the primary parts, or the conjugation accurately from the Dictionary. To 
be able to do this, as soon as possible, is of great importance to every scholar; 
and it is not a task of so great difficulty as might be supposed. The follow- 
mg list contains all the simple verbs that vary, in the perfect and supine, 




from the general rale. By oommittiiig a portion of these to memoiy every 
day, to be recited with the ordiaaxy lesson, and repeating this exercise in 
revisala till the whole is in wrought into the memory, mnch fhture labor will 
De saved ; and this can be done in a few weeks, without at all interfering 
with the regular reoitaUons. When the composition of a verb chaoges its 
ibrm, it is notioed at the foot of the page, to which reference is made by 


216. — KuLE. Verbs of the first conjugation have dvi in the 
perfect) and aium in the supine ; as, 

Amo, am&re, amavi, amatum. To love, 

Muto, mut&re, mutavi, mut&tum, To change. 

mut&re, mutavi, mut&tum, 


The tenses of some verba included in the lists of Exceptions are also 
fomid, especiaUy in the earlier authors, oonjusated according to the 
General Kules. The form here given is that whidi is in conmion um 









To give. 





To ttaful . 


j lavflre, 
( lavSre, 


{ lOtum, 
< lautiim, 

(. To wank. 




C p6tum, or 

I To drink. 





To oitist. 






J Oircttmdoj " to surround ;''^ ^essundoj ** to roinj" satisdo^ " to give surety ;*' 
and vemindoy ^* to sell,^^ are connigatcd like do. The other coinpound» belong 
to the third conjufiration, audliave didi in the perfect, and ditum in the 
supine ; as, abdo^ abdereyObdUutn, abdidi^ '* to hide ;" reddo^ reddidit reddUwUf 
" to give back." 

s The compounds of sto have sHU in the perfect, and statwn in the supine ; 
88, constOf constUiy cofistdttim, 'Uo i^tand together." Some of the compounds 
have oocasionaliy stitum in the supine * as, prcettOy pi'astUL prcestWmn, or 
proutaUim^ ** to stand before," ** to excel." Adsto, *' to stand oy ;" insto^ *• to 
urge on," and reato, " to remain over and above," have no supine. Antesto^ 
" to stand before ;" circvmstCy ** to Ptacd round ;" intersto^ " to stand be- 
tween ;" and ttiperdo, ** to stand over," have steti in the perfect ; and the first 
two, and probably the others also, want the supine. DistOj ^* to be distant,^' 
and mbiito, " to stand under," have neither perfect nor supine. 

s The supine jvifuin is doubtful, as the future partidple i&Jvvatiirvt, Ad" 
Juvo has adjijutwn only, and adjuthrtts, 

* In the same manner, those compounds are conjugated which do not 
assume an m; as, acouboy " lo lie next tof excubo, " to watch ;" incubo, *' to lie 
upon ;" recubOy *' to lie down again ;" secubo, '* to lie apart." The compounds 
wnich assume an tn belong to the third coniiijerfttion, and have ui and Hum 
in tHe perfect and Eupine ; as, incumbo, incubui^ incubitum^ " to lie upon." 







































fnecftvi, wr 











To thunder, 



To glitter. 

To rub, 



To bind. 


217. — Rule. Verbs of the Second ConjugatioQ have ui in 
the perfect, and ihim in the supine ; as, 

Moneo^ mondre, monui, monitum, To adfnse. 
Habeo,^ habere, habui, habitum, Tofuive^ 


IntraziBitiTeB which have vi in the perfect, want l^e sapine ; as, tplendiBOt 
iplenduif ** to shine f madeOf madui^ ** to be wet" 

* The fat are participle is 90nat1iru9, 

* Intdno has int&ndttis in the perfect participle. 

r P Ho has sometimes vetdvi in the perfect. 

8 IHier^. " to differ^" and incr^po, " to chide," have sometimes dm and 
dtwm^ as well as vi and tium. Jnorepo seldom has the latter fbrm. 

* EmicOy " to shine forth," has emicuij emicaPum; and dimioOj "to fight," 
Has dimicdvi (rarely dimieui)^ dimicdtum. 

10 Some of the componuda of/rurohave the participles formed from the 
regular supine in dt'um ; as, confricatus^ infricdttu, 

11 Eneco^ " to kill," and interneco^ " to destroy," have also t^ and eekem; 
the participle oteneco is usually enectus. 

i« Duplico, '* to double ;" muUipUeo. " to multiply ;" replioo^ " to unfold ;" 
and S'uppUoo^ " to entreat humbly," nave dvi and dtum. The other com- 
pounds of plioo have either ui and Uurriy or dm and dtwn^ afl, appliWy 
" to apply," applicui, applicitum^ or appticdvi^ dpplicdtum. Bjnplico, in 
the sense of explain^ has dvi and dium; in the sense of unfold^ it haswi 
ind Uum» 

1 The compounds of hadeo change a into *; as, adhibeo, odhOntL adhibUunt^ 
^ to admit ;" prohibeo, prohUwi, proUbUwm, " to forbid.'^ 




T^e following Intraiuitiyefl hare ui and Uum, aooording to tba geoenl 

Caleo, to be hot, 
Careo, to want, 
Jaceo, to lie. 
Lateo,' to lie hid. 
lioeo, to be valued, 
Mereo, to deeerve. 

Goaleo, to grow together^ 
Doleo, Id grieve, 
Nocco, to hurt 
Pareo, to appear, 
Flaceo, to pleate, 
Valeo, to be in health 






















miscere, miacui, 































imistum, or 





To mix. 

To think, to judges 

To roast. 

To tup, 


To be tUenL 

To drive awag. 

To be tilenL 

To dine. 

To see. 

To tit. 

To make a noim, 

To gna$h the teeth. 

To bite. 

To hang. 

t The compounds of laUo want the Bupine ; as, deliteOf delituiy *' to lurk ;** 
perlateo^ perfatui, *' to lie hid/* 

> The compounds of teneo change e into i/ as, eontineo^ eontinuiy eontentwn^ 
" to hold together/' Attineo^ *^ to hold ;" and pertmeo^ ^* to belong to/' have 
no supine ; and abstineo, ** to abstain from," seldom. 

4 (Jenseo has also cenetie sum in the perfect, and eensttvm in the supine. 
AoeensMj '*to reckon with," and perceneeoy "to recount," want tlie supice; 
and reeeneeo, " to review,*' has reeeneumj and reeeneitum. 

• Abeorbeo. " to sup up," and exsorbeo^ " to sup out," have sometimes 
dbeorpsif and exsorpet in the perfect. The latter, with reeorbeoy " to draw 
back/' has no supine. 

s Tlie compounds of arceo have itum in the Bupine ; as, exereeo, exereui^ 
ixercitwnj " to exercise." 

t The compounds of taceo want the supine ; as, eonticeo, eonHeui, " to keep 
nleuce;" rettceo, retioui, "to remain silent," "to conceal." 

s The participle pranetu is used in the active sense of having dined, 

» DeeideOf " to sit idle;" diseideo^ " to disagree ;" per awfeo, " to continue;" 
prcuideo^^ " to sit before ;" resideOf " to sit down," " to rest ;" and eubeideOj 
** to subside," want the supine. 

10 The compounds of mordeOy pendeOy spondeOy and tondeOy do not douUo 
the first syllable of the perfect. See 215-2. Impendeo^ " Ux overhang," has 
no perfect or supine. 










































• • 

CinUllVIy v« 







^ oomplere. 





















































( mulfium, or 
{ mulctum. 































To clip. 

To move. 

To eheriah. 

To vow. 

To favor. 

To beware of 

To be afraid. 

To boil. 


To destroy, 


To weep. 

To epiiu 

To hoop a veueL 

To 8tir up. 

To smell. 

7b advise. 

To laugh. 

To stay. 

To stick. 

To bum. 

To wipe. 

To stroke. 

To milk. 

To order. 
To indulge. 
To tvtist. 
To increcue. 
To press. 
To shine. 
To swell. 
To be cold. 

11 Verbs in veo undergo a contraction in the supine. Intransitiyo verba 
in veo want the supine ; as, paveo, pdvij '* to be afraid.'' 

11 FervOffervif another form of this verb belonging to the third ooDJtig»- 
tion, is used in a few persons, aod in the present infinitive. 

It The other compounds of the obsolete verb pleo are conjugated in the 
■ame way ; as, esopleOj impleoy rq>Uo^ suppleo. 

14 CUvi is the perfect of do of the fourth conjugation, having eUum or 
tHi^tm in the supine. The compounds, in the sense oieaUing^ are generally 
eoujugated according to this form ; as, exeio^ exeUum, 

18 The 4)ompound8 of oUo. which retain the sense of the simple verb, have 
i and Uum ; as, oboUo^ ooohii. cholAlMm^ ** to smell strongly.'* The com- 

B^orifioe), lydotivi^ aduUum. 











7b thint. 

To be cold 

The following verbs want both perfect and supine : 

Ayeo. to denre, 
Denseo, to orow tkiek 
flaveo, to be yelicw, 
Qlabreo, to be tmooik, 
Hebeo, to be bltmL 
Lacteo, to grow milky. 

liTeo^ to be black and bit 
McBreo, to be torrowfuL 
Benidcio, to ehine, 
Polleo^ to bepowerfuL 
Soateo^ tojlmfomi. 


Verbs of the Third Conjugation form the perfect and supine 













































fpartmn, or 

To ib, to make. 
To throte. 
To behold. 
To allure. 
To dig, 
To take. 
To seize. 
To taste, to be 
To deeire, 

I To bring forth. 

1 JPaeio, when compounded with a preposition, changes a into »; a», ajleio^ 
afseiy qfietwn^ '* to affect/' In the other ooinpoundi», the a is retained. A 
^w oompoundd end in fico and fie^, and belone to the first conjugation : 
aa, amphficoy " to enlarge :" taerifico, " to saorifloe ;" f^rattficor, *' to gratify ;*' 
and l/udificor^ *^ to mocK." 

* The compounds of Jaeio change a into i ; as, aJbjiciOy ah;iei, dbjectum, 

* The compounds of the obsolete verbs epeeio and lacio have exi and eetum; * 
ftzoept dieio, ** to draw out,** which has eUewi and elieUum. 

* The componnds of m^, rapiOj and eajnOy change a into i; as, aoeipio, 
acdpi, aceeptwny "to receive;^' abnpioy dbripui^ abreptumj *^to carry on;*' 
eontipiOf eonaipui^ ** to be in one^s senses.'* 

• The componnds oipario have pervi and perfwn^ and belong to the fourth 
oonJufTution ; as, ofM^to, aperire, aperui^ amerwmy " to open." So operin, " to 
shut," *^to cover/' But cotnjierto (which also has a deponent torm in the 
present indicative and infinitive, camper ior. eomperiri), *^ to know a thin^ 
ror certain," has compiri, compertum; and r4periOy '*to flnd,'^ has reperh 























To «Aow, to pram. 










To put off dothet 





To moiMtefS^ to wet 





To put oti clothes 









To spit. 





To $ett to place. 





To eneete. 


, aufire, 



To sew, to stiteK 





To givey to divide. 










To build. 





To pay ^ to wash. 





To rush, to/all. 







plui, ^ 




, OQogrui, 

^n ^IfMTMM 


To assaiL 




To assent. 










To Urh 


To write. 





To veil, to be mturied 





To 9trip, tofiay 




To say. 




• ductum, 

To lead. 

• The oomponnds ofguaUo take the form eutio, and have eussiandeussum} 
as, eoncutio^ ** to shake violently ," eoncussiy eaneussum, 

1 BsspuOf ** to Bpit out," ** to reject,'' haa no supine. 

s The compounds of luo have iUum in the sapine; aa, abUiOf aUuiy aUuium, 
♦*to wash away," "to purify." 

• The compounds of ruo have {iium in the supine ; aa, diruo^ diruiy dirulum. 
*'to overthrow." CorruOf " to fall together," and irruOf ** to roah in furiously ," 
have no supine. 

^^ The other compounds of the obsolete wuo, as abnvo^ *' to refuse ;" infwe^ 
« to nod with the head ;" and renuo. '* to deny," likewise want the snpina. 
Abnuit&rus, future participle from abn^uoj is found. 

" Supta mm, another form of the perfeot, ia somatimea naad inatead o# 














parofire, • 

( peperei, or ( panum, or 
) pani, ) pardtum. 




















To ordain. 





To be aeauiomti. 










To dmuiMmA. 





Hnnc«»drrci, ■onmcll 

^K Wf ^^W^^WW^Rp 














To eat. 







preheodfire, prehendi. 


To take hoid of. 





To elimb. 





To divide. 















To applaud. 


To play. 










To hurt 

u The forms jMrn and jMW*0ttttm are seldom ossd* 

u The fhture participle is noeeUOrtte, from noeeUwn^ the old fonn of the 
Bupioe. Aynoeeoj ** to own," has a^nfivi, agniium; and AynoM9, ** to know,^ 
has eoffndm, cof^nwum. 

14 OompeeeOf ** to feed together,*^ "to restraio ;*^ and ^ft^Mieo, "to separate," 
have ootnpeeeui, and diepeeovij without the supiue. 

!• FaUaco, " to he weary," likewise wants both perfect and supirib \ and 
also all inoeptiTe yerbe. nnlesa when they adopt the tenses of their primitiyes \ 
as, ardeeeoy " to grow not," arei^ arevm. t27, Obs. 4. 

M All the compounds of Mi9 are conjugated in the same manner, except 
eomkhf " to eat up," which haa eomieum. or eomeittim. in the supine. 8ei 
I M, ». 

>^ The compounds of daudo change au into «/ as, eoneUidOf eoneUtei^ ofmr 
tflAMfm, " to conclude." (yirouimeiULudo is found in Cawar. 

15 The compounds. of plaudOf except ap-plaudo and cireumrphudOy change 
au into o ; as, explddo, eacpldei, expiOeum, ^* to reject." 

1* The compounds of laedo change a into •/ as, Mdo^ aXUti^ olUtum^ " to 
dash against.'' 
























Inf. P9ff. 

roddre, rtei, 

yaddre, — ^— 

eed^re, oeni, 

pand^re, pandi, 

fbndSre, fikdi, 

Bomd^re, sddi, 

findSre, fidi, 

tondSre, tutftdi, 

cadSre, eeoldi, 

paddre^ oeddi; 

tenddre, teteodi, 

pendSre, pependi, 

credSre, eredldi, 

yendSre, vendldi, 
abscoodSre, abeoondi, 

atrid^re, stridi, 

raddre, rQ<U, 

aidfira, ildl, 

eingSre^ cinxi, 

fligdre, flixi, 

juDgSre, iuDxi, 

linggre, linri, 

mung^i'e, muiud, 

plaDg§r6» plazud. 



Ipassum, or 

j tunaum, or 

\ tOaum, 

\ tenaum, or 

\ tentiim» 








To yield. 

To open. 

To pour/miK 


To deaue. 

To beat 


To cut, to kill 


To hang. 
To believe. 
To sell " 
To hide. 
To creak. 
To bray (aa aa 
To airJc down 

To eurround 


To join. 

To lick. 

To wipe the noee. 

To beat. 

M The oompoands of vddo have the perfect aud aapine ; as, eoddo^ evdeif 
e9deutfi^ *' to eficape." 

<i The componnds of tundo haya ikdi and Uttum ; aa, eontundo, ** to brniae,** 
eontudiy eontusam. See 215, Rule 2. Some of the oompounds have al&o a 
perfect participle formed from tuneum; aa^ obtuneut ana rehtnautf from ob^ 
tundo aud retundo, 

<* The oompounda of «&i0 want the anjiine: aa, aeddOf oeddi, ** to happen ;*^ 
except inoidOj inc'idi, incdeum^ *' to fall in :" oecido, oeeidi^ occdeum^ " to fiul 
down ;'* and recvdo, reeidi, recdsum, ** to fidl back/' 

^ The componnds ofecedo change a into i; aa, aooido, aeeidif aedUua^ '*to 
eat about ;" wseido, decidi, deeitum, ^* to cut off.'' 

M The compounds of tendo have generally tenium in the aupine, except 
extendOj " to stretch out," and oatendo, ** to show," which have also tenrjm; 
the latter, almost alwaya. 

^ The other compounds of ^ which belong to the third conjogation have 
also dUU^ and ditum : as, eondo, eondidi, eondiium^ " to build." Abteontk 
has sometimes absoondidi. See page 167, Note 1. 

^ The compoands of eido adopt the perfect and supine of ae^/ aa, oon- 
HdOj eoneidi, conaeseumj ** to ait down." 

VI Tlie compounds of fllgo are conjugated in the same way, except ji^^/f^at, 
''to daah down," which ia a regular verb of the fiiat conjugation. 


























































































ifirizum, or 


7b m^. 


To cover. 

To dip. 


To rue. 

To go forward. 

To bind. 

To feign, 


To break 

To dc, to driue 


To gather, to read. 

To prick. 

To drive in. 

To spread. 

To aip, to plunge 

To wipe. 


To fry. 

To lie toward. 

<8 The compounda of rlgo ohange d into % ; aa, dUHgo^ dirtari, diteetm^ " tA 
direct ;" eorrigo^ correati^ eorreetwn^ ** to correct.'' 

n Sbingvo^ tingva^ and wnguo^ are alao written ettm^^ *^<^i vngo, 

>o The compounda otfrango and tango change a into i ; as, eonfringo, eon- 
frlgi^ eo^frttctumf **to Break to pieces ;" attiingOf aUigji, attaotum, *' to touch 

^ CHrcumagOj **to drive round;" perago^ **U> flnbh;"and eo&go (con- 

irant the supine. ^m5i^o, '* to douht," haa neither perfect nor supine. 

X Lego, when comi>ounded with ad, per, prm, re, and tub, retains the e; 
" ..—... - . ,eMig0y 

_ _i in the 

tt The compounds of pungo have pwuoi in the perfect; as, eompungo, **to 
ating," eompunxi, eompunetum, Bepungo, ** to prick again," has repupUgi 
and repwnm. 

s* Fangoj in the sense of to bargain," has pepl^; the present is rarely 
need in this meanin^r ; bat instead of it, pacUcor is commonly employed. 
The compounds which ohange a into * hAvepigi and pactum ; as, cdmpvngOf 
'* to fasten together," compigi, eompaetinn. Oppango, " to fasten to," haa 
also pigi and pactum. Of the other compounda which retain a, the perfect 
and supine are not found. 

^ The compounds of epargo ohange a into d ; as, aepergc^ atperei, aepet- 
sutn, " to besprinkle." 
















































velli, or vulsi, 




alitum, 6< 
























tremui, - 












To sound a <f MmpA 
To mow. 
To vex. 

To draw. 
To carry. 
To make vtater 


To till, to inhabit. 
To consult. 

To nourish. 

To grind. 

To excel. 

To drive away. 

To deceive, 


To salt. 

To play on an instru 

Tolift up. \menL 

To ragCf to roetf. 
To groan. 
To vomit. 
To take away. 
To bring out. 
To take up. 
7b deck, to dreM$. 
To buy. 

M Jiingo is also used as the present oiminxL 

^"^ C6U>y when oompotmded with ob^ changros o into u ; as, oee&lo, " to hide." 
Aocdlo, ** to dwell near,'^ and drcumedlOf ** to dwell round," have no supine 

>8 The other compounds of the obsolete ceQo likewise want the supine; 
except percellOy perouU, percuUwn^ ^* to strike," " to astonish/' JieoeUo^ like« 
wise, wants the perfect. 

<• He/eUo, r^eUij " to conftite," wants the supine. 

40 VeUoj when compounded with de^ di^ or per, has usually velii in the per- 
fect. The otlier compounds take either form Inaifferently. 

41 jLttoUo and extoUo,^^ to raise up." have no perfect or supine of their own; 
but those oiaffero and efferOy whicn agree wiui them in meaning, are some- 
tinies asttignea to them. 

M Dimo^ prdmOf and sUmOy are compounds of emo. The other compound! 
ehange e into i, and are conjugated like the simple Terb ; as, adknOf adim^ 
adempiumf '* to take away." 



























To ting. 








To ditdam. 








idvi, or sii. 





ISvi, or IfiYiy 








7b 966, to deetm. 















To CTttp, 















To creep. 

To make a noiie. 









To break. 





To boa. 




To leave. 












To wear. 





To eweep. 






4t The oompoonds oipr^emo ehAOge e into •/ as, eomprkno^ eompreuif 
preeeutn, *' to prem together." 

M The oompotmdB of ea/no have einui and eentwn; as, eoneUwy eondtk^i^ 
coneentumf ** to aing in oonoert.** Of aodnOf ** to aing to," and iaUereinOf ** to 
Bing between or daring," no perfect or anpine ia found. 

4* GoniemnOf ** to deapiae," haa eotUempei^ conUmptum, 

4t Ooneterno and extemo, when they aignify " to alarm," are regular Terbi 
of the flrat conjugation. The other compounds are conjugated like eiemo; 
aa, ineiernOf inetravi, iM^itumf *^ to spread upon." 

47 The perfect erhji is used in the sense of ** to declare one^a self heir," or 
** enter ol an inheritance." In the sense of " aeeing," eerno haa propeily 
neither perfect nor supine. 

« The com(>ounds of earpo change a into «; aa, dieeerpOf dieoerpei, dieeerp* 
htm, " to tear in pieces." 

4* The compounds of linquo have Uctum in the supine ; iu^ relimquo, relifui, 
rtUetumj ** to forHako ;" so delmquo, ** to fail." 

M The oom(>ounda of qumro obaoge a into • ; as, oo^wirv, acquit^, aoquie^ 
imm, ^* to aoQuire " 











































^r^ JS'*' j 

piBtum, or 








plexi A 


I, pleziim, 



nezi <& ] 





pezi A ] 





























• • 








To run. 
To carry. 
To he mad. 


To calif cfc mndfim 

To take. 

To do, go away. 

To provoke. 

To go to vitiL 

To attadc. 

To knead. 

To hake. 


To plait. 

To tie, or knit. 

To drees, or comh. 

To reap. 

To seek. 

To tend 

To him, 

7b enore. 

To etop. 

To liv^. 
To loose. 

ii GurrOy when compoanded with droumy re^ etibj and tranSy Boldom takes 
the reduphcation. The other oompoanda BometimeB take the reduplication, 
and Bometimes not 

n See 222-4. 

w The compounds of eero which rettun the sense of " planting" and " sow- 
ing," have eivi and eitum ; us oon^o^ eon^vi^ coneUum, '* to plant together." 
THone which adopt a diff(vent signification liave eerui and eertum ; as, aseero^ 
aseeruiy aeeertwn, " to ctaim." The latter class of compounds properly bo- 
longs to the old verb eero, " to knit," ** to plait." 

M The compounds of verto are conjugated in the same manner, except r«- 
wrtor, " to return," which is often used as a deponent verb ; and divertor^ 
"to turn anide," and profvertor^ "to outrun," wnich are likewise deponent, 
bat want the perfect participle. 

w Sisto^ " to stand still " (an intransitive verb), has neither perfect nor 
supine. The compounds have etUi and stUum ; as, aeeieto^ aetiU, aetiium^ 
** to stand bj." But these are seldom found in the supine. 



















RuLs. — Verbs of the fourth conjugation haye Ivi in Ae 
perfect, and Uum in the supine ; as, 

PrwL /«/: P«/. Sup. 

Audiob audlre, ancbyi, andltmn, 

Manio^ munire^ muDlyi, munltum, 


To hear. 

Singiiltiot Biogiiltlre^ siiigiillSTi, 




























■alui, or salii, ■altam. 


Bazud, or 






To burp. 
To come, 
To leap. 


yinctum, To tie, 


7b change tncmt^ 
To eneloee. 

ii^^a^^l To dromon 

( haoBum, 

To feel. 

To be hoarae. 

To mendf or repeiir. 

To eram. 

To prop. 


The following yerbs haye the perfect formed regularly, but 
want the supine : 

Oocntio, to be dim-sighted, 
Dementio, to be mad. 
Ferocio, to be fierce. 
Gloeio, to duck aa a hen. 

Gestio, to ahow on^a Joy by the geaturm 

of the body. 
Inq>tio^ to play the fool. 

(For desideratiye yerbe which belong to this conjugation, tee 227-8.) 

1 Veneo is a compound of vemtm and the irregular yerb eo, the tensea of 
which it follows in its inflection. 221-6. 

• The componnde of aaHio haye generally a%My sometimes aiHU^ or aOMfL 
in the perfect, and euUum in the snpine ; as, traneiUoy tranaihdy traneim^ 
or tnmeilivif tranauUwn. " to leap over." AbavUumf eireumauUum, audpr^ 
auUwih, are scarcely osea. 

• The componnds of faroio change a into a ; as, r^ereiOf r^erai^ r^erUtm^ 






220. — Rule. Depone it and common verbe form the per- 
fect participle in the &ime manner as if the active voice 
existed. 207, Obs. 3. 

To this rule, there are np exceptions in the first conjugatLoiu 



r&tus, To think. 



misertuB, To pity. 


fiiteri, . 

fii8BU8» To eoHfes9. 



To hfol 




lapsiji, To slide. 



ultuB, 7h revenue. 



Qsus, To ttte. 


Idqui, . 

loquuius (locQtiis), To speak, 
Bequutu8(8ecutu8), TofoUovf. 





questus, To complain,, 



niBus, or iiixua^ To strvoe. 



pactuB, To bargain. 



greBSUB, To go. 



profectuB, To go ajoun^^ 



nactuB. To <^uin. 



pasBUB, To suffer. 



aptuB, To get. 



oommentna. To devite. 



fruItuB, or fructuB, To enjoy. 



oblltuB, To forget 



ezperreeioB, Tb awike. 


mortuuB, To die. 

1 Misereor has also tmserittis in the perfect partioiple. 

* The compounds oifaieor change a into i, and have fessw ; as, eoi^iUor^ 
eot^sssus^ " to confess." Diffitwr^ " to deny," wants the perfect participle. 

* Ldguor and seguar have likewise looiUus and seciUus m the perfect parti- 

^ Mtor^ when oomponnded with eon^ in, obj re, eub^ has nixus oftener thas 
nUus, Adnaiory ** to lean to." has either, indifferent!^. Jhitor, in the aenae 
of " to bring forth," generally takes eniasa in the participle. 

> Adipiseor and indipiseor, ** to obtain," hare adepius and iitdeptue. 

* Morior seems to have orisfinally belonged to the fourth conjugation, the 
'infinitive moriri occurs in Plautus and Ovid ; and mortrmtrf with the penult 
long, is also found. The imperative is morere. This verb, with naseor and 
oritur hm Wiirtw ia the ftUwra pHrtio^da; aa, fwri^Arua, iMmMr«#| «rt' 








7b he horn. 

The following verbs want the perfect participle : 

Befetiaoor, -i, to be weary, 
Irasoor, -i, to be angry, 
liquor, -i, to wuU, 

RemixuBOor, -i, to remembtr, 
Ringor, -i, to grin like a dogi, 
VflMGr, -i t^feed. 





7b begin, 


221. — Irrboular Vbrba are those in which some of the 
secondorj parts are not formed firom the primary, according 
to the rules for regular verbs. 

The irregular verbs are six ; namely, sum, «o, queo^ vdlOj 
firo, andjffa. Their compounds are irregular, also. 

Sum has been inflected already, 186. After the same man- 
ner are inflected its compound, ad-, o^, de-^ inter-y o^, pra^,. 
sub-y super-sum; as, adsumyodesse^ adfui, &c. Insum wants the 

1. Prosum, *'to do good," inserts d where the simple verb 
It is inflected thus : 

begins with e, 

To do good. 

prodesse, profiu, 


Pr. PrGsumi, prOdes, prOdest ; prosiimus, prodestis, prOsunt. 
Imp. Prod-dram, •^rasy -drat; -erftmus, -er&tis, -drant. 

Pra. Profu-i, 4sti, -it; -fanua, -istis, \'^^^ 

Plu. Prof\i-eram,-dras, -drat; -erftmus, -erfttis, -drant. 
FuT. Prod-dro, -dris, -drit; -erimus, -eritis, -drunt. 
F.-P. Profu-dro, -dris, -drit; -erimus, -eritis, -drint. 

1 Naeeor is passive in signifloation. It his not the active voloe. 

8 Orior has orirer^ and always orir%tfu/r in the imperfect subjunctive, so 
oording to the fourui conjagation. Likewise in the compounds adorvrUur, 
eaoori^'4iwr ; and not adoreritur, exorerUvr. The present follows th« thirdi 
tbougJi orfrit and crilMr, with we penoU long, ara alio found. 

182 ntBEGULAB VEBBS. § 8S 


Pr. PrO-sim, -sia, -«it; -flSmus, -eStis, -smt. 

Imp. Prod-essem, -essea^ -esset; -essSmus, -essStis, -essent 

Per. Profii-^rim, -^ris, <^rit ; -erimus, -eritis, -^rint. 

Plu. Profii-issem, -isses, -isset ; -issemus, -issetiisy -isseat. 


Pb. 2. PrOd-es, or prod-esto, 2. Prod-este, or prod-estOte^ 
3« Prod-esto; 3. Pro-sunto. 


Pr. Prod-esse. Fur. Esse pro-fut&rus, a, urn. 

Pbr. Pro-fiusse. F.-P. Fuisse pro-futorus, a, um. 

Pro-fiitOnis, a, um. 

2. Possum is compounded of pdtis^ '* abley" and wm^ "I anu* 
It is thus inflected : 

Possum, posse, potui, leain^ lam able. 


Pb. Possum, pdtes, potest; possumus, potestis, possunt 
Imp. Pot^ram, -dras, -^rat; -er&mus, -er&tis, -drant. 

PxR. Poti^i, -isti, -it; -!mus, -istis, t "^^ 

Plu. Potu-dram, -^ras, -^rat; -er&mus, -er&tis, -Srant. 
FuT. Pot-6ro, -6ris, ^rit; -erlmus, -erltis, -^runt 
F. P.Potu-6ro, -^ris, -^rit; -erimus, •eiitisi -drint. 


Pb. Pos-«im, -«is, -sit; -simus, -sStis, -sint. 

Imp. Pos-sem, -«es, -set; -s^mus, -sStis, -sent. 

Pbr. Potu-^rim, -^ris, -grit; -erimus, -eritis, -^rint 

Plu. Potu-issem, -isses, -isset; -issSmus, -issdtis, -issent 

Piu Posse. Pbb. Potuisse. (The reii wanUnff.) 

§ 83 QtREOULAR TSSB8. 188 

3. Eo, Ire, Ivi, ttam^ To go. 


Pb. Eo, is, it; Imus, Itis, eunt. 

Imp. Ibam, ibus, Ibat; ibftmus, ib&tfs, ibant 

P*R.Ivi, ivisti, Ivit; ivimus, iv^s^s, | ^^^^^^ 

Plu. IvSraiDy iy^ras, iygrat; iverftmus, iyerfttis, iy^rant. 

Put. Ibo, ibis, ibit; ibimus, ibitis, ibunt. 

F.-P.IySro, iySiis, iydrit; iyerimus, iyeritis, iy&rinti 


Pr. Earn, eas, eat; eftmus, efttis, eant. 

Imp. Irem, ires, iret; ir^mus, iritis, Irent 

P*R. lySrim, iy^ris, ivfirit; iverimus, iyeritis, iydrint, 

Plu. lyissem, iyisses, iyisset; iyiss^mus, iyissetis, iyissent 


lltoT}'*^^ IIXH'-*^- 


Pr. Ire. Fut. Esse it&rus, a, um. 

PsR. Jyisse. F.-P.Fuisse itOrus, a, um. 


Pr. lens, Oen. euntis. Eundum. 1. Itum« 

Fut. Itlirus, a, um. Eundi, 6ec. 2. Itu. 

The compounds of to are conjugated after the same man- 
ner ; arf-, a^, «c-, co-, «n-, inter-, ob-^ re-d-, sub-, per-, pros-, ante-y 
prch-d-eo ; only in the perfect, and the tenses formed from it, 
they are usually contracted ; thus, adeo, adfSre, adii (seldom 
adlvi), aditum, " to go to ;" perf. adii, adiiati, or adisti, &c., 

adi^am, adOrim, &c. So likewise ysNEO, venii, , " to be 

sold " (compounded of vimim and eo). But ambio, -ire, -ivi, 
-Hum, *^ to surround," is a regular yerb of the fourth oonjuga- 

Eo, like other intransitiye yerbs, is often rendered in En- 
glish under a passiye form ; thus, it, " he is going ," ivit^ *^ he 
is gone ;" ivSrat, " he was gone ;" ivirit, " he may be gone," or 
*' dhall be gone.*' So. vinit^ ^' he is coming ;" vinit, *^ he is 



f 83 

come;'* wn^hrat^ "he was come;" &c. In the passive >Jce, 
these verbs, for the most part, are used only impersonally ; 
as, Uur ah illo^ " he is going ;^' vtfUum est ah illis^ ^* they are 
come.*' We find some of the compounds of «o, however, used 
personally; as, pfricUla adeuntur^ " — are undergone." C^a 
Libri sibylhni adlti sunt, " — were looked into," Liv. Flumen 
peMus tranAri potest. Cms. Inimieitias mbtantur, Cic. 

QiMO, ** I can," and nequeo^ " I cannot,** are conjugated in 
the samtf way as eo ; only they want the imperative and the 
gerunds, and the participles are seldom used. 

Pr. V61-0, vis, 
Imp. Vol-dbam, -dbas, 

Pkr. Volu-i, -isti, -it; 

Flu. Volu«6ram, -^ras, -5rat ; 

FuT. Vol-am,^ -es, -et; 

F.-P.Vo]u-5ro, -6ris, -6rit; 

7olui, To will^ to he wiUmg^ 


volumus, vultis, 
-ebamus, -ebfttis, 




-erftmus, -erStis, 
-6mu3, -6tis, 
-erimus, -eritis, 


Pb. VSlim, vSlis, vglit; 

Imp. Vellem, velles, vellet; 

P*R. Volu-Srim, -Sris, -6rit; 

Plu. yolu-issem,-isses, -isset ; 

velimus, velitis, 
vellemus, vell^tis, 
-eiimus, -eritis, 
-iss^mus, -issetis. 


j -Srunt, 
( or -ere. 





mmnTivE mood. 

Pr. Velle. Pm. Voluisse. 

Pr. Vdlens. 

5. Nolo, noUe, nolui. To be unwilling (from njon v6lo), 


Pr. Nolo, non-vis, non-vult ; nolumus, non-vultis, n6lunf. 

Imp. Nol-dbam, -Sbas, -^bat; -ebfimus, -eb&tis, -^bant, 

Pkr. Nolu-i, -isti, -it; -imus, -istis, i -^^unt, 

^ ' ' ' ( or-ere. 

Plu. Nolu-^iam, -€ras, -€rat; -erSmus, -erlltis, -^rant. 

FuT. Nol-am, -es, -et; -6mus, -Stis, -ent 

Piu '^l^olu ^o, -^ria, -6rit; erimus, -eritis, ^int 





Pr. Ndlim, nOlis, nOlit; nolimus, 

hfp« Nollem, nolles, nollet; nolldmus, 

PiR. Nolu-erim, -^ris, -^rit; -eiimus, 

Plu. Nolu-issem, -isses, -isset; -iss^mus, 



p j Noli, or ) nolite, or Pr, Nolle. 
'^^ (Nolito, JnolitOte. Pwu Noluisse. 

nolltis, n6lint 

noll^tis, nollenti 

-eritis, -^rint. 

-issetis. -issent 


Pr. Nolens. 
{Th€ rest toaniing,) 

6. Malo, malle, malui, To be more toiUing (nUigis 


Pr. M&l-o, m&vis, m&yult ; maliiinus, mavultis, 

Imp. Mal>ebam, -^bas, -«bat; -ebftmus, -ebfttia, 

Per. Malu-i, -isti^ -it; 

Plu. Malu-^ram, ngras, -^rat; 

FuT. Mal-am, -es, -et; 

F.-P.Malu-€ro, -firis, -5rit; 



-istis, -j 





Fr. Malim, xnftlis, midit; malimus, malitis, 
Imp. Mallem, malles, mallet ; mallSmus, mallStis, 
Per. Malu-^rim, -^ris, -€rit; -erimus, -eritis, 
Plu. Malu-issem, -isses, -isset ; -is9dmu8, •issStis, 

rpiNrnviB mood. 

Pr. Malle. Per. Maluisse. {The rest not 










7. FSro, ferre, tfili, l&tum, To carry y to bringy or suffer, 

Pr. F^ro, fers, fert; ferimus, fertis, fSrunt. 

Imp. Fer-dbam, -ftbaa, -ebat; 

Per. TuJ-i, 48ti, -it; 

Plu. Tul-(Sram, -5ras, -Srat; 

FuT. Fer-am, -es, -et; 

F..P.Tul-6ro, -6ris, -^rit; 

^bftmus, •eb&tis, H&bani. 

-^«-. '^ ir.^. 

-erftmus, -er&tis, -^rant. 

•^mus, «<6tis, -ent. 

-erimus, -eritis^ -eriuU 





Pb. Fgram, 






Imp. Ferrem, 






Pbk. Tul-^rim, 






Plv. Tul-issem, 


-isset ; 




Pb. Fer, or ferto, ferto ; ferte, or fertote, 



Pb. Ferre. 
PsB. T'llisse. 

FuT. Esse lattirus, a, um. 
F.-P. Fuisse latorus, a, um. 


Pb. Ffirens, 

FuT. Laturus, a, urn. 


N. Ferendum: 
O, Ferendi, &c. 


F§ror, ferri, l&tus, To be brought 



1. L&tunu 

2. L&tu. 

( ferrif, 

Pb. F&or, j or' ferre, \ fertnr; ferimnr, ferim^ fenxntm:. 

Imp. Fer^bor, j ^\^re. C "^^^'^I -«l*ni™'» -ebamini, -ebantur. 

Pkr. lifttus sum, or fui, l&tus es, or fuisti, Ifitus est, or Aiit^ Ac 

Plu. Lfttus Sram, or fiiSrain, l&tus dras, or fuSras, Ac 

For. FSrar, 

F.-P. Latus fu^ro, lAtus fuSris, lfttus fii^rit, &c 


orfergre, C ^e^etur; fer6mur, feremJiii, ferentur. 

Pb. FSnur, 

or ferftre, 

ferfttur; ferftmur, feraml^ fenntur. 

Imp. Ferrer, ^ orfewBre, ' ''^"^^^J ferremur, ferrem&ii, ferreator. 

PxB. Lfttus sim, or fiiSriin, lfttus sis, or fuSris, <&a 
Plu. Lfttus essem, or fuissem, lfttus esses, or fuisses, Ac 


Pb. Ferre, or fertor, fertor ; ferimini, fenmtor. 


Pb. Ferri. Pbb. Latus, a, um. 

Pbb. Esse, or fuisse Ifitus, a, um. Fur. Ferendus, a, um. 
FuT* L&tum !ri. 

§ 83 ntRsaiTLAR yxrb& 187 

hi like manner are conjugated the compounds oiflro; aa, 
affh'O^ att&liy all&tum ; aufitro^ abstuliy ahldtum ; diffiro, distuli^ 
dildtum; con/ero, cantuli, coUatum ; infitro^ intuli^ iUdtum^ 
offiro^ obtaii^ obldtum ; effhv^ extuli, eldttum. So, circum-j per-^ 
trans'^ cfe-, pro-y anie-^ ¥^^1 fe-fero. In some writers, we find 
adferOy adtuliy adldtum; conldtum; inl&tum; obfiro^ dsc, for 
afferoy 6ec. 

Obs, 1. The greater part of the preceding verbs are made 
irregular by contraction. Thus, ndlo is contracted for non 
vdlo; mOiOy fat m&gis v6lo; fihro^ firB, fert^ &c., for /Sri*, 
fhity &C. FeroTy ferrift or ferret fir tur^ iorfirririSy &o. 


8. Fio, fiSri, &ctns, To he madey or done; to become, 


Pr. Fio, fis, fit; fimus, fitis, fiunt. 

Imp. Fiebam, fi^bas, fi^bat ; fiebftmus, fiebfttis, # fi^banl 
PsR. Factus sum, or fui, factus es, or fuisti, &c. 
Flu. Factus eram, or fueram, factus ^ras. or fu&*aSy &c 
FuT. Fiam, fies, fiet ; fi^mus, fi^tis, fienti 

F.-P. Factus fuSro, factus fugris, &c. 


Pr. Fiam, fias, fiat; fi&mus, fifttis, iiant 

Imp. Figrem, fibres, fiSret; fier^mus, fier^tis, fiSrent. 
Per. Factus sim, or fu^rim, fiictns sis, or fiiSris, &c. 
Plu. Factus essem, or fuissem, &ctus esses, or fuisses, ^ca 


urmnnvB mood. 

Pr. Fieri. 

Pbr. Esse, or fuisse fiictus, a, um. 

FuT. Factum In. 


FuT. Faciendus, a, um« 2. Factu. 

Per. Factus, a, um. 

Obs, 2. The third person singular of ^ is often used im- 
jpersonally ; as,^/, " it happens ;"^e6a/, " it happened." 

188 DBFBOnVK VEBBS. § 84 


Obf. 3. Fio is used as the passive of fado^ from which it 
take:} the participles. The compounds of/acio which retain a 
have Jio in the passive ; as, caJe/aciOj " I warm ;" cafejio, '• I 
become warm," ^^ I am warmed," d^c. But those compounds 
which change j^zcto into^to have the regular passive in Jicior; 
as, conficiOj car*Jicior, dsc. 

9. To irregular verbs may be added ^, " to eat." Though 
this is a regular verb of the third conjugation, it has an L:r<s 
gular form resembling 8uni in the present indicat^e, imperfect 
subjunctive, the imperative, and the present infinitive ; thuji» 

Edo, edSre, or esse, 3di, esum, To eat, 





I J Ed^rem, ed^res, ed^ret, ederdmus, ederStis, ederent. 
' ( or essem, essos, esset ; essemus, ess^tis, essent. 



j Ede, or edito, edito ; edite, or editOte, ) ^ *^ 
( Es, or esto, eato ; este, or estdte, J ^"**^« 


222. — Defeotivb Verbs are those in wliich 
Bome of the parts are wanting. 

1. These three, ckft, ecepiy and memlni, are used only in the 
preterite tenses, that is, in the perfect, and the tenses derived 
from it; and for this reason, they are called Preteritx 

Obs. 1. Cc^ has a present, as well as a perfect significa 
tion ; and hence ccepiram has the sense of the imperfect, as 
well as of the pluperfect ; and coepirOy of the future, as well as 
of the future perfect ; thus, ccepi, " I begin," or " 1 have begun ;" 
ccepiram, " I began,*' or " I had begun ;" cospiro^ " I shall be- 
gin," or ^* I shall have begim ;" and so of the subjunctive. 


Oha. 2. Odi and memini have the sense only yf the present, 
imperfect, and future; as, ddi^ *^1 hate;" odiran^ ^^1 hated;" 
adero, " I will hate." 

2. The parts of these verbs in use are as follows, throui;;b 
all their persons and numbers ; viz : 

Odi, oddram, odSro, od^rim, odiBtena, odiate. 

4 PAKTidPLn, ObW) oaQnu. 

OoBpi, taspSn/D, ooepdro^ OGBpfirim, eoBpiflaeiii» eopiaM. 

PiaEnaFUBi) ooptDBi ocBpidnu. 
Memini, meminSram, meminSro, m«iiuii6riiii, meminiiaein, meminiMa 

iMFnATXYi, mMntinto, mementfite. 

3. The verb nGvi is also used as a preterite, having like 
ikU and memini only the sense of the present, the imperfect, 
and future. It differs from the others, however, in having a 
present^ nosco^ which properly has an inceptive sense, mean 
ing '*I begin to know," "I learn;" hence ndvty '^I have 
learned," that is, " I know." 

* The parts of nOvi in use are as follows ; viz ; 

NOTi, DorSnun, novSro^ noy^rim, noyissem, noTiise; 

0<mtraeUd, ndram, — — ndrim, ndasem, ndesei 

4. There are many verbs, not usually considered^ among 
defectives, which want certain tenses, or numbers, or persons ; 
thus, rfo, " I give," has neither dor nor der. Fdriy " to speak," 
with its compounds, is used only by the poets, and by them 
chiefly in the third person, y&ft*r; the imperative ^r«; and the 
participle fdiui. The ablative genmd, fando^ occurs in a pas- 
sive sense. 

Farh'e^ " to be mad," wants the first person singular, and 
the second person plural of the present, and probably all the 
future of the indicative, the imperative, and also the perfect 
and supine. 

5. The following defective verb* are those which most 
frequently occur. Aio^ " I say ;" — inquam^ " I ^say," which is 
used only "between words quoted, and never stands at the 
beginning \-^f6rem^ " I should be ;" the same as easem ;—dve^ 
and salve, "hail ;" — Cedo, " tell thou," or " give me ;" — quatso^ 
**' I beseech," originally the same as qtutro. It is used com- 
monly as an interjection. 


The parts of these verbs remaining are the following . 

L Ajo, I iay, I aprm, 

Ind. Pb. Aio, tSs, ait; aiunt 

Imp. Aidbam, aiebaa, miebat; aiebAmus, aiebfttia, aiebasL 

P*E. aisti, tat 

Bub, Pe. aiafl, aiat-, -^_ aiimt^ 

Imp FtL ^— ai 

Part Pe. Aiena 

2. lNQaAM,/fay. * 

fnd Pa. Tngnanii inquiB, inqnit; inqiftiniis, ihquttis, inquhmt 

Imp. inquidbat; inquiebaot. 

Pek. ^— ^ inquisti, inquit 

Fot. ——^^ inquiea, inquiet 

Jmp, Pe, inque, inquito; inqi^te. 

Part, Pe. Inquiena. 

8. FJ^UEM, Ithouid be. 

8vb. Imp. Fdrem, fiires, f5ret; — — ■. l5r«DiL 

In/, Put. F^re, to be about to be, same aA/tUQrum esae, 

4. Ate, Aoi/. 
hnp. Pa. Aye, or ayeto; ayCte, or ayet6te. Inf. Pe. A?flra 

6. SALySi AatA 

/ml FuT. Salyebia. 

Imp. Pe. Salye, or salyfito ; salydte, or saly et&te. 

In/, Pe. Salyere. 

e. Okdo, teU, give. 
Imp, Pe. Cddo; c£do,oro6<fite,6on<rac<«i(oettei 

7. Q,J3AaiOt I beaeeeh. 
Ind. Pe. Qu8bbo; qmesiimiia 

e. ^tMtin,/aa»fn, and /iu;o, sometimes called defectiye yerbs, are proper- 
ly old fonns of tenses ; autim being put for atuirinif ivom audeo, ** to dare ** 
•nd/dUEtm and /axo, for /ecirim aixd/eciro, from /aeio. So also Hge and 
o^f ^tf, " come,** are imperatiyes from &go, in a somewhat different senseb 
juat aa &ve^ "hail," is an imperatiye from aveo, "to be weU." 

223.— § 85. IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

1. Impebsowal Veebs are those which are used 
only in the third person singular, and do not admit 
of a personal mbject or nominative before them.' 




2. Impersonal verbs, when translated literally into English, 
have before them the neuter pronoun it; as, delectat, ^' it de- 
lights ;" decet^ ^* it becomes ;" contingit^ ^* it happens ;" evhiit^ 
" it comes to pass ;" &;c They are inflected thus : 

Ist Conj, 

2d ConJ. 

8d CanJ. 

4th OonJ. 

TfuL Pb. Delectat, 


Oontiogit, • 


Imp. Delect&bat) 




Pbs. Del«vctavit, 




Plu. DelectaY^.rat» 




Fur. Deleet&bit, 




F.-P. Delectayfirit 




Sub.TtL. Belectet, 




T¥P Delectfiret» 




Per. Delectay^ritk 




Plu. DeleetaTiBeet 




Inf. Pr. BelectAre, 




I'sR. Belectayiflse. 




3. Most Latin verbs may be used impersonally in the pa8> 
sive voice, especially intransitive verbs, which otherwise have 
no passive; as, pugndtur, "it is fought;" Javiiur, "it is 
favored ;" curHtur, " it is run ;" venltur^ " it is come ;" from 
jmgnOy faveo^ currOy and venio. Thus, 

Ist Conj, 

Ind, Pa. Pognfitur, 
Imp. Pugnabfttur, 
Per. PugDfitum est,^ 
Plu. PugD&tmn grat,* 
Fur. Pugnabitur, 
F.-P. Pugnatum firit* 

2d (kmj, 

Fautum esV 
Fautum £rat»* 
Fautum Srit* 

8d C<mj, 

Curaum esV 
Cursum £rat»' 
Oui'sum ^rit' 

4th <7of|/. 

Yentum esV 
Ventum €rat»* 
Ventum firit* 

Svh, Pr. Pugnetur, Faveatur, Cuiratur, Veni&tur, 

Imp. Pugnaretur, FaverCtur, Curreretur, Veniretup, 

Per. Pugo&tum sit,* Fautum sit,* Gursiun sit,* Ventum sit,* 
Plv. Pugnatum esset^ Fautum esset^ Curaum esset'* Ventum esset'* 

Inf, Pr. Pugnari, Favfiri, Curri, Veniri, 

Per. Pugnatum esse,* Fautum esse,* Curaum esse/ Ventum esse,* 
FuT. Pi^natum!ri. Fautum in. Curaum Iri Ventum Iri 

4. Grammarians reckon only ten real impersonal verbs, and 
all in the second conjugation ; namely. 

DSeet, deeuit, Ac, 

Ubet, libuit or libitum est, ibc. 

It becomes^ it beeatrie, Ao, 
It pleases^ it pieaud, Ac 

1 or taiU * or fa&rat. * or fdirit. « or foisset. * or ftiiaM. 

192 DfPEBSONAIr YBRBS. § 85 

Ilo«t» lioQft or Itdftum est, A/^ It t« lawfid, it was lawftd, Ae, 
MiB^ret, mlB^ruit or mueritum etit, Ae, It pities, it pitied, ^ 

Oportet, oportoit^ Aol, It behooves, it lotu inevmhent <m» iu, 

P^et, piguit or pigitom est^ Ao, It griwee^ it grieved, dca 

Poeoitetk poBoituit, Ac, It repents, it repented, Aa 

F&det^ puduit or puditom ett» 4q, It shames, it shamed, Aa 

Taxlet, tflsduit or twetim ett^ 4q, jR toMriec, i< tpramd^ Aa, 

liquet) R appears, (This yerb haa do perl) 

But many other verbs are used impersonally in all the con- 

5. Under impersonal verbs, may be comprehended those 
which express the operations or appearances of nature ; as, 
fulgHratj " it lightens *y^ fulminate tihiaiy " it thunders ;'* grandi- 
nat^ **it hails;" so, gUdty pluit^ ningity lucetdt^ adveaperas- 
cit, dec. 

6. Impersonal verbs are applied to any person or number, 
by putting that which stands before personal verbs, as their 
nominative, after the impersonals, in the case which they 
govern; as, 

PUUset mihi, It pUases me, or I please, 

Pl&oet tibi, Jt pleases thee, or thou pUasesL 

Plficet illi. It pleeues him, or he pleases, 

PlAcet uSbis, It pleases us, or we please. 

PlAoot yMb, a pleases you, or you please. 

Plftcet illis, It pleases them, or they please. 

So, pygndtur a me, — a te, — ab illo, &c., " it is fotfght by me," 
— "by thee,'* — "by him;" that is, I fight, thou tightest, he 
fights, 6^0. Hence, as the meaning of a transitive verb may 
be expressed by eithei* the active or the passive voice, so, when 
an intransitive verb is translated by a verb considered tran- 
sitive in English (132, Obs, 4), the English passive form of 
that verb is expressed, in Latin, by ^e passive used im- 
personally : thus, actively, faveo /lit, " I favor you ;" pas- 
sively, favUur abi a me^ " you are favored by me," and so of 

7. Impersonal verbs, not being used in the imperative, take 
the subjunctive in its stead ; as, delectet, " let it delight.'* In 
the passive voice, their participles are used only in the neuter 
gender. The gerunds and supines are but seldom used. 

§ 86 IMP£K80NAL VKBBS. 198 


(For the meaning of the tmpersonals used in the following 
•zercises, see 223, Nob.<2, 3, 4.) 

1. Oive the desiffnatioHf tJie place found, the trcmslcUion ; thaB, deleetat, 
ft yerb impersonal, first 0(»^ugatiQii, foimii in tbe present indioatiYe, actire ; 
"it delights." 

Delectabit, decebat, decebit, dec^ret, contingit, continget, 
contigit, contig^rit, ev^nit, evenit, eveniet, eveniat, pugnabatur, 
pugnatum est, pugnetur, pugnardtur, favetur, fautum sit, 
fautum ftierit, ventum est, ventum 6rit ; — ^libet, libuit, licitum 
est, miseret, miseritum est, piget, pUdet, fldgtirat, t5nat, 
grandin&bat, gr%iidinabit ninzit, &c 

2. Oive the deeignation^ Ae^ a$ in No. 1, and translate a$ the mord fcl- 
lomng the impereonal requires, according to 228-4( ; thus, dUeetat me, 
delectat, a yerb impersonal, first oonjngation, present indieatiye^ aetire ; 
"it dalightB me," or « I delight" 

Delectabit me, te, ilium, nos, vos, illos ; d^cet vos, decSret 
vos ; placet tibi; favetur vObis, favebitur nObis (a te, 6y j/oy)i 
pugnabitur ab illis ; venitur a te, ventum est ab illis, — a vObis, 
— a nobis, — ab illo, — a te, — a me; piget me; licet mihi, 
licebit vobis, licitum est illis ; miseret me, miseruit te ; placuit 
vobis, — ^nobis, — ^illis ; miseret nos, &c. 

8. Render the following English into Latin, hy the impersonals; thus, 
** I delight," deleetat me, literally, " it delights me." — Hf, B. The noun or 
pronoun, after misiret, pcenitet, p&det, toedei, ptget, dicet, deleetat, and opor- 
tety must be put in the accusative, 419 and 428. Other impersonals are 
followed by the dative of the object, when they have one ; and when they 
express any thing done by another, the agent or doer, when expressed, is 
put in the ablative preceded by a or ab, as in 223-6. 

ExBRoiSES. — It becomes, it has repented, it is fought, it 
pleases, it is favored; it becomes me, I repent (it repents 
me), I fight (it is fought by me), you are favored (it is favored 
to you), you are tevored by me ; I ^repented, they have 
repented, you will repent ; they are favored by us, — by you, 
— by me, &c. ; we are favored by them,-^by you ; they come 
(it is come by them), they have come, we will come ; we run, 
we will run ; if {si) you please, if they please ; it was allowed 
to us, we were allowed ; it delights us, or we are delighted, 
they are delighted ; it thunders, it lightens, it hailed, &o 




225. — Redundant Vkbbs are those which have more thaa 
one form of the same part, or which have different forms to 
express the same sense ; as, assentio and asseniior, **' to assent ;** 
/(ibrico or foMcor^ " to frame ;" mereo and mereovy " to de- 
serve ;" ^M and eSy " thou eatest ;" edit and eaty '^ he eats ;** 
from idOy &c. 

Redundant verbs, in Latin, are chiefly those which are used 
in two different conjugations ; for example, 

1. Some are usually of the first conjugation, and sometimes 
of the third; as, l&voy lavdre; and l&vOy lavh'ey ''to wash." 

2. Some are usually of the second conjugation, and soma 
times of the third ; as, 

Ferveo, ferv€re ; and fervo, fervSre, to boil. 
Fulgeo, fulgere ; " frtlgo, fulgfire, to shine, 
Strideo, stridere; " strido, strid^re, to creaky &o. 

3. Some are commonly of the third conjugation, and some- 
times of the fourth ; as, 

Fodio, fodSre ; and fodio, fodire, to d%g, 
Sallo, sallSre ; '^ sallio, sallire, to salty &o. 

4. Cieoy dire is commonly of the. second conjugation, tmt 
iometimes it is cio^ €ire in the fourth, " to stir up." 


Verbs are derived either from nounSy or from other verbs. 

226. — I. Verbs derived from nouns are called Denomina- 
tives; as, coenoy " to sup ;" laudoy " to praise ;"^aw<£o, " to de 
fraud ;" lapidOy " to throw stones ;" opirory " to work," ^c, 
from ccenay lauSy/rauSy Idpis, dpusy <kc. 

But when they express imitation or resemblance, tbey are 
called Imitatives; as, patriscOy Orascory bubulo, comieory &c 
"I imitate," or "resemble my father," — "a Grecian," — "ao. 
owl," — ^" ft erow ;" from p&tery OrceeuSy 6«6o, comir. 


227. — U. Verbs' derived fix)m other verbs, are chieilj ^b% 
following ; viz. : 

1. Frequent ATivss. These express frequency of action, and 
are all of. the first conjugation. They are formed from the 
last supine, by changing atu into ttOy in the verbs of the firsl 
conjugation ; and u into o, in verbs of the other three conjuga- 
tions; thus, 

Jxut Sup. Freq. 

Ist Cl&mo, to^ry; damAtu, Aeftctf damito, ioeryyrtf^iiMl/y. 

2<i Terreo, to frigfUen ; tenitn, " UarrLta, to frighten often, 

Zd. YeitOt^o turn; yerau, ** yeno, to turn frequently, 

4th. Dormio, to eleep ; dormitu, " dormito, to deep often, 


In like manner, deponent verbs form f^equentatives in orf 
as, mXnor^ " to threaten ;" of which in the active voice, the 
latter supine would be minO;tu^ and hence minitoTy " to threaten 
frequently," "—-ever and anon." 

Obs, 1. Some frequentatives are formed' in an irregular 
matiner ; as, ndto, from no; nosfAto^ from nosco; smtor or rather 
scis&itory from scio; pavito^ from paveo; sector ^ from siqnor; 
hquttoTy from Idquor. So quoerito^ funditOy agitOy flu\to^ &c., 
which formed regularly would be qucesitOy jilsoy acto^fluxo, &c. 

Oba, 2. From frequentative verbs are also formed other 
frequentatives; as, curro^ cursoy eursito; pelh, puUo, pulsito, or, 
by contraction, 2?«//o; capiOy capto, capHto; c&noy canto, canHto; 
Wefendoy defmsOy defentHto; dlcOy diciOy dicdto; &c. 

Obs, 3. Frequentatives do not always express frequency of 
action. Many of them have much the same sense with their 
primitives, or express the meaning with greater force. 

2. Inceptive Verbs. These mark the beginning or continued 
increase of an action or state. They are formed by adding 
CO to the second person singular of the present indicative; 



1st (7cm;. L&bo, l&bas; InceptivCy labasco. 

2d " Caleo, cfiles; ." calesco. 

3d " Tr^mo, tremis; " tremisco 

4th " Obdormio, obdormis; " obdormisco. 

J9ote. — ^Bnt all verbs in teo are not inoeptiyea. Inoeptives are also formmi 
from substantives and adjectives; as, pueraeoOy from puer; dtdoMOOy from 
ehiloie; Juvenesoo, from juvime, 

Obs, 4. All inceptives are intransitives, and of the third 

196 ADVEBBS. § 89 

conjugation. Thej properly want both the perfect and the 
eupine, unless very rarely, when they borrow them from 
. their primitives. 

3. Desiderative Verbs are those which signify a desire, or 
intention of doing a thing. They are formed £rom the latter 
supine by adding rto, and shortening u; as, coenaturio, ^^1 
desire to sup,*' from coeno, last supine, coendtu. They are all 
of the fourth conjugation, and want both perfect and supine, 
except these three ; viz. : esurio, esurlre, esuHvi^ esurltum, " to 
desire to eat ;^^parturio, parturire, parturlvi, '* to be in travail ; 
and nupturio, nuptuiire^ nupturfvi, ^' to desire to be married. 

4. DiMiNUTFVES, which represent an action as little or 
insignificant. They are formed from the present by changing 
o, eOy and to, into iUo; and they are all of tibie first conjugation; 
as, canto^ eantilio^ con^cribo, eonscribiUoy sorbeo, sorhiUo. 

5. Some verbs in SSO are called Intensivib; as, capessOj 
" I take ;^^/aceMOy " I do 'y'petesgo, OTpeHsso^ *' I seek earnestly." 


§ 89. ADVERBS. 

228. — ^An Adveeb is a word joined to a verb^ 
an adjecii/ve^ or another ad/oerh^ to modify it, or tft 
denote some circumstance respecting it. 

229. — Adverbs may be considered in respect 
of Signification^ DeriA)ation^ and Comfparison. 


230. — In respect of signification, adverbs may 
be arranged, in Latin, under the followiDg heads : 

1. Advbebs of Plage, comprehending those whioh signify : 

1 it Afotion or t^st in a place ; as, ilW, " where f.hic, ** here f ilUc^ " there f 
intu9^ " within ;"/5n«, " without ;** vhlquey " every where ;" Ac. 

Sd. Motion to a place; da, quo! ''whither T hue, ''hither;" iUw, Uthtc, 
' " thither f tfd, •* to that place ;" alio, " to another place f Ac. 

Bd. Motion from a place ; as, trnde, ** whence ;" hinc, " hence ;" UltnCf inA^ 
• thence f mpeme, " from above f Ac. 

§ 89 ADYIBBB. 197 

4th. Motkm thrwgh er ly « flaet; tm, qud fwioA WKjf Ivne'^tfah 

way f olid, ** another wb.j f irai 

t. Advkebs of Tims; as, nunc, '*nofwf hodie, "to-dajf tun, ^thttf 
ni^fer, ** lately f max, " by and by f temper ^ ** alwayB f Ac 

8. AoYXRUB OF Quantitt; as, pdrum, *'liUle*" fTiu/Aiin, ^mnohf /xAmTi 
"afanoflt ;" guanio, "how nmch f <fca 

4. AnvaaBS of QuiUTT ; as, bine, ** well f miUe, " ill fjorftter, ** brar^ 
fy ^ and many others derived from adjeotives or partkuples. 

6. AVTERBs OF Maitvxs fvia. of actiim or condition), induding fhoM 
whieh express exKarteUian, a^rmatian, negatum, granting, forbidding, <«•<• 
tern^ation, doubt, contingency, irai ; as, pro/eeto, ** truly f non, hmud, ** not f 
eurf ** wbj V* quOre, "wherefore," 4q. 

t, AnvKaBS of RaLAnoif, or sneh as express oircomstances of eomF 
parieon, retemblanee, order, aeeemblage, eeparatum^ ^ ; 9A,potiue, ** rather f* 
Ua, He," BO f tUmtU, ** togeth^f teoreum, ** apart f Ao. 


231. — ^The Simple and PHmiti/ve adverbs are 
but few in number ; as, non^ " not f %bi^ " there f 
maVj " presently ;" ^imo, " then f Ac. 

232. — ^The Derwati/ve adverbs are nmnerons, 
and are formed in the following manner : 

1« Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second dedensioDai 
generally end in e; as, alte, "highly," from aUue; libire, "freely," from 
Uber, Sometimes they end in o, urn, or ter; as, tiUo, safely," from tiUue; 
tantvm, " so much," from tantue; dUre and durUer, " hardly," fit>m d&rue, 

2. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third dedensioa generally 
end In ter; K^/eli&Uer, "happily," fpomfHix, Sometimes in e; tm,fiMe, 

* easily," fi^un founts ; and one ends in o, namely, cmnlno, " altogether " 
from otnnie. 

The neuter gender of adjectives is often used adverbially ; as, rieeiu, 
"recently," for reeenter; torva, "sternly," for torve; didce, "sweetly," for 
dul^Uer; thus, Horace, dulee rident, " sweetly smiling f Ac 

8. Adverbs derived from nouns generally end in im or Uu8 ; as, Wrttcm, 

* man by man," from vir ; fimdUtu, " from the ground," from. /undue. 

Many adverbs in im, however, are derived frx>m participles ; as, eennm, 
" by degrees," frxan eenaue {sentio, " I perceive "). A few in Htue ore de* 
rived frx>m adycotiTes ; aa» antipOtue, from antipnu; Aa 




4. AdTerbs are tanned hf oompositioD in Tarioas wayi ; two or more 
▼ords fonning a phraae, or part of a sentence, and syntacticallj oombined, 
b^iDg formed into one word; as, hodie, "to-day," from hoe die; seiHeet, 

* truly," from telre licet; guomddo, "how," from quo mddo; quamobrem, 

* wherefore," from qiuanob rem; Ac 

Obi, 1. The adyerb is not an essential part of speech. . It only serves to 
express in one word what would otherwise have required two or more ; as^ 
9apienter, ** wisely," for eum Mpientia; temper ^ ** always" for in omtu 
tempore ; ^ Indeed, similar phrases, used to express eiroumstances of 
tima^ place, manner, order, ana the like, constitute what may be called 
adyerbial phrases, or clauses, though the words of which they consist are 
to be parsed separately, and combined according to the rules of syntax. 

Obe. 2. Borne adverbs are used to denote time, place, or order, according 
as the connection requires ; as, abiy ** where," or ** when ;" inde, ** from that 
pUice," *" from that tmie," " after that," " next ;" KaetinuBy *" hitherto," *" thus 
nr," applied indifferently to place, time, or order. 

Obe, 8. Some adverbs of time, apply indifferently to the past, the 
present^ or the future; as Jam, "afready," ''now," **by and by;" dlim, 
** long a£o," * sometime hereafter." Some adverbs of place are equally 
various m their use ; as, e$ae peregrS^ " to be abroad f ire peregrdf * to go 
abroad f redlre peregrin " to return frx>m abroad." 


233. — Adverbs derived from adjectives are 
generally compared like their primitives. The 
positive commonly ends in e^ o, or ter: the com- 
parative, in iu9 / and the superlative, m vme ; as, 

Alte, highly; 
Fortifter, bravely; 


234. — The following adverbs are compared irregularly, like the ad- 
eetives from which they are derived ; viz 

Acriter, sharply; 
lAh^re, freely ; 
TtHto, eafdy; 


BSne, 100/2; 
FaoQe, eaeily; 
yaie, badly; 

TSrvaai, HUle ; 








§ 90 FBiPOsrrioinL 199 

Positive wanting, 

M2giB, more, nuudiEne; ociiis, more noifily^ oeudoM; prin^ momt 
porimo or primum ; potins, raiherf potiadlmiim. 

Comparative wanting. 

PBiie, almost, peniadme; nOper, lately , nnpttnlme; nftre or oofltir 
nein^jf, noviBdme ; merito^ deeervedlyj meritiidme. 

Superlative wanting. 

S&tiB, erumffhf tatiiu ; ai&evm, otherytiee, leoiuflb 

Two AdverbB not derived from mdjeotiTeB are ako eompsred ; immAf% 
Su, "loDg " dtnUue, dhUiMAme ; and aeipe, ** often,* iopliM, Mq»tiiVnML 


235. — ^A PBEPOsmoiir is a word whicli shews 
the relation between a noun or pronoun foUowing 
it, and some other word in the sentence. 

Hie preposition, as its name imports, stands before the noon or pronoim 
whieh it governs. — ^Ih Latin, 

1. Twenty-eight Prepositions govern the Accusative; vie: 

Ad, to, at, towards. Inter, between^ among^ during. 

Apud, at, near, with. Intra, vfithin. 

Ante, before (of tiine, place, Juxta, near, beside. 
or rank). Oh, for, on account of, before. 

Adversus, ) . . toMorda ^^^®®» *** the power of. 
Adversum, J ^** • * Per, trough, during, by. 

Circa, ) ^ t^ 4 Pone, behind. 

Orcum, f «''<^**^» «^<^'- Post, behind, after, since. 

Circater, about (of time inde- Prceter, besides (passing by), 

finitely). beyond, besides, except 

Cis, ) ^r • • J '^r • Propter, near, on account of. 

at^a, [ '^ ****"*' '"**"• Secundum, aUmg, accc^ding 
Contra, against, opposite. to. 

Erga, totoards. Supra, above. 

Extra, beyond, out of. Trans, across, over, beyond. 

Infra, beneath. ' Ultra, beyond. 

200 PRSPOSinoNS. § 90 

2. Fifteen Prepositions govern the ablative ' viz: 

Ab, \ from, by, after, !^ ^^]^ ml of , from, after, by. 

Abs, ) Paiam, before^ with the knaW' 

Absque, without, ledge of. 

Clam, without the know- Prae, before^ in comparison wiih^ 

ledge of, on account of 

Coram, before^ in presence of. Pro, before^ for^ a/ccording to. 

Cum, with. Sine, without, 

De, concerning^ of over, T§nus, a^^r a«, up to, 

8. Four Prepositions govern the Accusative or Ablative ; viz. 

With the AocuBative : With the AblaUve : 

In into, towards^ against. In, upon, in, among, 

Suo, under (motion to), Sub, under (motion or rest), 

about. at, near, 

Siiper, above, over, beyond, Siiper, upon, concerning, 
Subter, under, Subter, under, 


1. A IB tised before consonants; a&, before TOwels, and k^ J, r, s, and 
sometimes I ; ahs, before t and qu, ^ is used before oonsonantB. 

2. Tinits is placed after its case ; and also cvmt when joined to mm; ^ 
SBy quo, qui, and quibus ; as, micum, <&c. Clam sometimes goyems the ao- 
eusative ; as, dam poire, ofc patrem. 

8. The adverbs prUpe, " nigh ;" usque, " as far as ;** vermt, « towards," are 
often fbllo-wed by an accnsallve governed by ad miderstood, and sometimes 
expressed. So also prdeid, ** &r" is followed by th« ablatiTe governed by 
a, understood. 

4. Prepositions not followed by their ease, are to be regarded as ad- 

5. Prepositions are sometimes eombined ; as, ex adversua turn Idemn* 
Oio. In ante, diem, " till the day.'' Id. Ex ante (Kern, ** from the day.*- 
But prepositions compounded together, commonly bdcome adverbs or oon- 
jun^ons ; as, propdlam, proiinua, inHipery Ao, 

6. A preposition with its case is often used as an adverbial pihrase ; as, 
ex anlmo, " earnestly ;" ex adoerso, " opposite ;" ex improvUo, * suddeidy f 
extempore, "oflF-hand.'* Quamobrem (quam ob rem), "wherefore;^ put 
propter {quoe propter) ; quocirea {quod circa), Ac. 

7. Prepositions are either primitive ; as, €id, dpud, ante, &q. ; or deriva- 
tive ; as, adversum, from the adjective adversue ; secundum, from eecukdus. 
They are either simple ; as, ad, ante, abs; or compound; as, ex adversum^ 
absque; or inseparable ; as, am, di or tUs, <&a 2S9-2. 



237. — 1. Prepositions are often prefixed to 
other words, especially to verbs, the meaning of 
which they generally modify by their own ; thus, 

238. — 1. A,ab,ab^"f[<mif u,du<»,'*l\etAf4ibdueo,*'UeaAaMaj,* ' 
or ** from f sometimQs it d«not6t priyatiQa ; as, OmrnM, ** mad" 

2. Ad, "tof* as, adduce i lead to." It is aometimea inteniiYe ; aa, 
addmo, ** I loye greatlj " 

9. J>^ in oompoutian gwianUly ngnifiat ** downward f at, detemuh, * I 
go dffwaf dt<^ido,'*l fiiU down." Sometimes it is intensiTe ; as, <Mim^ 
" I love greatly ;" sometimes it denotes priration ; as, dnpiro, "■ I despair f 
d!gm«»M» " mad." 

4. J^GteXf" out olT* ** from f as, exeo, " I go out** It is sometimes in- 
tflBsire ; as, dsrdro, ** I beg earnestly f scxnetimes priyatiTe ; as, extangftu, 
** pale f ex9pe8, " hopeless." 

6. /fs** into," •*{!!,"* against;" as, tn/iro,"I bring inf irruo, «I rush 
against or upon." With adjectires it generally reverses the signification* 
as, in/idus^ ** unfaithful f indifffiuM, ** imworthy." In some compounds, it 
has contrary significations, according as they are participles or adjectiyes; 
as, fsMToed^M; " called upon ;" '^not called uponf immvtdtWf ** changed," 
** unohaDgied." 

6. Per, ** through," is commonly intensiye, especially with adjectiyes ; bm, 
petfadUiM, ** yery easy." With guam, it is strongly intensive ; as, per quam 
fiuUlU, ** exceedingly easy." In /Mf/ldvi, ** perfidious," it is negativa. 

7. PrcB, ''before," with adjectives is intensive; as, pratelarui, **rwy 
dear," ** very renowned," 

8. Pro denotes" forth f as, j9rodiQeo,<' I lead forth.* 

9. Sub often diminishes the sigaifioation; as, rideo, ** I laugh f mMdst^ 
"I smile;" albut, " white f tuboLbm, ''whitish." Sometimes it denotes 
motion upwards; as, tuhi^o, "I raise up;" sometimes conoealment; as, 
rapU, ' I take f tubripio, " I take secretly," " I steal** 

iV^^.— PrepoBitions frequently seem to add nothing to the words, with 
wln<^ they are compounded. 

Obs, 1. In combining with the simple word, some prepositions fre<][i]ently 
undergo a change of form, chiefly for the sake of eupnony, (or which sea 


202 ' INTSBJXCTIONS. § 92 


239. — 2. The following syllables, a/m^ d% or dis^ 
^e, se^ coTij are called insepa/roble Prepositions^ 
because they are never found, except in compound 
words. Their general signification is as foUows 2 

Am, about y around; as Ambio^ to surround. 

Di, or diB, asunder; ^ Diyello, to ptdl asunder. 

Be, back, again ; ** Rel^go, to read again, 

Se, apart^ or aside; " SepOno, to lay aside. 

Coo, together; ** OoncsceBCOy to grow together, 

Ob$. 1. Scmie of these sjlUbles, in oombimng with the simple word, Bom« 
times yary their form (216-^X '^^ "^f farther modify its significatioii ; bm, 
1st Am adds to the verb the general idea of round, round about 
Sd. DiSy or dij sometimes reverses the meaning of the simple word ; a^ 
/aci/w, « easy f dificUis, ** dmcuit f fldo, ** 1 tnBt,*' diffido,**! dis- 
trust" Sometimes it increases it ; as, cupio, ** I desire f discupio, 
•* I desire much.** 
Sd. Re sometimes reverses the meaning of the simple word ; as, daudo, 
** I shut ;" r«j/ikfo, « I opea" 

4th. Be has little variation of meaning. With adjectives, it denotes privar 
tion ; as» sec&rus, ** free from care." 

SUl Con (for cum) conveys the idea of joint or combined action, and some 
times strengthens the meaning of the word with which it is com- 

Obe. 2. The syllables ns and ve are also prefixed to words, and have a 
negative signification; as, /a*, "justice;" nifas, " injustice,'* " impiety f — 
$eio, ** I know ;" nesdo, ** I Imow not f — sOniM, ** healtny ;" vesdnuSy ** sickly" 


240. — An iNTERjEonoK is a word used in ex- 
clamations, to express an emotion of the mind; 
as, Oh/heif heal "Ah!" "alasP 

Nouns and adjectives, in the neuter gender, are sometimes used as 

interjections ; as, pax / *' be still T mMum / " with a mischief 1" infandum I 

"O shame T miiUrum /** O wretched T n^/aw/ "O the villany I" 

Note. — The name interjection is often used to express different emotions^ 
according to it8 connection; thus, wihy is used to express wonder, grief^ joy, 
or anger. 

§ 93 ooNJUKcnoNS. ' 208 

§ 93. CONJUNCnONa 

241. — ^A Conjunction is a word wliicli connects 
words or sentences ; as, etj aCy aique^ " and f eed^ 
" but f etiamj " also f &c. 

. 242. — Conjunctions, according to their different significations, 
may be divided into Uie following classes : 

L CoruLATiyn, or Buch as oonneet thinge that are to be considered 
Jaintly ; as, oc, atque, et, que, "and;" etiam, qu6que,**9i^f and sometimes 
the negatiye necy nique, ** nor " " and not fie. irhen they stand iar tt, and 
eontinne the negation. 

2. Dia jmno i' ivj cB, or such as connect things that are to be considered 
separately ; as, atU, teu, tive, ve, vd, ^ either " " or ^T and the negatiye nMi^ 
neuj ••neither," "nor." 

5. CoNGESsiYss, or such as express a concession ; as, et$i, etimnii, tameUi, 
lUcet, quanguamf qttamfna, ** though," ** although." 

4. AnyxBSATiyn, or such as express a condition ; as, a<, <Ugui, autem, 
etUirumj virum, '*batf tdmen, aUdmen, verutUAnen, "jet;* "although f 
»«ro, "truly." 

6. Gaubals, or such as express a cause or reason ; as, Mtm, efJntm, nam, 
namgue, " for ;* quando, quandoquldem, " whereas," " since ;" quia, quippe, 
quod, " because f quoniam, quum (or cOm), " since f nqutdemy " i^" " indeed." 

6. Illatitbs, or such as express an inference; as, erffo, ideirco, proinds, 
quapropteTy qudr^y quamobrem, quoeirea, " therefore." 

7. FiMAis, or such as denote a purpose, object or result; as, ne, "lestjf 
quin, "but that f ^uomiMiM, "that not f ««, «^ " that" 

8. CoNDinoif AI8, or such as express a ccMidition ; as, H, tin, " if ^ nm, or 
m, " unless f dummddoy or dum mddo, " prorided that" 

•. SusPDfsivxB, or such as express doubt ; as, on, osum, annon, im, nseme, 
man, uirumy " whether," " whether or not* 

Obt. 1. Some words, as, cfeffidli^" thereafter f<{ml^tM,"finaUyfMP^^n«m, 
"but" "moreoYcrf videlicet , "to witf Ae,; maj be considered either as 
adrerbs or conjunctions, according as their modifying or connecting power 

Obs. 2. Auteniy Mtm, ««ro, qudque, qutdem, are never put first in a 
dause or sentence. Que, ve, ne, are always annexed to another word, 
Tliey are called Enditiee, because, when placed after a long syllable, they 
make the accent incline to that syllable ; as, died, trdehi; di^ve, troehifM, 

Obe, 8. Conjunctions, like adverbs, are variously compounded with other 
parts of speech, cood with eadh other ; as, atque, tdeirco, ideo, namque, neCf 

204 SYNTAX. § M 


§ 94. SYNTAX. 

243. — Syntax is that part of Grammar which 
treats of the proper arrangement and connection 
of words in a sentence. 

1. A tetUenee u such an assemUage of irords as makes oompleU seoBe, 
as. Man is nwrtal* 

% A phrtue is two or more words rightly put together, but not malong 
oomplete sense ; as» in truth, in a vard. 

8. Sentences are of two kinds, mmple and oompotmdL 

Ah A aimp U sentence oiMitaiDS only a single affirmati(»i; as, Ufe t« 

5. A compound sentence ocmtains two or mare simple sentences oon- 
neeted togetiier *, as, Life, tchieh is short, should he well employed. 

6. Every simple sentence consists of two parts, the suited and the jmv- 

T. The subject is that of which something is affirmed. It is either in 
the nominatiye case before a finite verb, or in the aocusatiye befinre the 

8. The preSeate is that which iff affirmed of the subject It is either 
oontained in the rerb itself*, as, John reads; or it consists of an intraiiBi- 
tive yerb, with an adjeotire or noun following it; as. Time is short; they 
became poor ; he is a scholar. An. and Pr. Gr., 594. 

9. Both the subject and predicate may be attended by other woirdi 
ealled adjuncts, which serve to restrict or modify the meanisg of the word 
Willi which they may stand connected ; as, ** An inordinate deeiTe of admi- 
raticMi, often produces a contemptible levity of deportmentb" 

10. When a oomponnd sentence is so firamed that the meaoing Ia m^ 
psDded tm the whole be finished, it is called a period, 

11. The analysis of sentences is the same in Latin as in 
fioglifik See § 152, and ^ Analytical and Practical Engliah 
Grammar/' 591—657. 

g 9& srNTAZ. 206 


L La every eeateDoe there mart be a verb m the mdi^^ye, sobjimetiTCb 
inqperaliYe, or iofimtiye mood ; and a mibjeei expreaeed or miderstood. 

2. Eyerj adjective, adjeetiTe pronooD, or participle, must have a rab> 
iteatiTe expressed or miderstood, witb -wbidi it a^prees. § 98 and 146. 

S. Everj retire must hare an antecedent, or vord to which it referay 
and with which it agrees. § 99. 

4. Every subjectrDominatiTe has its own rerb expressed or nnderstood 
g 100, 101, 102. The predioateoominatiTe is laually placed after tlie 
sobstantive verb. § lOS. 

5. Every finite verb, i e. eyery verb in the sodicatiTe, 8Qb)iHietiTe, ot 
imperatiYe mood, has its own nominatiye, expressed or understood (g 101, 
102), and when the infinitiye has a rabject^ it is in Hie accnsatiye. § 145. The 
infinitiye without a subject, does not form a sentence or proposition, g 148b 

6. Every oblique case is governed by some word, expressed or under 
stood, in the sentence of which it forms a part; or is used, without govern- 
ment, to express certain cireumstances. g 127. 


7. The GENmVE CASE is governed : 

1st By substanldves, § 106, Rules TL, YH, and YIII 

2dL By adjectives, § 107. Kamely, verbals, <&o., R. IX.; — ^partitivci^ R. X.; 

—of plenty, or want, R. XL 
Sd. By verbs, g 108. l^ame^, Sim, R. XH—Miterear, <&c R. XIII— 

Reeordor, manim, Ac., K XIY.,— of accuaing, <&&, § 122, RXXVII.; 

—of valuing, R. XXVIIL— Passive verbs, g 126, R I and XL— 

ImperB<»ials, g 118, Exc I and II. 
a&L By adverbs, g 186; and— 
5th. It is used to express dreumstanoes of place, g 180^ B. XXXYI 

and XXXTX. 

a The DATIVE is governed : 

Isi, By substantives, § 110. , 

%L By adjectives of profit or disprofit, <&&, g 111, R. XYL 
8d By verbs, g 112. Namely, Sum and its compounds, R. L — Eat, R. II 
— Certain c<«npound verbs, R. IIL and lY/— Yerbs signifying to 
profit or hurt, ike, R. Y. — Impersonals, g 118. — Verbs with two 
datives, g 114. — Verbs of comparing, Ae^ % 128.-^Pasfdve verbid) 
g 126, R XX XII atid XXJUXL-^-OermidB g 147. 
4Ul By adverbs, g 186.— InterjectioQi^ g ] I'r 

206 SYNTAX. § 95 

9. The ACCUSATIVE is governed : 

lit Bj tmssitiye yerbe ugnifying aetiTBlj, § 116, R XX^— To theae 
belong recorder, tnemlrU, Ao^ % 108. — ^VerbB goTenung two eases^ 
§ 122; namely, of aociuing, R XX VIL ;--valmng, R. XXVHL;— 
comparing, Ao^ § 128; — aaking and teaching, § 124; — inaHing^ 
binding, «&&, § 126. — By impersonal yerbs, § 118, Ezo. U. and III 
—By paaeiTe rerbe, § 126, R. IV. 

td. By prepositions, § 186, IL XLYIU, L., LL, LII. 

td. It is used to express circumstances of limitation, § 128 ;— of plao6^ 
§ 180 ;— of time, § 181 ;— of measure, § 182. 

4(2l It is. put before the infinitive as its subject) § 146. 

10. The VOCATIVE is governed by the interjections 0, 
heu, proky&>o, (§ 117); or is used without govemmenti to 
denote the person addressed. 

11. The ABLATIVE is governed : 

1st By nouns, g 11& 

2d. By adjectiyes ; viz. of plenty or want» § 107, R XL — Dignui, m 
dignus, <feo., g 119. — ^llie comparative degree, g 120. 

8d By verbs, g 121 ; viz. of plenty and scarceness, R XXV. — Utort 
abxUorj tfec, R XXVL — Loading, binding, Ao^ § 126. — Passive 
verbs, g 126, R V. 

4th By prepositions, g 186, R XUX., LL, LIL 

6th. It is used without a governing word to express ciroumstaaces ; vis 
of limitation, g 128 ;-— of cause, manner, «&&, g 129 ;— of place, g 180 : 
namely, the place in tohich, R XXXVI. \/r(m which, R XXXVIIL 
and XXXIX.;— of time, g 181, R XL. and XLL;-H>f measure, 
g 182, R XLIL, XLIIL— Of price, g 188. 

6tL It is used as the case absolute, g 146, R LX. 


12. The Indicative, and the Imperative mood are used in- 
dependently, and without government 

13. The Suhfunciive Mood is, for the most part, dependent^ 
and is used, 

1st. After certain coDJunetions, g 140. 

2d. After the relative in certain connections^ g 141, R LY 

Sd. In oblique discourse, g 141, R VI 

$ 96, 97 STNTAX— StrBSTANnVBL 207 

14. The Infinitive Mood is used, 

Ist Without a Bubject» or as a verbal noun, g 144^ and R. LYI, LYIL 
2d With a subject in dependent and subordinate clanses^ § 145, R LYIII 

15. Participles are construed. as adjectiyes; Gerunds and 
Supi^ies, as nouns, §§ 146, 147, 148. 

16. For the construction of adverbs and conjunctions, sea 
g 134, and § 149. 


247.-r-The Parts of Syntax are commonly 
reckoned two : Cimcordy or agreement, and Gov- 

248. — Concord is the agreement of one word 
with another, in gender^ nv/mber^ case^ or person. 

249. — Government is that power which one 
word has m determining the mood^ tense^ or case^ 
of another word. 

' L concord. 

250. — Concord, or agreement, is fourfold; viz.: 

1. Of a substantive with a substantive ; 

2. Of an adjective with a substantive ; 
8. Of a relative with it& antecedent ; 

4. Of a verb with its nonunative, or subject 


251. — ^RuLE I. Substantives denoting the same 
person, or thing, agree in case; as, 

deiro ordtoTf Cioero the orator. 

dcerOnis oratOrit, Of Cicero the orator, Ae, 

Urbs AthencBf The city Athene. 

Urbi Athgnity To the city Athena. 

252, — EXPLANATION.— Substantives thns used are said to be in 
arposmoN. The seoond substantive is added, to express some attriintU% 


descripUonj or Ojop^Uative^ Ji>eloiigiog to Um lirat, and most always be in the 
same member of the sentence ; i. e., they must be both id the eabject, or 
both in the predicate. A BubrtantiTe precUoated of another, though denoting 
the same thing, ia not in appoutlen with it, and doea not oome nnder thiA 
rale. 1 108. 

This role applies to all anbatantiYe words, anoh as personal and relatlTa 
prouoans, adjectives used snbstantivelj, Ac 

Noons in apposition are often connected, in English, by snch partidee tm 
<Uj beinffj/or, Ukef Ac ; as. Pater mini me eomUem^ " My &ther sent me ob 
a companion,'* *'/or a companion," Ac 


253. — Ohe, 1. It is not necessary that nouns in appoaition agree in 
gender^ number, or pereon. In these respects, they are ottesk different ; aa, 
Jiagnum pauperiee oppfobriwm. Hob. AUxin deliciaa domlni, Yoto. 

254. — Obe. 2. Two or more nouns in the singular, bare a noun in vp^ 
position in the plural ; as, M. AntonitUj C. Cctssius^ tribUni plebis, " Marcus 
Antooios, Gaius CassiuB, tribunes of the people." Also if the singular 
nouns be of different genders, the plural in apposition will hare the mas- 
culine rather than the feminine, if both forms exist ; as. Ad Ptolemceium €t 
deapatram rigee (not reglnae), legoH mim, Liy. 

255. — Obe 3. The substantive pronoun, having a word in appositioiv 
is frequently omitted ; as, Constd cuxi (scil igo), " (I) the consul said." 

256. — Obt. 4. The possessive pronoun, being equivalent to the genitive 
of the personal, has a noun in appoeitioa with it in the genitive ; as, peetvM 
tuum, no mini 8 simplXcie. 

257. — ObH. 5. Sometimes the former noun denotes a tohole, of which 
the noun in apposition expresses the parte; as, Oneraria, pare ad 
.jSgimurumj — alia advertue urbem ipaam deloiai stmt, "The ehipe of 
burden were carried, part to iEgimurus, — others against the city itself" 
So, Qui e que pro ee qnermUur, ** 2heg oomplajn «ae4 lor himseLL" 

258. — Ohs, 6. A sentence or dause may supply the place of one of 
ti^ substantives ; as, CogUet oraiOrem inetitui, rem arduam, ** Let him con- 
sider that an orator is training, a difficult matter." 

259. — Obe, 7. A demonstrative pronoun, in the neuter gender, some- 
times refers to a phrase, or a dependent dause in apposition, snd, in con- 
struction, takes the -place of that clause, Ao^ either as the subject or the 
ol^ect of a verb; as, Vifue nobitUae, majGrum ^ortia facta, ^ognatGrum et 
afininm dpee, mttltte clientilcB, omnia hjco prauidio OMUnt, Sall^ Jug.. 8& 
Hoc tibi perauadeae vilwn, me nihil omieiaee, MxereUum eupplieio entire, 
ID eet dKninum, non imperatorem eese. Sall., Jug^ 86. 


260. — Exe:\. Sometimes the latter substantive is put in the genitive; 
as, fone Timdviy "the fountain of Timavus;*' amnie Erid&ni, *'the river 
Kridaaus f arbor flei, *" the fig tree ;" n^men Mercurii eet mihi Wonk 
thus ooostrued may be refe>Ted to &S2. 

§ 98 snrrAx.— ABjEanyB. 200 

261.— -JS^. |. A proper name Bft«r die g«Berio tenn ndmen^ or €o^ 
nSmen, Bometimes elegantly takes the case of the person in th% datiTe; 9M, 
Nimen AretHro eat mihi, ** I have the name ArotuniSb" Flaut. 8o^ Otd 
Hvne cognomen I&lo addUur, Yibo. OtH Mgerio indUum nOmimi» Lit 
Mansit Silvi ispottea omnibus eognCmen. Id. (48lL) 

262. — £xe, 8. Hie name of a town in tike genitiTe, denotii^ mt a 
filaoe, majr have a noun of the third dedcnsion or plnnJ number, in wf- 
poeitKin with it in the ablatiye, and yice versa; 8% Corinthi Achatm 
urbej**At Corinikf a city of Aohaia." This eoostruetion depends on the 
raids, 548, 649. 


363. — ^RuLs n. An adjective agrees with its 
sabstantiYe in gender, number, and case; as, 

Biinut vtr, a good man. £6no* viro§t good meik 

Bdfia pueua, a good girL Bondrum ligum, of good lawa 

JhUee pdmum, a sweet apple. TVfie donU, with thy gifts. 

264. — EXPLANATION.— This rule applies to all a^jeoUves, sdJeetiTe 
pronounB, and participles ; and requires that they be in the same genderi 
number, and case, with their substantiyes. S50-8. It applies also, when 
the Bubstantiye is in the subject, and the a^jectlTe in the predicate. 8S2. 
— ^The word " substantive,'^ in this rule, includes personal and relative pro- 
nouns, and all words or phrases used ss substantives. 


265. — Obi, 1. Two or more substantiTeB singular, unleM 
taken separately, hare an adjective plural ; as, 

VirHjmer tcfriti 10^ - Amanaiidaboy<0fr(^byawol£ 

266. — Obs. 2. If all the substantiyes be of the same gender, 
the adjectiyes will be of that gender, as in the example above. 
But if the substantives are of different genders, the adjective 
takes the masculine rather than the feminine, and the feminine 
rather than the neuter ; as, 

PAtermihitetm4tcr mortui nimit My father and mother are dltod Tn. 

267. — Obs. 8. But if they denote things without life, the 
adjective is commonly neuter. And, if some of the substantives 
refer to things with life, and others to things without life, tht 
adjective is either neuter, or takes the gender of the thing ox 
things with life ; as, 

Labor vdupiasque tunt dititmilia Toil and pleasnre are urUiki in na- 
naturd^ tore. 

210 SYNTAX. — ^ADJKCTIVB. § 98 

N»e$ 9i capClid qum ad C^ium The Bhips and eap^yet ibAmA w«ra 
eopta $untt taken at Chios. 

Numidae (Uqv€ mUUaria tigna oba- The Numidians and their military 
eurdti mtni, standards were partiaUjconcea^ML 

Also, the neuter is ^ised frequently when^the nouns denoting 
tilings are of the same gender ; as, Postqttam tra et avariiia 
imperio potentiOra iranL Lrv. 

268. — Obs, 4. Sometimes, however, the adjectiYe agrees 
with the nearest noun, and is understood to the rest; as, 
sociis et rege reeepto^ Viro., "Our companions and' Xr»n.^ 
being recovered,^^ 

Note 1. — ^These obsenraticHui maj, and sometinies do, hold good,<eY6n 
when one or more of the substantiyes are in the ablatiye, and connected 
with the others by cum ; as, Filimn cumJUio aeeltos, 

269. — Obs, 5. When the substantiye to which the adjectiye, 
or adjective pronoun, belongs may be easily supplied, it is 
frequently omitted, and the adjective, assuming its gender, 
number, and case, is often used as a substantive, and may 
have an adjective agreeing with it ; as, 

MortdlU (Admo), a mortal lUe {hdmo), he. 

Supiri (dii)y the gods iAx>ye. llli {homXnes), they. 

Dextra {mUnua), the right hand. Sie {h&mo), he. 

Sinistra (m^niM), the left hand. Hate (/nnlEiia), she. 

Omnia alioy all other (things). FamUiOris metu (anOcus), my in- 

timate friend. 

270. — Oks. 6. Hie adjective, especially when used as a 
predicate, without a substantive or definite object, is used in 
the neuter gender ; as, 

Triite lUpua itabUlii, The wolf is griwons to the folds. 

' Vacare culpa est sudve^ To be free from blame is pteoMmt* 

LHhoT vineit o m n t a, Labor oyeroomes aU obatades, 

271, — Obs. 7. Imperatives, infinitives, adverbs, clauses, and 
words considered merely as such, when used substantively, 
take an adjective in the neuter gender (30) ; as, 

SuprSmum vdle dixit, Oyio^ He pronounced a laBtfarewdl, 

Or at ittttd quando vifUtt Mabt, When does that to-morroto oomeff 

ISxegpto quod non s%mul eieea. That you were not preeetU being 
Hob, excepted. 


SYNTAX. — ^AiuiBOnyx. 211 

272. — Obs. 8. A BnbBtantiTe is sometimes used as ao adjeetire; ai, 
poptUum late riff em (for reffnantem)y **a people of eztensiye ewvyf 
nimo (for nvllus) mllee Jtomdnus, *'bo Bioman soldier." Sometimea 
an adverb; hBi Niri semper lenliat (probably for lenltaa temper exittent, 
or the like). Teh. So also adjectiyes are sometimes used as substantiyes , 
ss, majoresy *' ancestors f amicus, ** a Mend ;" $%tmmum bontan, *^ the ehiaf 
good" (thing) ;^ 

273. — Obs. 9. These adjectiyes, prfmus, metUus, tdffmus, exiremus^ t»- 
f\mus, imusy summus, suprimus, reHquus, eeetira, usually signify the ''first 
part»" the ''middle part," Ac^ of any thing, and are placed before the sub- 
stantiye; as, media nox, ''the middle of the m'ght; nanmus mans, "the 
top of tiie mountain." 

274. — Obs, 10. Some adjedxyes denotmg ti&e time or ch^eumstances 
of an action are used in the sense of adyerbs ; as, p r i o r vinity ** he came 
first of the ttoo;"* prdnus eeeUUt,'*he {ell./orward;''abiitsubllmiSy'*h^ 
went <m highj* 

275. — Obs. 11. AlitiSy though an adjectiy^ is often used as a pronoun, 
and has this peculiarity of construction, that, when repeated with a different 
wor4 in the same clause, it renders the one simple proposition to which 
it belongs equiyalent to two, and it is to be so rendered ; thus, aliud 
aliis vtditur opHmumy " one thitiff seems best to tomSy another seems best 
to others," So, duo riffes, alius alid vta, ilU belloy hie paeCy civitatem 
auxlrunty " two kings, one in one toay and another in another ;**&&, Or the 
two simple sentences may be combined in a plural form *, thus, " different 
things seemed best to aifferent persons ;" " two kings, each in a different 
way ;" dbc The same is true when a word deriyed from alius, sudi as 
aliundey alUer, alidy is put with it in the same clause \9By aliis aliunde 
pericdlum esty ** there is danger to one person frotn one source, and to an^ 
other from another;" or combined, "there is danger to different persons 
from different sources,^ 

276. — Obs. 12. When alius is repeated in a different clause, but in the 
same construction, the first is to be rendered " one, the second, " another f 
if plural, " some," " others ;" as, aliud est maledieirey aliud aeeusarCy "it 
is one thing to rail at, another to accuse." Gia Proferibant alii pxtr^ 
pftram, thus alii, "some brought forth purple, o^Aers incense." Instead 
of a/t«---a/ti, Ae,, in the plural, we haye sometimes pars — alii; partim>-^ 
alii; sometimes eUii — pars, alii — partim, " some— otners," Ac ; and some- 
times the first of the pair is omitted. 

This remark is applicable to alter, remembering only that a/tt» signifies 
QVK OF MANY ; alter, onb or two ; as, pterum alter exer^um perdtdit, alter 

277* — Obs, 18. Quisque, with the superlatiye, is equivalent to omnis in 
the singular or plural, with the positiye ; thus, optimun quisque^mm omnis 
b9nuSy or omnes o&ni, " every good man," or, " all good mea" With two 
vnperlatives, it expresses a sort of reciprocal comparison; as, opflmum 
quidque rarisiHmvm, " every thing is good in proportion as it is rare ;" or 
" the best things are the rarest" 

212 8TNTAX.— ADJBCnVE. § 98 


1i78. — Exc, 1. An adjective is often put in a different gender 
or number from the substantive with which it is connected, 
tacitly referring to its meaning rather than to its form, 
or to some other word synonymous with it, or implied 
in it; as, 

LcUivm Capudque agro mnletati,** Latium and Capua were depriyed 
of their land, i e^ the people of Latium, <fec. ; Capita conjuratiOnU virgin 
eats i, — ** the heads (L e., the leading men) of the conspiracy, <&c." 

279. — JSxc, 2. A collective noun in the singular, if its verb 
is plural, has an adjective in ike plural, and in the gender of 
the individuals which form the collection ; as, 

Part in flUmen acti sunt, ** A part were forced into the rirer.* 
Sometimes it takes the gender of the indiyidual in the singular ; as, pa r • 
arduus fSritf Ae, 

280. — JExc, 8. A plural noun or pronoun, used to denote one penoo, in 
eomio writers, sometimes has an adjective or partieiple in the wngnlur ; aa^ 
HsbU presente, " I being present** 

281. — .Exe. 4. The adjective pronouns utergue, qvitgue, i&c, in the 
singular, are often put with nouns in the plural, to intimate that the 
objects are spoken of individually and distributively ; as, Utergue eifru$n 
ex eaatris exercltum edueunt, "They lead forth, each of t^em, his army 
from the camp ;" Quis^ue pro Me guenmtur, ** They complain, e<ick one 
for himself" Quisguey m the singular, nqt only distributes plural nouns, 
but is in the nommative when the plural to be distributed is in the 
ablative absolute; as, MiUius tUbi guisque imperium petentKhuB, 
Sall., Jug., 18; or in the accusative, as the subject of the infinitive ^ 
BAyAffirmantet te .... guisgue patriam .... relietUrot, Alitts and 
alter are sometimes used in the same way; as, MvXta eonjecta sunt 
a Hud alio te*npihre» Obs, 11. In this oonstrnctiQn, there is a kind of 
apposition. 257. 

282. — JSxc. 6. When ipse qualifies a substantive pronoun in a reflexive 
sense, in any oblique case governed by a verb or preposition, it commonly 
takes the case of the subject of the verb in the nommative or accusative, 
instead of the case of the word which it qualifies; as, 8e ipse inter- 
/dci^, "He slew himself;" Mi hi iose faveo, « I fiivor tnytdf;*" OridU 
mi hi ipsum favirei "Do you believe that I &yor myself r* Ao, 
See 118-8, JVbt«. 

283. — Hxc 6. The possessive pronoun, in any case, being equival^t 
to. and used for, the genitive of the substantive pronoun (1^, Cms. 1), an 
adjective, qualifying the substantive pronoun implied in it, is put in the 
ffenitive ;as,in nostro omnium fiiiUj " Whilst all of y* are m tears f 
Meum solius vitiwn, "The £ault of me alone;" Nostri ipsCrum 
libiri, " Our own children f Mea seripta timentii. 

§ 99 STNTAZ. — RBLATIYB. 218 


284. — ^RuLB in. The relative qu% qtus^ quod^ 
agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and 
pei'son; as, 

JEgo qui Mfiio, I who write. 

Tu qiti ligiit Thou who readest 

Vir qui loquUur, The man who vpeaSa, 

Virt qui loquuntur, The men who speak. 

285. — ^EXPLANATION.— The antecedent is the noun or pronoun going 
before the relative to which it refers. Sometimes, however, the relative and 
its danse are placed before the antecedent and its daose. 

The infinitive mood or a part of a sentence is sometimes the antecedent, 
in which case the relative must be in the neuter gender. 


286. — Obs. 1. Strictly speaking, the relative does not agr^e 
with the antecedent^ but with the same word expressed or 
understood after the relative, and with which, like the adje<v 
tiye, it agrees in gender, number, and case, as well as person ', 
thus, diem dlcunt, qud (die), &c., *^ they dppoint a day, on 
which (day)," &c. Hence, in connecting the antecedent and 
relative clause, the following variety of usage occurs, viz : 

1st. The word to which the relative refers, is ccMnmonly expressed in the 
antecedent clause, and not with the relative; as, vir a&jnt qvi 
pauca loquitur, ** He ip a wise man^ yoho speaks little.** 

2d. It is often elegantly omitted in the antecedent clause, and expressed 
with the relative, especially when the relative clause stands first? 
as, In quern prfmwn egreui tunt 1 6 cum, Trijja vocOtur, i e., Ideui 
in Quem, <kc 

DdL Sometimes, when greater precision is required, it is expressed in both * 
BS,£rant omnlfix} ttinSra duo,qulbu» itintribuB ddmo eaelr^ 
posaent. Instead of the first substantive, the relative sometimes 
takes with it a substantive explanatory of the first ; as, Oum veniB- 
aem ad Amdnum, qui mona, dio. — I^on longe a 7hlo8atiumfinilm$ 
9unt^ qua civitas (Toloiotium) est in provincia; for, qui sunt, <ka 
'--Ante comitia, quod tern pus haud longe abirat ; for, quat comi- 
tia kaud, &q 

4th. When the reference is of a ^en^ral nature, and there is no danger of 
obscurity, the word to which the relative refers is understood in 
both clauses ; as, su^U quos jftvat collegisse, i e. ^uni {Jiomlneii) quos 
(homines) jUvat, <&c. , — non hatteo quod te accHsem, L e. noti hab*o 
id quod te aceHsem, 492. 

Note, — ^The place of the antecedent is sometimes supplied by a demei> 

214 SYNTAX — ^BKLATIVB. § 99 

•tratiye pronoiin in the dauBe following; aa, dt qua re midsvi^ earn fibi 
narrabo. In the cUuse preceding the relative, the demonstrative haa 
■ometinies the force of talU, "saohf* and the relative, that of the corre- 
aponding giuUiSt ** as ;" — ^the two implyiLg a aort of compariaon ; aa, Itdg^us 
igo is nan in illume quern turns eue vU, " Therefore, I am towards him, 
euch as yuu wiah me to be." Cia 

To thia oonatruction may be referred such expreaaiona as, qui iuue est 
dmuTf equivalent to, pro eo amSre qui tuus est dmor^ "■ such is your love," 
literally, " in accordance with such love aa youra is ;" — qaoi tua est bene- 
volentiOf ** sueb. is your benevolence," where the demonstrative is, ea, id, 
in the aenae of ** such,** (123-2, b), is aupplied with the antecedent un- 

287. — Obs. 2. 0. The antecedent ia sometknea implied in a preceding 
word; aa, omnes laudore fortUnas meas, qui habiremy <&c, **ail wer« 
praising my fortune vfho had," <bc, i e,fortiineu mei qui; the poeaeaaive 
meas being equivalent to the genitive of igo. 121, Obs. 1. Chr^uravSre 
panel contra rempubCicamy de qua (aciL conjuratidnef implied in conjura- 
vire) quam brevissUne potSro ilcamy " a few entered into a conspiracy 
agamst the republic, concerning which," ^ 

b. The relative sometimes refers, not to a particular word, but to the whole 
antecedent proposition, or the idea expressed b^ it, in which case it takes 
the neuter gender ; as, Tu dmas virtutem, quod (l e. quam rem) valde laudo, 
Postrimo, quod dijfficiltfmum inter mortdUSf glorid invidiam vicisti. Sall^ 
Jug. Sometimes id is placed before quod referring to the same proposi- 
tion ; as, Slve, id quod constat, Platonis stydi6sus audiendi fuit. Cia 

288. — Obs. 8. When a* relative refers to one or two nouns, denoting 
the same object, but of dififer^it genders, it may agree with either ; aa, 
Flumen est Arar quod, <fec. Here quod agrees with fiumen. Ad fiUmen 
Ossum perventum est, qui, &c. Here qui agrees with Ossum, 

289. — Obs. 4:. When a word of a preceding proposition, or the pro- 
position itself^ is explained by a substantive after esse, dicire, yocOre, 
nabsre, <&c, the relative (or demonstrative) pronoun between them, often 
takes, by attraction, the gender an(l number of the explanatory substantive 
following; as, ThSbce ipsa quod Boeotice e&put est. Liv. Idem veils 
et idem nolle, e a demum firm.a amieitia est. Sall. But if the latter 
substantive is distinctive only, the relative follows the general rule ; aa^ 
ghnus homfnum quod vocOtur HelOtes ; — ad eum l6eum,quem .AmavS^ 
eas pylas v&cant, pervSnit. 

Also the participles of such verbs, as well as the relative, take the 

§ender and number of the predicate substantive when near it, or imme- 
iately after it ; as, hon omnis error stultitia est die en da (for dicen- 
dus) ; — gens universa Veniti app elldti. 

290. — Obs. 6. An adjective which properly belongs to the antecedent; 
is aometimes placed in the relative clause, agreeing with the relative. 
This is the case, especially if the adjective be a numeral, a comparative^ 
or superlative; as, inter jocos, quos inconditos jaciunt, for joeos incondtto^, 
quos, Ac, ** amidst the rude jests which they utter ;" — nocte, quam in terris 
ulfimam ggit, for noete ultimd, quam, Ae., ** the last night which be spent 
apon earth." 


291. — O&t 6. "Wben a relatiye refers to two or more anteoedenU takeo 
together, it agirees with them in gender and number, in all respects as ihi 
adjectiye does with seyeral substantiyes, as stated 265, 266. But^ 

If the antecedents are of different persons, the relative plural takes 
the first person rather than the second, and the second person rather than 

the thir q. 

292. — Mxe, 1. The relatiye, sometimef , takes the gender and number, 
not of the antecedent noun, but of some one synonymous with it or implied 
m it ; as, eoirum rirum qua nu>rtale$ prfma putant, ** of those things which 
men deem most important." IJere gum seems to agree with ntgotiOf con- 
sidered synonymous with r9rum. — Jbdret ut caiinia fatdle morutrum guaik 
The antecedent is mofu^nim, but quas agrees with Cleopatra, the monster 
int^ided. * 

293. — Ohs, 7. The relatiyes guicungve and quisquis are sometimes 
used instead of qtUf when a general or indefinite term is expressed or 
understood with the antecedent; as, qtia aan&ri pothunt, qudcungut 
rati&ne tandbOj equiyalent to omni ratidne qudeunque {potaum), '*what 
can be cured, I will cure by eyery means I can." 

294. — This construction corresponds to that of the Greek oanq (Or. 
Gram., § 185, 7), and, like it, these relatiyes often represent two cases ; as, 
quotcunque de te quhi attdlvif quaeunque potui ratione placdvi. Here, 
qupseunque is both the object of placavi, and the subject of quiri ; and 
quacunqt^i% equivalent to omni ratiSne qua ratiGne. — Quidquid tetigirai 
aurum JUbat. Here quidquid stands lx>th as the nominatiye to fiibat 
and the accusative after Utigirat, and is equivalent to onine quod teti- 
giraty Ac 

295. — Obs. 8. In the beginning of a sentence, or clause connected with 
what precedes, not by the relative itself^ but by quum (cum\ «t, autem, 
quoniamj or other conjunctive term expressed or understood, the relative 
assumes the character of a personal or demonstrative pronoun, and, as 
such, refers to some word, clause, or circumstance, already expressed; 

Isl When the relative thus used stands instead of its noun, it is equivalent 
to et ilUy et hie, et t«, et illi, A^a.^ and may be rendered *' and he," 
** and she," ** and they," <bc. ; as, qui quum admitlSret, ** and when 
he admitted f' — ad quern quum venf M«n/, " and when they had 
come to him ;" — q uem vi Adit, *^ as soon as he saw himJl 

td. When the relative thus used stands utiih its substantive, or has it 
understood, it is to be translated, as a demonstrative, by thie^ tJuU^ 
6^«M, <Ao«tf, commonly preceded hjand; as, qui I eg at i quum 
mi$H euent, "and when these a$nbassadort had been sentf — ad 
quarum initium silvdrum quum Cottar pervenisset, " and whea 
Caesar had come to the beginning of these tooods;*^ — quam quum 
JiomanOrum dux d&re nollet^ " and when the Roman general would 
not grant ^is'^scii pOcem^ ** peace "). 

296. — To this construction belongs quody in the beginning of a sentence 
(apparentiy for propter quod, or ad quod), referring to something pre- 
viously stated, and meanmg " on aooount oif* ** "^ith respect to,' ^ as to, Ae« 


this tluoff f as, quod diit gratia» habeo, " wherefore (L e,oti aeeo%mt of 
thit thing), I give tibaoks to w gods T-^ uod ecribU Ifiw.), **aeto what 
you write.* 


297. — Oba. 9. The relative, in respect of case, is always to 
be considered as a noun and subject to the rules which de- 
termine the case of nouns. 

298. — Exe. 8. The relatiye, after the manner of the Gh*eek, is some- 
limes attracted into the ease of its antecedent-; as, Cvm Ugae aliquid 
eOrvm oudrum eoneuieii^ Ac., for ednim qum eotieu^sH, * When you do 
any of tkoee things which you hare been accustomed to dof Kaptim 
guXbu8 quUque potirat eldtie, for (t ts^ qu^b quisquey Ac, <* Those tningt 
which each one could, being hastily snatched upr 

299. — Exe. 8. The antecedent is sometimes attracted into the case 
of the relative; as, Urbem quam ttattto vesira esl^ tor urbs quatn 
etatuo, Ac, ** The dty which I am building is yours." 

These are Greek constructions seldom used by Latin writers.' See 
Greek Gr., g 136, Exc, 9, 10. 

300. — Obs. 10. The relative adjectives qttoty quantuSy quHUs^ 
used in comparisons, and commonly rendered ^' as," are often 
construed in a manner similar to the relative (286^, having 
their redditives, or corresponding adjectives tot^ tantus, tdlis^ 
expressed or understood in the antecedent clause; as, Tan tee 
multitudinis quant am cdpit urbs, ^^Ofas great a multitude as 
the city contains;" Fades [t&lis)^ qudlem decet esse sor(^rum^ 
" The features, such as those of sisters ought to be." Vieo. 

a. The noun, as well as the redditive, is very often omitted 
in the antecedent clause, and expressed in the relative clause 
(28d'-2d) ; as, Quantd potuit celeritdte cucurrit, changed to the 
common form, is Tantd celeritat-e quant A potuit^ cueurrit^ 
** He ran with a« much speed as he could." In this way, are to 
be explained such clauses as Qiiantum importunitatis habeni^ 
** Such arrogance have they," in full form. Pro tan to im* 
portunit&tis quantum habeni, 

b. When the relative adjective and its jedditive refer to 
different substantives, each agrees with its own. But among 
the poets, the relative sometimes agrees with the substantive 
in the antecedent clause, and not with that in its own. 

Sometimes the redditive is underst<^K)d, and sometimes the 
relative. . 

Abto 1. Instead of the relatiye adjectives quot, qtiafitua^ quolitt, the coii- 
juuotions ae, tUque, W, and the relative quit quat^ qvod, in the sense of " aa," 

§ 100, 101 STNTAX — ^NOMINATIVE CASE. 217 

arc sometimes used in comparatiye expressions; as, Biino* UHi popUi 
Bomdni voluntdte, paudt eat delcthu ae mihi, Cia 

Noie 2. — When ^[vott guantus, qualia are used as interrogatiTes, tliey 
haye no oorrespondmg antecedent term. 

301. — £Jxc, 4. Instead of the ordinary constmction, the 
relative adjective, with its noun, is sometimes attracted into 
the case of the relative pronoun understood, as in the follow- 
ing sentence : Si homintbus bondrum rirum tanta cUra esset^ 
quanta studio pStunt^ Sall., Jug.; instead of quantum est 
studium quo aliina petunt: — ^unless this be a case of anaco- 
luthon, the latter part of the sentence being expressed as if 
tlie former, had been, Si homines h6nas res petirent^ quanta 
studio^ dec, i. e., tanto studio quantOy dec. 800, a. 


302. The nominative case is used, 

1. To express the subject of a proposition; 

2. In apposition with another substantive in the nominative 

(1 97), or predicated of it (§ 103) ; 

8. In exclamations ; as, vir fortis atque amicus! 


803. — ^Rttle IV. A Verb agrees with its nomi- 
native in number and person ; as, 

^go UgOf I read. Not legfimut. We read. 

2\i tcAbiSf Thou writesi. Vo» tcribUis, Ye write. 

Jlle loquUur, He speaks. JIU loquurUur, They speak. 

804« — EXPLANATION.— The'snbject of a finite yerb, beinc^ a noun, a 
pronoun, an adjective used as a noun, or a gerund, is put in the nominative 
ewe. The subject may also be an infinitive mood or part of a sentence. To all 
of these the rule applies, and requires that the verb be in the same number 
and person as the subject, or nominative. For person, see 86, and 118-1, 2. 


805. — Oh», X. The nominatiyes fyo^ no«, of the first person; and tu^ 
MM, of the second, are generally omitted being obyioni from the termina* 



tioD of the Terb ; also Hie nominatiye of the third per8<», when it ic an in- 
definite word, or may be eaeilj aupplied from toe context ; as, finmt, 
** they eay f Ac. 

300. — Ob*, 2, The subject is also omitted when the verb expreeaea 
the state of the weather, or an operation of nature ; SLAyfulgurat, "it light- 
ens f pluUf ** it rains ;" ningitf " it snows.** 

807. — Obs. 8. Impersonal yerbs are usually considered as without a 
nominative. Still, they will generally be found to bear a relation to some 
circumstance, sentence, clause of a sentence, or infinitive mood, similar to 
that between a verb and its nominative ; as, deleetat me 8t%uiire, ** it delights 
me to study," L e. " to study delighta me ;" — misiret me tut, " I pity you,* 
i e. conditioy or fortuna tut misiret me, " your condition excites my pity." 

308, — Obs, 4. The verb is sometimes omitted when the nominative is 

express<»d, and sometimes when it is understood; as, nam igo PotydGmt 

(sc. mim\ ** for I am Polydorus f — omnia prceelara vara (sc « u n ^), " all 

excellent things are rare *,** — turn ille (sc. re9pondit\'* then he replied;* 

'-virum hactintu koee (sc. dixXmua). 

309. — Oh*, 5. When the subject is an infinitive, or a clause of a sen- 
tence, the verb is in the third person singular; and, if a compound tense, 
the participle is put in the neuter gender \h^%neertum est qu€an hnga 
nostrum cujusque vltafutUra eitf ** how long any of us shall live U nneer- 

310. — Ob», 6u The nominative is sometimes found with the infinitive^ 
in which case ecepit or ccBperunt, or some other verb» according to the 
sense, is understood ;as, omnes invidire mihi, " every one envied me." 
The infinitive with the nominative before it, is so common in historical 
narrative, that it is called the historical infinitive. Thus used, it is trans- 
lated as the imperfect or the perfect indennite, for which tenses it seems 
to be used, and with which it is sometimes connected. 669. 

311 . — Obs. 7. Vtdeor, in the sense of ** I seem,* is used throughout as 
a personal verb, but is often rendered impersonally ; as, vide or esse liber, 
*^%t seems that /am free,* literally, **Iseem to be free.* — FoUowed by the 
dative of a person, it means to thinkyfoncyi, suppose, witii reference to the 
word in the dative, as the subject in Engli^ ; as, vide or tibi esse, *' you 
think tJicU J am," literally, "/ seem to you to be;** — tu vidSris mihi, "I 
think that you ;* — videor tlli, ** he thinks that I ;* dice. In the third person 
singular, followed by an infinitive mood or connected clause, it is rendered 
impersonally, but still has the infinitive or clause for its subject See 418. 


1. Of agreefmefnt vn Nmnber cmd Person. 

312.— -Rule I. Two or more substantives sin- 
gular, taken together, have a verb in the 


plural; taken separately, the verb is usually 
singular; as, 

(Taken together,) 
FUrcr irdque tnentem prcecipUant, Fury and rage hurrj on m j miod. 

(Taken Beparately,) 
8i 8Q9rdie$ out Antuihiniet dieiretj If Sooratee er Antisthenes ahould aaj 

SI 3. — Ob%. 1. To bot)i parta of thia rule, however, and especial] j to 
the first, there are many exceptions. If one of the nominatives is plural, 
the verb is conuuonly pluraL But sometimes the verb agrees with tJie 
nominative nearest it, and is understood to the rest, especially when each 
of the nominatives is preceded hj et ot turn, or when they denote things 
without life ;.aa, Mens htim, tt ratiOf et c o n « t / i « m, in ienXbttt e»U 

When the nominatiTes are disjunctively connected by autj nequ/e^ Ac, 
the verb is sometimes plural ; and it is always so, when the substantivea 
are of different persons ; as, Qum^ nique igo^ nique Cauar hab\ti eaah 
mu9. Oia HcK si niqtie igo, nique tu feeimus, Ter. 

314. — Oht, 2. A substantive in the nominative singular, connect^ 
with another in the ablative by cum, may have a plural verb ; as, i^^mo 
cum f rat re Quirlnut jura dibunL 

3 1 5. — Obs. 8. "When the nominatives are of difiisrent persons, the verb 
is commonly plural, and takes the first person rather than the second, and 
the second rather than the third ; as, /Si tu et TtUlia valitiB^ igo et 
Cieiro valimuty "If you and Tullia are wU^ Cicero and I are well? 

But sometimes the verb agrees with the nearest nominative, and is un- 
derstood to the rest, and always so, when the verb has different modifier 
tions with eaeh ntmmutiTe ; as. Ego mie^e^ tu/eUHter vitia, 

316. — ^RuLE IL 1. A collective noun expressing 
many as one whole, has a verb in the singulai ; as, 

PopUlue me eibilaif ThB people kie$ tA me, 

B en at ua in curiam vinitf The Senate came into the SeDat^* 


2. But when it expresses many as individuals, 
the verb must be plural ; as. 

Pare epulis onirant menaaSy Part load the tables with £>od. 

Turba ruunt, The crowd rusk, 

Veniun't live vulgue euntque^ The fickle joopt^oe^ <;om« and ^o. 

317. — Obe.4u To both parts of this rule, there are also exceptions, 
and in some cases, it seems mdifferent whether the verb be in the smgular 
or plural ; sometimes both are joined with the same word ; as, Tu rba ex 
eo Ideo dilabeb&tury refracturoeque carcirem minabantur, 


318. — Obs. 6. Utetque, quisqus, pars pare, alibis.... alius, and 

altsr,,, . alter » on account of the idea of plurality involved, frequently haTS 


tlw ▼«!!> in die ploraL This coDstnustion may be explained od the prin 
flilde meotiooed 281, where see examples ; or 267 


819. — ^RuLE V. The predicate substantive or 
adjective, after a verb, is put in the same case as 
the subject before it ; as, 

&o $um tUmsip&lut, I am a scholar. 

A vocOria Joannes, Thou art called John. 

JIU ineidU re^^na, She walks (aa) a queen. 

320. — EXPLAKATIOK.— Under this role, the nominative before the 
Terb is the iul^eet or thing spoken of; the nominative after it, is ih»predieaUi 
or the thing asserted of the subject. The verb is the cc^pula connecting the 
one with the other, and is usually a substantive verb (187), an intransitive 
verb, or a passive verb of naming, jud^g, appointing, ^bc, which, from its 
use, is called a copulative f>erb. 

This rule applies to the accusative and dative before, and after, the infinitive 
of copulative verbs. See Obe. 5, 0, 7, 8, below. 


321. — Ohe, 1. Any copulative verb between two nominatives of dif- 
ferent numbers, commonly agrees in number with the former, or subject; 
as, D o < /» < ^ decern UUenta, ** Her dowry i» ten talents." Ter. Omnia 
pofitui ^ran^, **A11 Vas sea." Ovid. But sometimes with the latter oi 
predicate; tu^ Amantium irae, am(Hru iniegratio eat, *The quarrelff 
of lovers w a renewal of love.** 

a. So also, when the nouns are of different govien, an adjective, adjee- 
tive pronoun, or a participle, in the predicate, conmiooly a^ees with the 
subject of the verb ; as, VppXdum appelldtum est Foseidonia;— 
but sometimes with the predicate v ««» •ATow omnw em^ stultitia 
dieenda est, Cia 

6. The verb esae sometimes takes an adverb in the predicate, where, m 
ESnglish, an adjective is commonly used ; as, omnta tn^ ahMnde irant, 
* — were abundant;" — RomUnos laxius futuros, "that the Romans 
wovld be more negliffent ;" — ea res frustra fuit, **that was of no 

822. — Obs. 2. When the predicate is an adjective, adjective pronoun, 
or participle without a substantive, it agrees with the subject before the 
verb according to Rule II (268) ; except as noticed in the same section, 
Obs. 6 (270). 

323. — Obs. 8. When the subject is of the second person, and the voca- 
tive stands before tiie verb, the a^jeetive or participle will usuaUy be in 

§104 SYirrAZ. — GOYEBNICEKT. 221 

tbe Dominatiye, aeoordii^ to th« role ; as, e$to t u, CisMr, amteut; Iral 
■oiDetiiues it is put in the vocative ; as, QMus, Hectorf nb Cru «xp0^ 
tate vinis (Vnw.), lor expeeUUua, Hence the phrase, Jfaete virtfite etto^ 

324. — Obt, 4. The noun ipuM, oommonlj rendered ** needibl," if oAan 
used as a predicate alter ram; as, diur nebU 6pu9 ««<,** a leader ft 
wanted by ns.* 

Hot* 1. — Such ezprefldoDS as audhfi hoe puer^^-^empublteam defe?tdi 
adoleteens, — tapiefu nUfUcit imsUtu, beloQg more property to Roles 1 and 
IL than to this (261 and 268). 

325. — Obtt, A. The accusative or dative before the infinitive under thia 
Bole, requires the same case after it in the predicate ; as, 

HavUnuB ie ette forttm. We know that <Aoii art 6ravtf. 

Mi hi negligenti nan eue licet, I am not allowed to be negligent, 

JfcU %i — ^In this eonstmotaon, the infinitive is sometimes omitted; as, 
ncvimu* tefortem^ lor eetuforttm, 

326. — Obe. 6. "When the subjeet of the infinitive is the same with th« 
subject of the preceding verU it is often omitted, in which ease the pre- 
dicate after the infinitive is in the nominative agreeing with the precedbg 
subject, or in the accusative agreeing with the sul:9ect of the infinitive 
understood ; as, ctmt'o diet doetU9, or eupio dlei doetum, L e. me Sl/ei doetum, 
** I desire to be called learned.* The nrst of these is a Qreek eonstniotion, 
and seldom used by Latin prose writers. See Gr. Oram., § 176, 8. 

327. — Obt, 7. When the infinitive of such verbs has a dative before it^ 
it may be followed either by a dative or an accusative ; as, licet mi hi ets$ 
b e at o; or, iic^t mihi eeee fttftf^ttm,"! may be happy." In the first case^ 
bedto agrees with mihi ; in the second, beatum agrees with me, to be sup- 
plied as the subject of cue. Sometimes, when the sentence is indefinite, 
the dative also is understood ; as, licet etee bedtum (sc alieui), ** one may 
be happy." The first of these forms also is a Greek construction. See 
Gr. Gram., § 176, Obs. 6. 

328. — Obe, 8. This variety of dase after the infinitive, is admissible 
only with the nominative, dative, and aecutative, Tlie other cases before 
the infinitive have the accusative after it^ agreeing with the subject of the 
infinitive understood; as, inUreet omnium (««) e$se bdnoe 

829.— § 104. GOVERNMENT. 

1. Govmnoonr is the power whkh one word has over aacther depend 
ing upon it, requiring it to be put in a certain eaee, mood, or tenee, 

8. The words subject to government are notms and verbe, 

8. The words governing or affecting these in their case, mood, or tensc^ 
"-vm noune, at^ectivee, pronount, verbe, and worde indecHnabU, 

222 SYNTAX.— GKlOTIVa. § 10« 

4. To tlM Syntex of Aoum, belongft all that part of Syntax relating to 
Iho goTemment of com. Erery thing eke in goyemment belongs to the 
Syntax of the yerb^ g 187, et seq. 


330.- -In fliis part of Grammar, under the term notm or subttanHvey is 
«einpreh«ided eyery thing used as sndi ; namely, nouns, personal pronouM) 
adjectiye pronouns used personally, -adjectiyes without substantiyes, ge- 
runds, together with infinitiyea^ and substantiye elauses used as noons. 

Tb» eoostmctlon of the oblique cases depends, in general^ upon the 
particular ideas expressed by the cases tbemselyes, as they are stated 
Ka 60, or as they are mentioned hereafter, under each 


831.-- -The Genitive, as its name imports, With the meaning of the 
word, ookmeots the idea of origin, and henoe that of property or possessioa 
It is used, in general, to Hmit the signification of another word, with 
which it is joined, by representing it as something originating witl^ 
possessed by, or relating to^ that which the geuitiye or limiting word ex 
presses ; and it is said to be ^aoemed by the word so limited, i &, the 
word limited requires the Word limiting it to be put in the Genitiye ease^ 

The Genitiye is goyemed by Ji^ounty Adjeeiivetj and Vgrbs; and also is 
used to express circumstances alplace^ quantU^ixt d^jfrm. 


332. — ^RuLE VL One substantive governs an- 
other in the genitive, when the latter substantive 
limits the significationr of the former; as^ 

AiMf gloria^ The loye of glory. 

Lex HoMra, The law of nature; 

833k-^SZPLANATtON.^Under this nUe, the two substantiyes musi 
be of diftrttU Mgn^ficaHon, and the one used to restrict the meaning of the 

g 106 SYNTAX. — OENinVE, 228 

othfir. Thm, in the first example, Smor, alone, means "love/' in general , 
iMit the term ffloria, joined with it, restricts its meaning here to a particular 
object, *^ glory," and so of other examples. 

N. Bb When a noun is limited hy another of the $ame ngmjieatioi^ it ki 
put in the same case by Bole I (251). 


334. — Oht, 1. When the goyeming noun expresses a feeling or act, Ao, 
inherent in, or exercised by^ the noun governed in the genitiye, 5ie genitive 
is said to be tuhketive or active. But when the governing noun denotes 
something of wnich the noun governed is the object, the genitive is then 
said to be objective or passive. Thus, in the phrase providerUia Dei, the 
genitive is necessarily sfibjeetive or active, beciause providerUia expresses 
an act or operation of which Gk)d is the subject, and of which he cannot be 
the object. On the other hand, in th<^ phrase fimor Dei., *' the fear of Ckxl," 
tlie genitive Dei is necessarily Directive or passive, because flmor denotes 
a feeling in some other subject of which G^ is the object, and cannot be 
the stii^ct. Sometimes the meaning of both substantives is such, that the 
genitive may be either active or passive ; thus, when the expression Hmor 
J)ei means me love which God has to us, Dei is active or svhjective ; but 
when it means the love which we have to Gk>d, Dei \a passive or objective. 
In such cases, the sense in whidi the genitive is used must be determined 
by l^e author^s meaning. 

335. — Obi. 2. Hence it often happens that a noun governs two sub- 
stantives, one of which limits it subjectively, and the other objectively; as, 
Affamemndnis belli gloria, ** Agamenmon's glory in war.** Nxp. Here, 
AgameinnSnis limits gloria subjectively, and beUi limits it objectively. 
So, Rliits administralio pr&vineiat, Cia 

336. — Obs. S. The governing noun is often omitted, but only, however, 
when the expression it^f readi]b)r sdggests the noun to be supplied ; as, 
ad DiOnce, so. (Bdem ; or can be readily supplied from the preced- 
mg or following words. 

337. — Obs. 4. Instead of the genitive of the personal pronoun governed 
by the noun, it is more common to use the possessive adjective pronoun 
agreeing with it ; as, m£us pHter, rather than pAter met. So also, instead 
^ the g^oitive of a noun, a possessive adjective is sometimes used ; as,\ 
causa regia, for rigis causa ; herHis filius, forJUius hdri. ] 

338. — Obs, 5. The dative is often used instead of the genitive, to limit 
a noim as to its object; wm,fratri cedes, for fratris, "the house of my 
brother '^^-^ctsidium reis, " a defence to the accused.'' For this construe* ^ 
tion, see 880 and 881. 

839. — ^RutE Vn, A substantive added to an- 
otlier, to express a property or quality belonging 
to it, is pnt in the genitive or ablative ; as, 

Fti* summce prudentice, or summd pmdentidt A man of great wisdom. ^ 
Puer prdbcB indoHs, or prdbd indMe^ A boy of a good dispoaitioit 

224 SYNTAX. — GENITIVB. § 106 

340. — EXPLANATION.— Under this rale, the Utter rabetaotive in the 
Ifenitive or ablative mast denote a ^r< or ^op^r/i^ of the former, otherwise 

di)eB not belong to this rule. Tlie latter substantive, also, has commonly 
•n adjective joined with it as in the preceding examples, though this is not 
Msential fee the rale; and sometimes it is foond without it ; as, Bomo nxhUi, 

341. — Oo8. 6. There is no certain rule by which to determine when 
the genitive is to be used, or when the ablative, though in some phrases 
we find the genitive only is used ; as, vir imt tvJbMii^ ** a person of the 
lowest rank ;" — hdmo ntuiiit$ ttipendiiy ** a man of no experience in war " 
(Sall.) ; — inagni formlea laiXfrU, Ac In others, the ablative only ; as, £» 
bdno aiCimoy ** Be of good courage." Sometimes both are used in the same 
sentence ; as, adot^aeetiM eximid spe, tumma virtutis. In prose, the ablative 
u more common than the genitive^ 

342. — Obs, 7. Sometimes, instead of the construction under this rule^ 
the adjective is put with the former substantive ; as. Vir gramtate et pru- 
deniid prctslans. Cia So, Vir prcestantii ingeniiy—^outanti ingenio^-^-^iB' 
ttans ingenioy and (poetically)— ^riu/an« ingenii^ are all used. And some* 
times, when the adjective takes the case of the former substantive, the 
latter substantive, especially by the poets, is, by a Greek construction, 
put in the accusative mstead of the genitive or ablative ; as, mileu fraeivs 
membra^ instead of m«m6rw;-— o< humero9qu6 nm'UU d!ft>, mstead 
of Crt ktaneruque nmUis deo. For this use of the accusative, see 688. 

Adjectives taken aa Svbetcmtwes. 

843. — ^RuLB Vni. An adjective in the neuter 
gender, without a substantive, governs the geni- 
tive; as, 

Mvltum peevniOf ' Much money. 
Id negoHtj That business. 

344. — EXPLANATION.— Under this rale, the a4jective, withont a 
substantive expressed, is regarded as a substantive, and so, capable of being 
limited by the genitive, as under Bule VI (882). ^ 

345. — Obt. 8. The adjectives thus used have a partitiye ehanboter, 
and are generally such as signify quantity ; multumy plus, plufimumf tai^ 
turn, quantttm ; — the pronouns hoCy id, tUud, ittudj guod, guidf wiUl its 
compounds ; — also mfnmvm, tUdmutnf extr^mum^ din^idivm, medivm, 
aliudy &Q. To these may be added mAt7, ** nothing," which is always a 
substantive ; and the adverbs 9dtia,pdntmf abunde, nffnttm, and aometunea 
largXtety in a substantive sense ; as, nihil pretii, t&iis elogutentitB, tapienlia 
pdrvm, 596. 

This rule applies also to seyeral neuter adjectives in the plural, used in 
a partitive sense; as, angusta viartmij '*the narrow parts of the zoadf 
flfWIca iocSrum; anHquafoedirum ; euneta eampGrum ; ^ 

N'€iU4 — Such a^jectiTes, followed by a genitive, are always either in tin 

S 107 SYNTAX. — aENTTIVK. 225 

nonmiiatrre or aoecnatiTe ; and, wheo in th« aoeiiMtiTa, are not dcpoadeot 
on ft prepoNtion. 

346. — Ob*. 9. Most of Hiese adjeetrret may hare tbeir sobatastiTea 
with which they agree ; but the more oommoo conatmction ia with the 
gfeDitive; aa, tantum tpeiy**w> much hope;" — quid mulUrUf ''what kind 
of a woman r — atiquid formm; quid noe ret ettf And sometimes the 
genitive after these neuters is the genitiye of an adjectiTe used as a sul> 
stontive ; as, atlquid nSvi, tantum bdni, Aa 

347. — Oiyt. 10. Quod and quieqmid, loUowed by a genltiTa, inclutle 
the idea of uniyersalitj ; as, quod a^f% "what of kuia,'* i e. "all the land^ 
quicquid eivium, ** wliaieYer of dtiMiia,* i e. ** all the dtiaens f quicqutd 
deSrutn, '^ all the gods." 

348. — Obt, 11. Opu8 and finis, si^iying " need," sometimes goTem 
the genitiYe; as, A r genii dpu</tttt, "There was need o/mofuy." Lnr. 
Procemii non temper Heue etty "There is not always need of an intro* 
duction." QoiNOT. In general, t]u»e words govem the ablative. 458 


349. — ^RuLE IX Verbal adjectives, or such as 
imply an operation of mind, govern the genitive : 

Aiffdue gioriw, Deairona of glory. 

IffnoruM frmtdi$f Igoonnt of fraud. 

Mimor benefieUHrum, KindM of ikvortk 

350. — EXPLANATION.— The genitive in this oonstmotion, as in { 108, 
is used to limit the application of the general term or adjeotive by which it ia 
governed* and may be rendered by qfj or. in reepeet qfy prefixed ; thus, in the 
first example, o^bMau expresses the possession of <fenr« generally ; the genitlva 
gloruR limits it to a certain object, ** glory ;*' and so of the othar examplea. 


351. — Ohi. 1. Adjectives governing the genitive under this 
rule, are: 
ViL VntALB in AX ; aa, eUpax^ idaXyflraXy/figaxy pertfUax, tin&x, Aa 

Sd Paktioiflbs in NS and TUS ; as, dmaney appitenSy eupiena^ peUiem, 
impatienHy ntienty cdlena, ^^gien$y inteltlgen^y metuent^ tempirant, 
intempirans; eotmUttUy JoehUy experttUy inexpertuty tiMul^ws* m* 
so^M, Aa 


226 sTKtAi.— GBOTrnra. § 107 

Hd A(]QeetiTe8 denoting irariovs affedioDB of the dihid; ttieii tm, 1. Dbori 
imd DisoDBT ; as, avOruM, a&idua, eupiduM^ tiauUdmu, /euHdidtttSj ^a, 
widi many other yerfanls in ldu$ and d$Ht. %, Knowlbsob and 
laiKMiAirGB ; as, caltichs^ eertus, cpnneiHs, ffndnu, perUu*, frvdtnM^ Ac^ 
•^4^Haru$,imeeriuafin9eiu9fimpr1ideru, ttnperUus, fUdit, dke. 3. Hb- 
MOKT or FoBOETPuumB ; aa, mimor^ immimory Ac 4. Oabx and 
Nkouokhcb; aa, angiut, curiOsua, aoli«^Uu$, propidus, ditigens ;—inr 
€uri69u», MtffiriM, negtigent^ ^ & Pjeak and Oovfidsnck ; aa* pa' 
fHiua, tvn\iuBy trej^tu; — impavidus, interriius^ Ac 6. Guilt and 
Iirifoocim; Bs^noxiuM, rtua, m^fedui, aMU^^eriiM /^-imkKBMM, ifi- 

mSL To these, may be added many giher adjectrres of snnilar significatzon, 
which are limited bj, or goyem such genitiTes as onlmt, ingenii, 
mmUUt lr>«» tniiitim, hdU^ MSfU, riruai, avi, mOrum, and Jidei, 

352. — OU 1 Verbals in NS are used both as adjectives and partis 
etples, but usualljr with some difference of meanii]^ ; as, patieru alg^Sryi, 
"capable of bearing cold;** paiieni aigdrem^ ^'actuidly oearmg cold;" 
dauiftt virtvUiB, ** loving virtue,*" — spoken of the disposition ; dmans virtu- 
tern, ''loving virtue,** — spoken of ihe act So also, doetut grammaiiecB, 
" sldlled in grammar f aoctus grammancamf '*one who has studied gram- 


353. — Obi. 3. Maaj oftlieBe ddjecthres vaiy tlieir oonstruc- 
tion ; 80 that, instead of the genitive, they sometimes take 
after them, 

1st An infinitive dause ; as, Oerhu ire, " determined to go." Ovm. Camr 
t&repHrUi. Tdlo. An^eleu* quid Uptu facto nt Sall. 

2d. An accusative witii a prepositicxi ; as, avidior ad rem ; an^bnue e&pmx 
ad preeeepta ; adfrHxtdm eattkhts; pdtens m t8$ beliidoau, Ac 

8d. An ablative with k prepositicn; as, avidtu in psewitts, ** eager in. 
regard to money ;** anxime de/dmd ; eOper •eeHre mtpedue ; Ac 

4th. An ablative without a preposition ; as, arte rudiSj " rude in art ^ 
regni erim^ne innnm; prautane ingeni^ Htlk 

354. — Oh», 4. Some adjectives usually governing the dative, sometimes 
govern the genitive ; such as timtlis, Sssim^lit, Ac See S85. 

366. — ^RxTLE X. Partitives and words placed 
partitively, comparatives, superlatives, interro 
gatives, and some numerals, govern the genitive 
plural; as, 

AhquUphilouphSrvaii, Soma one of the philosophers. 

Senior Jratrumy The elder of the orothers. 

Ifodtie^fmus Romanf^rum, The most learned of the BcttnaiM 

Quis noetrUm f Which of us t 

Una mu99r%mt, One of the muses. 

OctOvuB sapientitwi, The eighth of the wis« men. 

§ 107 BTKTAX.— GKNimn. 227 

856. — ]SXPLANATION.~A pattiHvt h a word which BigniAen a part 
of any number of persons or things, in oontradistinotion to the whole. ▲ 
word plaoed partUiwiy is one which, thongh it does not signify a party yet 
h sometimes nsed to digHnffuieh a part from the whole ; as, eaepedUi miliiymf 
" the light armed (of the) soldiers.'' The partitive, when an adjective, takes 
the gender of the whole, and governs it in the genitive plaral ; or, if a col- 
Isctive noun, in the genitive singnlar ; and in this case, the partitive takes 
tilt gender of the noon understood ; as, dodimmtu swb aidtit. 

357. — Obt. 5. Pftrtitives are snoh words as, ullutf nuUtu, mOIum, aliut, 
iUer, uieo-gtief neuter, alter y a%Mt«, quldaniy quisguiSy quicunqvf, guUf 
qtUf quotf My aliquot, f^onniUliy pleriquey muUiypauci, mediuay ice. 

Words are used portitively in such expressions as the following : tupiri 
deCrvm ; eancte deirum ; degenireg ednum ; piteiwn ferrAncB, To wnich 
add om»tf, amcfiM, nimo; as, «in««« MacedOfwm; nim nosMsm, 

358. — Obt, 6. The comparative with the genitive denotes one of two:\^ 
the superlative denotes a part of a number greater than Vwo ; as, nu^ \ 
fratrum, ** tiie elder of two brothers ;" maaHmtte firatnan, " the eldest of \ 
(three or mere} brothers^* So also, dtery alter, and neuter, generally refer 
to two ; quU, aiiuSy and nuUus, to more than two ; as, iUer noetriiin f " which 
of us (two) r quU fwstrStm f * which of us (three or more) T NoetrHem / 
and veetrum. are used after partitives ; seldom nottri and ves^ri 

35i^. — Obe. 7. The partitive is sometimes mdeiiliood; aa, Viee noU- 
Hum tu qudqvefontium (sc anu«). Hob. 

300. — Obe, 8. Instead of ihe genitive after tiie partitives, the ablative 
is often found governed by de, e, », or in ; or the accusative with inter at 
ante; BAyiinue e etoteie; ante cmnee pulchenimue; inier rigee 

361. — ^RuLE XI. Adjectives of plenty or want 
govern the genitive or ablative; as, 

Plgnue Ira or Ird, Full of anger. 

Inope rattOnu or ratUfne, Void of 

EXPLANATION.— As in Bale IX, the adjective here is a gMierai ten% 
but limited in its application by the genitive or ablative following it. 

362. — Obe. 9. Among adjectives denoting p/en/y or toon/, a considerable 

Tmriety of eoDstnieticn is foimd. 
X A* Some govern the eenitive only ; aa, beniffnuiy exavn, impot, knpiftene 

irr^UuSy liberOliSy mutU/leuey Ac 
. b. Some govern the ablative only; aa, beatu$y muOluty tumtduB, twrffir 


^ c. Some govern the genitive more frequently ; as, ecmpoi, eoruarBy 4m9- 
" nu9, exkeeresy expert, /ertllis, indl^fuSy parcue, pauper, prodigue, eteruU, 
proeper, ineatiOtuSy insatiad^U. 

^ d. Some ^vem tiie abUtive more frequently ; as, abimdaau, oMNuw, 



228 SYNTAX. — GBNinVB. § 108 

eoMUf, ext*>rrii, Jitmut, fogtu$,f^iquen$, grItviM, groMiUtJefOnuBy infirmfti, 
tiber, Uxntplet, IcUutf mactu9, niidut, (muttWy arbus, polUru, iotidtut, tmuit, 
trunnu, viduui. 

e. Some ffoyem the g«iutiTe or ablatiYe indifferently; as, eopi6tu$, dive»j 
feewnduB, firax, immanU, inania, Inopt, largta, modieus, immodUtutt 
mmi tM, opuUfUus, plinu*, pdtetit, pUrus, referttta, aMur, vaeuttt, Hber. 

363. — Oh». 10. Many of these adjectiveB are sometimes limited by a 
preposition and its case ; as, Ldeua eopiomis afrtanerUo, Cia Ab omnt re 
parotM. Id. Parent in victu. Pun. In affectVma^ potentutftntitu, Quincc 
Pdtent in rtt beUleat. Iiiv. ^ 


864. — ^RuLE XIL /Sum governs the genitive of 
a person or thing to which its subject belongs as a 
possession, property, or duty ; as, 

£^H rig%%y It belongs to the lonff. 

Hominia est errdre^ It is characteristic of man to err. 

365. — EXPLANATION.— The genitive in this construction is sappoeed 
to be (rovemed by the adjective j>r<>prM««, or the substantive offidum^ mOnuMf 
r«$f Jiegotium, ^ut, &c., understood. (When it is ezpresRcd, the genitive ia 
governed by it according to Rale VI.) The verb is in the third person, — 
often bos an infinitive or clause for its nominative, and may be rendered in 
anyway by which the sense is expressed; such as, ii beUmgt tof—Uisth§ 
property — the part — the duty — the peculiarity — the (Procter of^ &o. The ftiL" 
lowing are examples : 

Jnsipientie eat dicire non putdnan^ It is the part of a foci, dke. 
Miutum eat auo duci parire^ It is the duty of soldiers, <&o. 

Laudare ae vOni est, It is the mark of a vain man, Ac 

So the following — Arrogantie est negligire quid de ae guiaque aentioL 
Oia Ficua eat Melibcei. Viao Hcee aunt hominia. Tul Pnupiria eat 
numerdre pieua. Ovid. Temeriteia eatjhrentia eetdHa, prudentia aeneetiUiM 
Cia Antlqui mOria fuit. Pun. 

866. — Oba, 1. Sometimes the fi^enitive, in the predicate of a sentence, 
IS governed by the preceding word repeated after the verb; as, Hoc pieua 
eat (pSeuft) Melibon; Hie tiber eat (iXber) fratria. SomeUmes tba 
genitive depends on some general word understood, but easily supplied in 
tlie mind; as, Thucydidea, gut eiuadem cdOiia Juit^ sc. Admo. The same 
^onstroction ia sometimea used after /o, and some other verba; aa, Ama 

§108 SYNTAX — QENrnVB. 229 

JUmumerum facta etty sc. provineia, "Asia became (a pou$$don oc 
pTtmnee)oi the RomaoB." 

367. — Oba, 2. Instead of the genitiye of the penonal poDomu, the ' 
nominaiiYe neuter of the pofleeaaite is oommonljir used, affreem^ with afi- 
eivm, mUnvt, Ac^ understood ; m, tman etty " it is your duty " instead of 
iui : meum esty ** it is m^ part)" instead of mei. So also, instead oi a geni- 
tiye of a noun, an adjective deriyed from it may be used; tMyhumanum 
€9t; r eg turn eti; et facire et p&ti foHia Romdnum €iL 

368. — Oit9. 8. If the yerb be in the infinitiye, the poesessiye pnmoiini 
motf,; be in the accusatiye ; as, teio t uvm sstt, ** I know it is your duty ;** 
and if a substantiye be expressed, the poesessiye must a^ee with it in 
gender, number, and case ; thus, Aot partes fuiruni hue is eqm?alent to tmun 
y^dt, or tuOTum partium fiiity **it was your part" 

369. — ^RuiiB ^111. MieerioTy muereeco^ and aa^ 
t&go, govern the genitive ; as, 

Miurire cwium tuSrum, Pity your oountrymea 

Satdffit rirum euOrum, He is busy with his own afiairs 

370. — EXPLANATION.— The genitiye, in this construction, has been 
supposed to be governed by such a noun ss imj^o^, canuaf re^ Acy under- 
stood ; governed by the prepositions dej a, «», or the like ; ss, miterere d$ 
eaued ehkiniy (fee. We oouRider it better, however, to regard these genitives 
ss governed directly by the verb, und expressing, as in Greek, the cause or 
origin of the feeling which the verb expresses. See Gr. Gram., % 144, 
Bnle XIV. 

371. — Ob9. 4. Many other verbs denoting some affection of the mind 
are sometimes followed by a genitive, denoting that with regard to which 
or on account of which, the affection exists. These are angoy deeipioff 
denpioy diterucior, falloy fallor, fastidiOy invideOy Itetor^ mlror, pendeOf 
itttdeoy vereor; <&c Thus, Ahturde fdeis qui angas te an\m%, Plaut. i)ts- 
erueior anlmi, Txa. Fallsbar aermOnis. Plaut. Lntor mal6rum, ViBO. 
These verba have commonly a different construeticxB. J^ote 2. See JVbi 640. 

J/ote 1. — ^The first and second of these examples resemble the peculiar 
Greek construction, explained Gr. Gram., § 148, Obs. 2. 

372. — Ob9. 6. Several verbs, espedally among the poets, are found 
with the genitive, in imitation of the Greek construction (Gr. Gram., § 144, 
Eules XYL and XVII.)^ These are ahttineoy desinOy deaiatOy quietcoy regno ; 
%1bo, adipiscaTy condieOy crldoy fruetrcTy furOy laudoy libiroy tivOy particXpo 
prohibeo ; thus, AbatinBto irdpim. Hoa. DesXfis querelamm. Id. Regnd- 
tit populorum. Id. L^aa me hb&rttm, Plaut. 

H^oie 2. — AH these verbs, however, in Obs. 4 and 5, have, for the moat 
part, a different construction, being followed sometimes, as active trans t' 
tiye verbs, by the accusative, and more frequency, by the accusatiye <* 
abUttre with a preposition. 

230 SYKTAx. — vArvrn. § 109 

8Y8. — Rule XI V. HecordoTj memini, remim^ 
COT^ and obUmaayr^ govern the genitive or ao 
casative; as, 

JUeardor Uietionis, or UctUfnem^ I remember the lessoa 
Oblivi9(n»r injurice, or iryuriam^ I forget an injiirj. 

374. — EXPLANATION.— When these verbs are followed by an ao- 
tfOMitive, they are oonudered transithrely and ftU vnder Bala ZZ. But when 
a genitiv« follows them, they are regarded as intfansitiTa ; and the genitiva 
denotes that in regard to whioh the memory, dtc, la ezerdsed. 

375. — Ob»,6, These verba are often eoDstrued wHk an infimtivaor 
some part of a sentence, instead of the genitive or accusative ; as, Memim 
mdtre vir^nem, Tsil 

376. — Obi, 7. Recordor and fTiantnt, ognifying * to remember,^ art 
aometimes followed by an ablative with dt, Meminif ugnifying " to make 
mention of,** has a genitive or an ablative with de> M «Au< in pnenian, 
being equivalent to rBoordOtur, has a genitive after it; «b» ic% vhtii in menr 
tern potestdtia tuas. 

N. B. For the genitive with vci*bs of aecusinpy see § 122; — 
with verbs of valuing, § 122, R. XXVIIl. ; — with Passive verbs, 
§ 126 ; — with Impersonal verbs, § 118 ; — with Adverbs, § 135; 
denotiiig place, § 130, 548 and 558. 


1. The Dative m used to express the renwte olfjeei to wAtdk anj quality er 
ftoticn, or any state or condition of things tends, or to which they refer. Hiis 
tendency is naually expressed in English by the words TO or FOK> fieooe^ 

2. The datiye, in Latin, ia goyemed by noftnt, tugectivet, and wrh*; or 
denotea the objeot to which they refer. 

8. A nse of the dative of the peraoDal pronotms, common in Greek; and 
nsnally called the dmUw redyndeuU, has alao been imitated in LatkL See 
Qt, GranL, 617, Bern, The following are examplea : Quo tantttm mat 
dexter Msf Vmo. jFVir mihi e$, Plaut. Tongilium vxm edwHt Cia 
Ubi nunc n5bib deus ille mttgitterf Ynto. Mcee 'An SehOnts, Cia Suo 
flin ffladio huneJugHlo. — ^But^ though the dafiye thus uaed ia aaid tP b^ 
redundant, still it adds something to the meaning or emphasis of the ex- 
pression, or shows that the pei^on expressed in the datiye'has some rela- 
tion to, or partLeipaitioa in, the fauiA expressed; thua, /Wr mihi as, **{Jn 
my opinion^) you are a thiel** 

f 110; 111 CTNTAX.— DATmL 231 


378. — Rule XV. Substantives frequently go- 
vern the dative of their ol^ject; as, 

HfstU ffirtuttbui. An eoemj to TirtiM. 

Sxitium pecdrif Deetmction to the flock. 

Obtetnperantia U^flha, Obedience to the laws. 

379. — EXPLAKATION.^Under this rale, the governing enbetanttve 
generally denotes an aflbction, or some advantage, or disadvantage, or aot, 
which iB limited, as to its object, by the dative folloiring it, as in the pre- 
ceding examples. 

S80 — Obs, 1. Bule. The dative of the possessor is governed 
hj substantives denoting the thing possessed ; as, 

Mi vinit in menteniy It came into hitmifui 

Out eorput porrigUur, ^ Whoae body is extended. 

381. — Qh9, 2. The dative in this oonstruotion is said to be used for, or 
instead 0% the genitive, as in Rule VL There are but few instances, how- 
ever, in which the genitive under that rule could, with propiiety, be 
changed for the dative. On the other hand, when the dative is used, the 
genitive would £eu1 to egress so precisely the idea intended. In this oon< 
struction, the noun governing the dative is connected with a verb in such 
a way as clearly to show, that the dative is rather the object of that which 
i^ expressed by the verb and noun together, than under the government 
of the noun al(Hie Thus, in the first example, ei denotes the person to 
whom that which is expressed by lOnit in mentem, occurred So, eorvu$ 
porriffUwr states what was done to the person represented by cut. The 
principle of this oonstruetion will be more manifest m>m what is stated 602. 


382. — ^RuLE XVI. Adjectives signifying profit 
or disprofit, likeness or unlikeness, govern the 
dative; as, 

VtUia belht Useful for wnr. 

SimXlis patrif Like his father. 

383. — EXPLANATION.— The dative under this rule, like the genitive 
oiider Bale IX, is used to limit the meaning of the adjective to a particular 
object or endj to which the quality expressed by it is directed. Thus, in the 
Ant example, i$illi» means ** useful " in a general aense ; btUo limits the tuuv 

282 SYNTAX.— DAnVK. § lU 

ftilness intended to a {wrticiilar object, " war." The dative, tbna tiaed ia 
rendered by its ordinary eigne to or for ^ but aometunee by other prepoaltious, ^ 
or withont a prepoeition, aa in the laat example. 


384*. — Oh*. 1. To thia role belong adjectiyea aignifying: 
let Profit, or diaprofit; aa, 6enf^iiM, hUnut, eommddus,filix ; — damtUftm^ 

2d. Pleaaure, or pain ; aa, acceptua^ drdeis, gratuty juiOtndui, Uiti*t9, tmOvU ; 
— aeerbu»y amdrus, ingrOhUf moletlus, ifca 

Sd. Friendahip, or hatred ; aa, mquuM^ aml^tM, hlandu*, «anM^ ds^^dut 
fldut ; — adoerwiu, <Mp«r, cridUtMy in/eUua, ifca 

4th. Perspicuity, or obscurity ; aa, apertus^ cerhiSj eompertua, tonapieutu 
nOtus ; — amlnguua, dubiiu^ ignOtua, ohwOruty <bo. 

6tib. Propinquity ; aa, finitimuB^ propior, ptw^bntu, prvpmqttua, aoeiut, 
vtdnuif aff'mity iui. 

dth. Fitness, or unfitness ; aa, aptits, appo^Uus, AoM/tt, idoneus, opporiitmM ; 
— ineptus, infiabtlia, irnportUntu^ dtc 

'Ttib. Ease, or difficulty ; aa,/acl/t<, Uvi*\ obvitu^ pervitu ; — cfifieHis, ardutu, 
grovit. Also thoee denoting propensity or readiness ; aa, prOmuat 
procllvi»f propenauSy dtc 

8th. Equality, or inequality ; likeness, or unUkenesa ; aa, agvOHa, aequca- 
VIM, poTy eompar ; — inceqttdlia, impaVy diapaTy diaeora ; — «tmi/u^ 
temwua ; — disaimilia, alignuay Ac 

tfth. Several adjectives compoimded with CON; as, ecgfUUuay eongrvua^ 
eanaihiuay c6tiveni€7iay con^nenay dtc 

10th. Verbal adjectives in BILIS; aa, oma&l/M, terribHiay optabUiay and 

the likei 

385.--^ 06«. 2. — Bxe. The following adjectivea have sometimes the 
dative after them, and sometimes the genitive ; via : afflnUy «tm{/u, «om- 
muniay par, proprirUy finifUnu9y fiduay eantermtnuay auperateay eonacivs, 
mqudliay eontrctntiay and adveraua ; aa, aimilia fl6t, or hd, 

OoHadva and some other odjeotivea, govern the dative aeeording to thia 
rule, and, at the same time, a genitive by Rule IX. ; as, Ment sl6t eonacia^ 
reetiy *" a mind couscious to itseu of rectitude." Vibo. 

386. — Oba, 8. Adjectives signifying motion or tendency to a thiug, 
take after them the accusative with ad, rather than the dative ; as, pro- 
ellmtay prdnua, propenauay viloXy eUety tarduay pigety Ac ; thus, Jtger ad 
prefiaa. Ovid. 

387. — Oba, 4. Adjectives signifying uaefulneaa or Jiineaay and the con- 
Irary, often take the accusative with ae{; aa, uCUia aa nvllam remy **good 
(or nothing.'' 

388. — Oba, 6. Pronior and /mxrlfttiM take after them sometimes the 
genitive, sometimes tne dative, or the accusative governed by ad under^ 
stood; as, propior ealiginia aer; propiua vero ; prox^imua {ad) Pompeiwn 

389. — Oba, 6. Some adjectives that govern the dative ■ometimeik 

§ 112 SYNTAX— BATIVK. 288 

vmUsad of the datiye, hare an ablatiye with a prepositioB ti^wfjuiiJ or no* 
deratood ; as, diseors siettm ; aliinum nottrd amiettid. 

390. — Ob*, 7. Idem is sometimes followed bj the datiye, ehieflj In tho 
poets; as, Jupiter idem omnXbut; InvUum gvi 9ervat, Xdem fleU 
• ecidenti. In prose, idbn is followed ccanmoiily Iff 9*11, ae, a<^iM, W or 


891. — ^RuLE XVn. All verbs govern the dative 
of the object or end, to wbicb the action, or state 
expressed by them, is directed ; as, 

FfnU vinit inmerio. An end has oome to the empire. 

AnUmu rkUt noHiiua, Courage retunis to the enemy. 

Tlbi siria, Ubi miiis. Ton sow for yooTMl^ yon reap fbr yoorsell 

392. — EXPLANATION.-^This rule may be oonsidered as general, aj;^ 
plying to all oases In which a yerb is followed by a datiye. When the yerb 
is transitive aotiye, it govems its remote object in the datiye, not as that 
vpon which the action is exerted, bat ss that to which it is directed, while, at 
the same time, it governs also its immediate object in the aooosatiye (501). 
If intransitive, it will be followed by a dative only. 

This rule, being applicable to all oases in which a dative follows a verb, la 
too general to be nsefbl, as it oonld be applied correctly withont much discn- 
mination. It will therefore be of more advantage, when it can be done, to 
apply the spe<»al roles comprehended nnder it as follows : 


393. — ^I. Simij and its compounds, govern the 
dative (except ^po^^t^m); as, 

Prmfuit exereituif He oonmianded the army. 

Debimut omnibut prodesM, We ought to do good to alL 

394. — ^n. The verb JEJst^ signifying to be^ or to 
Idong to, governs the dative of the possessor ; as, 

JEM miki Plher, A book is to me, Lei have t book. 

Sunt mihi libri. Books are to me, i e. I have books. 

Seio libroe eate mihi, I know that books are to me, L e^— that I have, te 

2)95. — EXPLANATION.— In this constmotion, the dative expresses the 
person or th'ng, to or for which the subject spoken of, is, or exists. The 
terb wiH alirays be in the third person singular, or plural, in any tense, or 

234 SYi^AX.— dativb:. § 112 

In the lnHtiitiTe. — ^TLlft very oommon Latin ooDBtraction will be rendered 
eorreetly into Englieh, by the verb *^ have," instead of ^^ is,'' <fec., of which 
the word in the dative, in Latin, }>eoomeB the enbject or nominative in En- 
glish, And the Latin nominative, the object, as is shown in the above 
example^. — ^For the verb est with the gerund, see 699. 

396. — Oba. 1. The dative in used in a similar manner after /Tfrem, 
guppito ; digum^ defieio, <&c. ; as, Pauper non eat eui rerum s upp Hit 
Haut, " He is not poor to tohom the use of property it supplied," L e. who 
has the nse of property. Hoa. So, H mini eauda fore t. — Abest and 
deest mihu as opposed to est miM^mean, **I have not." — So, defuit ars 
wdbis, — /oc mi hi non ds/it, — nisi vlnum nobis defecissetf" — <Scc. 

Note. — ^An adjedive, or participle, deooting willingness or unwillingneBB, 
agreeing with the dative after est, is sometimes put for a verb of like 
signification, having the word in the dative for its subject; thus, Mthi 
vdlenti est'^vdlo; flbi invito fuit'^noluisti, <&c.; aA^ Atiqutd mi hi vSlenti 
esty " / like (or wish) a thing ;" Atiquid mi hi invito est,**! dislike a 
thing." So, Qulbus bellum volentibus irat^ " Who toished for 
war," Tac, Agr, 18; — Nique plebi militia volenti esse putabotur, 
* It was thought the Common people did not wish for war," or, ** That war 
would not be agreeable to the common people.'' — ^This is a Greek con- 
struction, for which see Greek Grammar, g 148, Obs. 8. 

897. — ni. Verbs compaanded of sdMs^ h&ne^ 
and mdU^ govern the dative ; as, 

Leg'&ms saiisfidt, He satisfied the laws. ' 

Benefac^e reiptibUcaif To benefit tiie state. 

898. — Obs. 2. These compounds are often written separately, and the 
dative is governed by the combined force of the two words. 

399.-=-IV. Many vei*bs compounded with these 
ten prepositions arf, cmtey con^ — m, inter^ ob^ — 
jpostj prcB^ sub^ and ev^per^ govern the dative ; as, 

Atmue eaptiSf ^avor our undertaldDgs. 

400. — Verbs governing tlie dative under this rule are sudi 
M the following ; viz. 

1. AeeedOf aeereeto^ enceumbo, aequieseo^ tfdnoy adnOtOf adegtMo, adhatreoi 
adstOf adstipUlor, advolvor, afftdgeo, allabor, allab6rOy annuo, dppareo, 
applaudi^ appfopinqtto, dtrided, atpirot a4sentior, tissidw, asaitto, d^ntfsco^ 


2. Antee^h, anteio, anUsto, <thieverto, 

8. CoUado, eontHno, consHno, eonvlvo. 

4 Incwnho, indormio, indubito, inhio, ingemiseo, inJuereo, ituideo, tfMt- 
deor, insto, insisto, insudo, inndto, inviguo, Ulacrjmo, iUndo, immineo 
immorior, immOror, impendeo. 

g 112 STNTAX.— DATIVB. 285 

5. inienenio, inUnri^eo, intertido^ intertlido^ interfaeeo. 

6. Obrepo, oblucto, obtreclo, obttripOf obmurmUrOf oceumbOt ocewno, co» 
earm obsio^ obsuto^ obvenio, 

7. Postfiroj pasikabeo, poUpCnOt pottpUto, postteribo^ with an accoaattTa. 

8. PrcecedOf praeurro, praeo, prtesideo, prvd-ueeo, prteniteo, prcuto^ prm^ 
valcoj prctverto. 

9. Sueeido, meetanbo, n^icio, mffrOgar, tuberetcOf tuboUo, nUfjaeea^ 

10. Superve9iiOf tuperewrro, ntpertto. But moat verba aompounded with 
SUPER govern the accusative. 

401. — Ob», 8. Some verba oompounded with ab, de, ex, eircum, and 
eonira ; also compounds of di and dity meaning generallv " to differ," are 
sometimes followed by the dative. These, £>wever, chiefly fSEdl under 
Rule XXXI, % 126. 

402. — Obt. 4. Many verba ocmipounded with prepoaitiopa, instead of 
the dative, take the ease of the preposition, which ia aometimea repeated. 
Some intransitive verbs so compounded, either take the dative, or, acquir- 
ing a transitive signification by the force of the preposition, govern the 
accusative by Rule XX.; aa, Helvetii reltguoB Gallo$ virtiUe prates' 
dunt,*' The Helvetii mrpase the other OauU in bravery.* 

403. — ^V. Verbs govern the dative which signi- 
fy to profit or hurt ; — ^to favor or assist, and the 
contrary ; — to command and obey, to serve and 
resist; — ^to threaten and to be angry; to trust. 

404. — £XPLANATION.~Verba governing the dative, under this and 
the preceding rule, are always intransitives or transitivea need intransitively, 
and consequently it ia applicable to the active voice only. The dative after 
passive verbs, does not come under these rules, but belongs to | 129, 

405. — Obs. 5. The verbs under this rule are such as the fol^ 
lowing : 

1st. To profit or hurt ; as, 

Projicio,pr09um, ptaeeo, eommbdo, protpieiOf eaveo, metno, HnuOf coruUla, 
for proapieto. Likewise, noeeo, officio, ifuommddo, tUsplieeo, <&o. 

2d. To &vor or assist, and the contrary ; as, 

Paveo, gratiUorp araHflcor, grdioTt ignoteoy indulffeo, pareo. adSl&r, 
plaudOf blandior, Unodlnort polpofj auerUor, aubparatUor Likewise^. 
OMxilior, adminic&lor, mbveniOf aueeurro^ patroclnor, medear, medieor 
^tulor. Likewise, dcrOgo, detraho, inndso, mn&lor, 

3d. To command and obey, to serve and resist ; as, 

hnpiro^ preadpio, mando ; modiroT, for nOdum adhibeo. Likewise, pareOf 
auioulCo, obediOf obaiquor, obtempiro, mertm ffiro, morigiror, ob9eamd» 

286 BTNTiX— DATIVB. §118 

LikewiM,/amfi/or, $ervio, tfuomo, minUtrOt ancillor. Likewif6» npu^no 
•bsto, reivctoTf renltor, resUto, refrdffort advertar. 

4th. To threaten and to be angry ; as, 

5th. To trust ; as, Fido^ confldo^ credo, dijfido. 

To these, add, ntUtOf exceUo, kareot 9uppt%eo^ cido, detptro^ cp&or, prat' 
9tolor, mrcBvarieor; recipio^ ''to promise f renuncio; rettpondeo, *to 
answer, or ** satisfy f tempiro, atudeo ; v4co, ** to be at leisure for f tonvicicr, 

Exe. — JubeOtjUvo, lado, and offendoy govern the aocnsatiye. 

406. — Obi. 6. Many of these verbs, however, are variously construed, 
the same verb sometimes governing the dative according to this rule ; and 
sometimes, taken in a transitive sense, governing the accusative by Rule XX. 
Sometimes they are followed by an accusative with a preposition, and 
sometimes by an ablative with a preposition. Thus, impendire a/leut, or 
ahguem, or in atiqttemy ** to hang over ;" c&ngruire aticuit cum ahqua re, 
if iter M, " to agree." 

407. — 06s. 7. Many verbs, when (hey vary their construction, vary 
their meaning also; as, TXmeo fUn^ — de Uf^o it, signifies, " I fear for 
you," i e. " for your safety f but timeo te^ means, ** I fear you.** *' I drcMul 
you,** OonaiUo tiidy is ** I consult for you," i. e. " for your safety.** CoruUlo 
te, means " I consult yon, I ask your advice ;** and so of others. 

408. — Oba, 8. Verbs signifying motum or tendtney to a thing, instead 
of the dative, have usually the preposition ad or in with the accusative; 
as, cUbmor it ad ecelum; seldom, ana chiefly with the poets, ccdo. 


409. — Rule XVlll. An impersonal verb governs 
the dative ; as, 

BxpidU reipubHeOf It is profitable for the stata 

410. — EXPLANATION.— This rule applies to the dative governed by 
the psasive of all those verbs which, in the active voice, govern the dative 
only, according to Nos. 897, 899 and 408,^-the passive of aA intransi- 
tives being used only imperBonally (228-8); thuA^/cMatur mihi, " I am favored,** 
not egofavwr. When the passives of such verbs are used pertimady^ then 
the verb is to be considered as used in a transitive sense. 406. 


411. — 06«. 1. There verbs, potttt^ ecepity ineipit, deAnitf dibet apd 
BbUtt before the infinitive of impersonals, become impersonal also ; asi non 
piytut eridi tibi, ** you cazmot be believed." 

g 113 SYNTAX. — ^DATIVE. 237 

412. — Oba. 2. Some verbs are used both personally and imperscMiallT 
aa, doleo, ** I grieve ;" ddUt mtAt, ** it grievet me," L e. ** I grieye, ^ So also 
▼erbs oommonly used impersonally sometimes have a subject in ths 
nominative, and are, of course, used personaUy. This is the case especially 
with such nominatives as these — td^ hoc, iiludj quid, quod, nihil, Ac ; an 
Konne hae te pUdentf "Are you not athamcd of thue thingir 

413. — Obs, 8. An infinitive mood or part of a sentence is commonly 
ioinftd to an impersonal verb, whidi, in fact, may be regarded as its sub- 
ject; as, deUetat nu •tudtre^ "it delightB me to study," ie. "to study 
delists me** 807 and 662. 

414. — Obi. 4. The dative after impersooals is sometimes nnderstood; 
mBtfaciai quod Pibet (sa sl6t) 

415. — Exo. I. Bsfert kd\ InUreat govern tlie 
genitive; as, 

Rifert pmtriMj It concerns my &ther. 

InUrttt omntttfWy It is the interest of aU. 

416. — ^But, instead of the genitives r/i^, tui^ 
eui^ &c.y the possessives mea^ tua^ 6ua^ noePra^ 
'oeaVra^ are used; as, 

Non mea rSftrif It does not ooQcem me. 

417. — Ob9, 6. The case and construction of these possessires are 14 
mur-h doubt Some regard them as the accusative plural neuter agreeing 
with neqotia or eomindda governed hj ad; as, turn (ad negotia) mea rf/ert 
But fi^ the final d, in this construction, is found in Terence to be long, 
others consider it in the ablative singular, feminine, agreeing with re or 
cattsa governed by in; as, in mea re non rifert; while ^ers suppose that 
mea, tua, Ac, are abbreviations from meam^ tuam, Ac, agreeing with rem, 
and hence the final a long. Non nostrum taniaa coinponire lUee, It is 
more manifest that rifert, in which 8 is long, is not from rifh'o, but from 
ret and firo, and means, impers(»aUy, " it profits,*' *" it befits," " it con- 
cerns," Aq, Sometimes it is used personally with hoe, td^ or an infinitive, 
for its subject. It is equally obvious that ii mea or tua, or sua, <feo., agrees 
with some word understooo, then the genitive under the rule xnay b« 
governed by the same word, according to Rule VL ; L e. if mea rifert is 
for mea negotia, <fec., rifert, then rifert patrie may be fo^ rifert negotia 
f>a^n«, whether negotia m the accusative, or re in the ablative, be goremed 
directly by the verb, or by a preposition understood. 

4 1 8. — fCbe. 6. Instead of the genitiye, these verbs sometimes take the 
aocusative with a preposition ; as, rifert ad me, for rifert mea, i e. mH, 
Sometimes they are lued absolutely, without a ease expressed. 

419. — Exo. n. These five Mis&ret^ pomitet^ 
p&det^ ujsdely and piget^ govern the accusative of 

288 8TWTAX.— DATIVE. §114 

the immediate, with the genitive of the remote 
object; as, 

Miairet m$ tuij I pity yoa 

Pcmltet me peeeOUf I repeut of mj bio. 

Tadet mt «f<ar, I am weary of life. 

Piidet me eulptey I lun ashamed of my fiinlt 

420. — EXPLANATION.— These ezampleB may be rendered literaUy 
thus: *'It grieves me on account of yon,*^ i. e. erffo^ or eattea tui; — *^It 
repents me of my sin ;" — *'It wearies me of life;" — **It shames me of my 
fimlt" For the method of rendering impeiaonal yerba in a personal form, as 
in the above examples, see 229-4(, 

421. — Obg. 7. The infbitiye mood or part of a sentence may supply 
the place of the genitive ; as, panitet me peccdsie^ or quod peecaverim, 
Non pcenUel me quantum profedrim. Jft«^«i is found with an 
accusative instead of the genitive; as, MenedSmi vieem miairet me. 
The accusative of the immediate object is scxnetimes omitted ; as, Sceli- 
rwn si b^n€ panttet (soii n o «). no%. 

422. — Obs. 8. The preterites of these verbs, in the passive form, go 
Tern the same cases as the active ; as, Miserltum eet me tu&rum for- 
tunarum. Txr. Miaetescii and miaeHtur are sometimes used imper* 
Bonally ; as, Mieeretcit me tut, Ter. Mieere&tur t e fr atruni\ Nequ€ 
me tuiy neque tudrutn liberdrum miaeriri potest, Cia 

423. — ^Exo. III. J)S€etj delectat^ jH/oai^ and opor- 
tety govern the accusative of a person with the 
infinitive; as, 

Deleetat me atudtre^ It delights me to study. 

Non dieet te rixdriy It does not become you to scold. 

424. — Oba,9, These verbs are sometimes used personally; bs^ Par 
vum parva decent Hob. JDieet sometimes governs the dative; as, Jta 
HObia dicei. Tsa. 

425. — Oba, 10. Oporiet, instead of the infinitive, elegantly takes the 
subjunctive with W, * that," understood; as, SXbi (ut\ quiagtie eonaUlai 
oportet, Cic. When followed by the perfect participle, eaae or fuuee if 
understood, which, being .supplied, makes the perfect mfinitire. 

426. — Oba, 11. Fallity f&git^ proft^t, Idtet, when used impers<»uiUy 
are construed with the accusative and infinitive ; as, /it^t/ me adte Mcri' 
bere, Gic. 


427. — ^RuLE XIX. The verbs &imiy do^ habeo^ 
and some others, with the dative of the object^ 

§ X14 SYNTAX.— PATIVB. 239 

govern also the dative of the end^ or design; 

1 Ea miAt voluDtati j It i» to me for a pleaaure^ i «. 

*^ * I It ia, or brij3gs, a pleasure to me. 

2. Hoc muii mihi muniri, This he sent as a present to me. 

a. JDuOtur honCTi tibL \ S !* reckoned to you for an honor, L e. 

«. ^m^^r rwuvr^ w», ( It w reckoned an honor to you. 

428. — EXPLANATION.— In these examples, it is manifest that Iht 
words volvptdtiy honOri, and mt/^ilri, each express the end or (Usign for which 
the thing spoken of, or referred to, if, is reckoned^ it sent, to the o^eU ex- 
pressed by the other datives, mihi and tibi. See. also 481. 

The verb mm, with the dative of the ^ndf niay be variously rendered, ao« 
cording to the sense, by such words as, bringgy qfordsj serves, &o. For, the 
lign of the dative, is often omitted, especially after sunu 


429. — Obs. |« Verba goveniing two dativea under this rule, are chiefly, 
mtmy/Sre^JiOt haheo, <io, verto, relinguo, tribvio, duco; and a few othen^ 

4S0. — Obs, 2. Instead of the dative of the endy the nominative after 
est, Ae^ or the accusative in apposition with the object of the preceding 
verb, eroresses the same thing ; as, Amor est exit turn pecdri, ror exitio ; 
Se Achuli c omit em esse &tum dleii, for comiti. In the first example, 
exitiwn is the nominative after est, by Rule V. In the second, comUetn if 
in apposition -^ith se, by Bule L 

431, — Obs, 3. Intransitive verbs, such as 9uim,f6re, fio, eo, 
fidseor, venio, eSdo, suppedito, are followed by two datives, as in the first 
example ; transitive verbs in the active voice, besides the two datives, 
have an accusative expressed or understood by Rule XX^ as in the second 
example ; and in the passive voice, two datives, aa in the third example, 
the one by Rule XXIX., and the other by this rule. 

432. — Obs. 4. The dative of the oli^t (commonly a person) is often to 
be supplied ; as, est exemplo, indicio, prcesidio, usuiy <&c., scil. mihi, aticui, 
JiomiiiihuSy or some such word. So, ponire^ oppon^e^ pigndri, sciL aticui, 
** to pledge ;* eanire receptui, sciL suis militlbiis, " to sound a retreat ;" 
hab€re eUrce, questui, odiOy voluptoti, studio, <&c, sciL t^bi. 

433. — Obs. 5. To this rule is sometimes referred the forms of naming, 
BO common in Latin ; such as, £!8t mihi ndmen Alexandro; Ou i cog- 
nOme-i l&lo addUur. Hie construction 261 is much better. 

434. — Obs. 6. From constructions under this rule, should be distin- 
guished those in which the second dative may be governed by another 
uov^ in the dative, according to 878. 

N. B. For the dative with the accusative, see § 123. 
For the dative after the passive voice, see § 126. 
For the dative aft«r particles, see 598 and 6<00. — Aft^r 
JET^iand Fcp, 453 

240 SYNTAX. — ^AOCUSATIVB. § 115, 116 


1. Hie aoCTiaatJy, m Latin, is med to eaq)reu the immediate objeet of 
a tranaitiTe actiye yerb,—- or, in other worda^ that on which its action is 
exerted, and which is affected by it 

2 It is used to express the object to which something tends or rolatesi 
m ^idu<^ sense it is goremed by a preposition, expressed or understood. 
When used to express the remote objeet of a trsnsitiye verb, or eertsin 
rektioos of measure, distance, time, and place, the prepositi<xi is usually 


436. — ^RuLB XX. A transitive verb in the active 
voice, governs the accusative ; as, 

Ama Ihumf Lore God. 


43Y. — ^I. A transitive deponent verb governs 
the accusative ; as, 

Severire parefUet, Reverence your parents. 

488. — ^IL An intransitive verb may govern a 
noun of kindred signification, in the accusative ; as, 

PugnOre pugmnmj To fight a hattle. 

439. — EXPLANATION.— These rules apply to all verhs which have sn 
noonsatiye as their immediate object ; and that accusative may be any tfatog 
tlsod substantively! whether it be a Aotm, a pronoun^ an inkfinitifH mcod, or 
$laitse of a tmttne*. Intransitives under Kule II. are o^n followed by the 
ablative, with a preposition expressed or understood ; as, Jr4 (in) ififUr«, 
ga/ud^4 (cum) ffoudio, &c 

440. — Obi, 1. Verbs signifying to name, choose, reeX^, eonaHhUe, and 
the like, besides the accusative of the object, take also the accusative of 
the name, office, character, Ao,, ascribed to it ; as, urbem Rsmam vocd- 
vit, " he called the city Rome.* All such verbs, in the passive, hare the 
same case after as before them. (820). 

441. — Obe, 2. Verbs commonly intransitive, are sometimes used in a 

§ 116 SYNTAX. — ^AOCnSATIYE. 241 

transitiTe sense, and are therefore followed by an accusative under thia 
rule ; thus, 

TaANsmyx. iNraANsrnvs. 

Ahlkorrire fdmam^ to dread in£Banj. AbhorrSre a litlbuSf to be averse, Aa 

Abolire rnonumentaf to abolish, <&c. Memoria abolevit^ memory failed. 

Declin&re icturriy to avoid a blow. Declindre loco^ to remove fi'om, <kc. 

Labordre anna^ to forge aims. Labordre morbo, to be ill 

Mor&ri Uer, to stop. Mordri in urbe, to stay in the city. 

To these may be added horrirej furhre^ viv^re, ludire; and verbs sigm- 
fnng to taste of, to smell of, <tc; as, horrire oHquid; furire 6pus eosais; 
iaechanalia vlvunt; Ittdire pUa; redolire vinum; paatilloa RufUlus Olet^ 
Chrgonius hireum; mella herbam sapiunt; imguenta terram tapiunt. 

442. — Obs. S. The aocusatiye, after many intransitive verbs, depends 
on a preposition understood; as, Morientsm nomifie cldmat; Afeas 
qtth^or fort Unas; Num id laerymat virgo ; Quicquid dellrant rfges, 
plectuntur Achivi; Stygiasjuravimusunaat; Maria ambulavisset, ter- 
rain navigdsset, VmG. ; Pascuntur vero 8tflva$,ld.'flre exaeguiat; 
Ibo amicam meam, Plaut.; <bc In these, and similar sentences, the 
prepositions ob, propter, ctreo, per, ad, in, <&c^ may be supplied. 

This construction of intransitive verbs is most conmion with the neuter 
accusatives id, quid, atlquid, quiequid, nihil, idem, Ulvd, tantum, quantum^ 
hoc, mitlta, alia, pattca, ic 

443. — Obs. 4. The accusative, after many verbs, depends on 

a preposition with which they are compounded. This is the 


Ist. With intransitive verbe; as, Gentes qucs mdre Ulud adjdcent, 
"the nations which border upon that tea." So, ineuntprcelinm, 
adlre provinciam^ tran»currire m&re, alldquor te, Ac Tnus com- 
pounded, many verbs seem to become transitive in sense, und so 
govern the accusative by this rule. In general, however, they fall 
under Rule LIL 

2d. With transitive verbs, in which case two accusatives follow— one go- 
verned by the verb, and another by the preposition ; as, (hnnem 
equitdtum pontem transdHeit, ** He leach all the cavalry 
over the bridge;" — Hellespontum eopias trajicit. Here 
also the second accusative falls under Rule LIL 

Note 1. — After most verbs, however, compounded with prepositions go 
veming the accusative, the preposition is repeated before it; as, Caaar ss 
ad neminem adjunxit. 

444. — Obf. 6. a. The accusative after a twansitive verb, especially if 
a reflexive pronoun, or something indefinite or easily supplieu, is 8om» 
times understood ; as, turn prdra avertit, scil. se ; f-urriina prceeipitant, sciL 
m; faciam vitUld, sciL sacra ; binefidt Siliue, scil. hoe. 

b. Sometimes the verb which governs the accusative is omitted, espe* 
oially in rapid or animated discourse ; thus, the interrogative quid often 
stands alone for quid aisf quid censes i or the like. So also, qnidvSroi 
(mid igitur /. quvi ergo f quid inim f Quid quod, commonly rendered 



* naj* *iiaj ercn," "bet scfw" "Toanartr' may be reaohed, tkiu^ 
d%cam dg eo gudtL With quid mMlta t qtdd piUruf me ntMlta, ne plSfu, 
•dL verba, supply dicam ; as. Quid dUam muSta (verba)? Bct^ gitdd potiea f 
fuid tunif aud the like, may be regarded as die norainative to »equ\bar 
undentood ; aud the phnae qmdUai may be reaobred by snpplyiiig the 
preeediug Terb or aome part it f ado. 

445. — Obi, 6. RuLS. The infinitive mood, or part of a 
sentence (439), is often used as the object of a transitiTe Yerb« 
instead of the accusative (665 and 670, Note) ; as, 

JOa mihi /allire. Give me to deceive. 

Cupio me e$$e elementem, 1 deare to be oenile. 

Btatuiruni ut navee eoneeen- They detemuned thai they would 

dirent, embark. 

Note 2. — ^In Buch coiiBtnictioiia, the aubjeet of the daose is sometimeai 
by a Greek idiom, pot in the aocusatiTe aa the object of the verb ; aa, 
S6%ti Marcellum, guam tardua eit ; instead oiNotti quam tardue Marceilut 
$it. So, ilium tU vivat optatit, ioaleAd of ut Ule vivat opta»U; or ilium 
vivire optant. Gr. Gram^ g 150, Oba. 4. 

446. — Obe, 7. A few casea occur in which the accuaatiye is pot after 
a noun derived from a yerb^ or the verbal adjectiyes in bundiis ; ae. Quid 
flbi hiic reeeptio ad te est meum vXrumf , Wherefore do you re- 
eeive my husband hither to youT Plaut. Quid dbi hanc additio ett. 
Id. VitabunduM eaatra. Lit. 

'447. — Oba. 8. Many verba oonaidered tranaitiye in Latin, are intransi- 
tive in English, and must have a preposition supplied in ti'anslating ; as, 
(/t eavSret ffR«,**That he shciUd beware of me.^ On the other hand, 
many intransitive verbs in Latin, i e. verba which do not take an aocuaa 
tive after them, are rendered into English by transitive verbs ; as, ^or- 
tUna fd vet /ortibua,** Fortune /avor< the brave" 

N. B. For the Accusative governed by Recorder, &c., see 
878 ; — ^with another accusative, 508 ; — governed by preposi- 
tions, 602, 607, 608, 613 ;— denoting Hme, 565, B. XLI. ;— 
flace^ 553 ; — measure or distance, 573 ; in exdamations^ 451. 


448. — ^The vocative is used to designate the person or thing addreased. 
but forms no part of the propoaition with which it stands; and it ia oaed 
•Ither with, or without, an interjection. 

449. — ^RuLE XXI. The interjections O, h^ and 
proh a re construed with the vocative ; as, 

Oform4mpueri Ofidrfaoyl 

g 118 SYNTAX- ABLATIVB. 248 

450.->~To these, may be added otiber inteijecticnB of calling or ad- 
dressing; as, ah^ aUf ehetn^ eheu^ eho, efa, /t«m, JttiUf hui^ to, ofie^^and vak, 
which are often followed by the vocatiye : as, Heut St/re, Ohe Ubelle, 

4^1. — 06«. 1. In exeUmations, the person or thing wondered at, is put 
m the accusatiYe, either with or without an interjection ; as, Me miUrumy 
or, Heu me miairvm, ** Ah, wretch that I am T — sometimes in the nomina- 
tive; aSy O virfortu atgue amlette, Txa.; Audi tUtpopulus Bomawu, Liv. 

452. — Obt. 2. The yocative is sometimes omitted, while a genitire de- 
pending upon it remains ; as, O misirai ffeHiU, sc honifnes, Lugak. 

453. — Obs. 8w The interjections ffei and Fa^goyem the dative; M,ffei 
mtAt, "Ahmer Fie »56w, •* Woe to you P 

454. — Oba. 4. Bcce and en, usually take the nominative ; as, JScm 
ndva itirba atque rix<L JSn^o, 


455.— >The ablative is used in Latin generally, to express that from 
whidli something is separated or taken ; or, as that by or with which, som^ 
thing is done, or exists. It is governed by noufu, odjeciive^^ verb*, and 
prepositions, and also is used to express various relations of meatur^ 
diatanee, time, and plaee, Aa 


456. — ^RxjLE XXTL Optts and usice^ signifying 
needj require the ablative ; as, 

JEsi &pu$ peeunid. There is need ^mon«y. 

Nunc ii$u8 virXbus, Now, there is need of strenffth, 

457. — EXPLANATION.— The ablative, after these nouns, is probably 
governed by a preposition, such aapro, understood. In this sense, they an 
used only with the verb sum, of which dpus is sometimes the subject, and 
sometimes the predicate ; UstUf the subject only. 


458. — Obt, 1. OpiM, in the predicate, is commonly used as an inda- 
«bnable adjective, in which case it rarely has the ablative ; m. Dux nObU 
dpu$ est, **We need a general,^ Cia So, IHcee nummos mihi 6puM esse 
Cia; Nobis exempla dpu$ sunt, Cic. In these examples, dp«», as an in 
declinable adjective, agrees with dux, nummos, exempla, by Rule II. This 
oonstruction is most common with neuter adjectives and pronouns, and is 
always used witii those denoting quantity ; as, Quod non ifpua est, asse 
c&rum est. Cato apud Sen. 

459. — Ob$, 2. Opus and fisus are often joined with the perfect paiti- 
eiple; as, dpus matwrdto, ^need of haste ;" (^ji/fM consulto, ''need of do* 
UberatiQD i* iUus faeto, ** iMed of aetioo.'* T1i« participle has sometime! a 

J44 SYNTAX— ABLATIVK. § 119, 120 

•abttantiTe joined with it after dpua; as, Mihi iipu» fvit ffirtio com- 

V en to,** It behoved me to meet with Hiriiu*^ Cia SometimeB tlie BupiiM 
is joined witli it ; as, Ita dietu dpus €$t, Teb. 

460. — Obit, 8. Opu» is often followed by the infinitive, or by the sub- 
{uuctive with ui ; as, Stguid forte, quod bpuM nt tclri, Cia j^une nbi 
ipua est, .oegram ut t« ad similes, Plaut. Sometimes it is absolutely 
without a case, or with a case understood ; as. Sic dpus est ; Si 6ptu eat, 

461. — Exa Opus and Hsus are sometimes followed by the genitive, by 
Rule VL •ttubyArffenti dpusfuit, ** There was need of money f sometimes 
bj an accusative, in which case an infinitive is probably understood ; asi 
PiUrodpus est elbum; sciL habiref Plaut. 


[For the ablative governed by adjectives of plenty or want, see 861.] 

462. — ^RuLE XXin. These adjectives dignuSy 
indignus^ contentus^ prcedUus^ captus^ SLndfretu^,* 
also the participles natus^ eatus^ ortus^ edittce^ and 
the like, denoting origin, govern the ablative ; as, 

Dignus honOre^ Worthy of honor. 

Contentus parvo. Content with littie. 

PrcsdUus virtUte, Endued with virtue. 

Captus oculis. Blind (injured in his eyes). 

Pretus viribus. Trusting in his strengUi. 

Ortus reglbus. Descended from kings. 

463. — EXPLANATION.— The ablative, after these adjectives and par- 
tidpleS| is governed by some preposition uuderstood; as, cum, <20, « , €0;, in, &o. 
Sometimes it is expressed ; as, OHus ex concubind, Sallust. 

464. — Obs. 1. Instead of the ablative, these adjectives often take an 
infinitive, or a subjunctive clause with gut, or ut ; as, Dignus am&ri, 
ViRG.; Dignus qui impiret, Cia; Ii^on sum dignus, ut flgam pa- 
lum in pariitem, Plaut. 

465. — Eza Dignus, indignus, and contenttts, are sometimes followed 
by the genitive ; as, Dignus avOrum, Viao. For the ablative governed by 
adjectives of plenty or want, see 861. 



466. — Rioc. When twojobjects are compared by means of the compa- 
rative degree, a conjunction, such as, quam, ac, atque, i&c, signifying 
^tfaaii,'' is sometimes expressed, and sometimes omitted. In the m*sU the 

§ 120 SYNTAX. — ^ABLATTVB. 24fi 

•oDstroction of ihe esse &]]b under other roles ; in the seeond, it fiUb 
under the foUoiviDg ; yiz. 

467. — Rule XXIV, The comparative degree, 
without a conjunction, goveras the ablative ; as, 

JhMar melle. Sweeter than honey. 

ProBttantior auro^ More precious than gold. 

JPerenniua cere. More durable than brass. 

468. — EXPLANATION.— The ablative, under this rule, is supposed to 
be governed more properly hypra ux^erstood, which is sometimes expressed ; 
as, Uwuspr<Be<BCkrufortior. 


469. — OhB. 1. Of these two modes of oomparison, the ablatiTe without 
a conjunction is commonly used, when the oqject is compared with the 
mMect of a propoeiti<», or with a word in the yocatiye or nominatrFe, 
addressed; as, Quid m&ais eH dUrum %axo^ gttid moilius unddf 
NenCmem Batnandrum eloquentiorem fuiste vetireg judUdruni Ci- 
serOne; O fons Bandusice. tplendidior vitro, ^pR, But when, 
in such a comparison, guam is used, the second substaiatiye wiU be in the 
same case witn the first, because, in the same construction ; as, Mdior ewt 
eerta pax, gtiam sperOia victoria {eat); MeliOrem este certa9n pdeem 
putabiu, guam sperOtam pdeem {eue). 

Note 1. — The construction of the ablative without guam, is sometimes 
used, especially by the poets, when the first substantive is not the subject 
of a verb; as, BxSgi monumenium are perenniu$, Hor.; Cur o/V- 
vum Manffuine viperino cautiu§ vHteUf Hoa. This is always so^ 
when the second object of comparison is expressed by a rehitive ; as, Hio 
Att&lo, guo graviorem iniml(ram turn liabui, ior&reni in matrimonium 
didit^ " He gave his sister in marriage to Attalus, than whom, f&c." 

470. — Ob€. 2. When the object is compared with the predieaU of a 
proposition, the conjunction guam is commonly used, and then there are 
two cases. 

Isl If the verb after gyAm is not expressed, but may easily be supplied 
from the preceding clause, and if the first substantive is m the 
accusative, the second is put bv attraction in the accusative also ; 
as, Ego homlnem eallidiorem vIm nerhXnem guam PhormiOnemt 
instead of guam Phormio etL 

td. But if the verb after guam cannot be supplied from the preceding 
clause, the substantive must be in the nominative with eu, fuit, ^e^ 
expressed; as, MeliOreffk guam ego $um, ntppCno (tbi; ilmc 9uni 
verba M, VarrOnia, guam fu it Glodiua, doctiOria ; A rgenttim 
reddidUii X. CarriiUo, homlni non gratioaiihri guam Cn, CI odiuM 
eat, Cia 

471 . — Ob$. 8. Quam is frequently understood after piua, m\nua, and 
ampHua, and sometimes after major, minor, and some otner comparatives 
without a change of case ; as, Capta phu {jguam) guingue miUia hcminum^ 

246 STNTAZ.— ABLATIVX. § 121 

"Mors tfum fire thooBaod men w«re taken f OlMm m imnAvf (^««m) 
oeUnian dinum awUirum, 

Note, — ^Theae words are also followed by tlie ablative without qutm^ 
•eeording to the rule. 

472. — Ob: 4. When the seoond member of a companaon ib an inft* 
mtive mood, or a part of a sentence, quam is always exprewed; as» Ifihil 
turjnus ett quam mentlri, 

473. — Ob*. 6. The eomparatiTe is often followed by ihe aUstiye of 
the following nonns, adjectives, and participles ; vis. optm^ne, spe, expeekt" 
HOi^ f^Ae^—diHOt MtUOf — mguOf creaibUi, jutto ; as,ci<««« dieto, twn* 
Idb mquOra pUteai, Yieo. These ablatives often ^np{dy the place of a 
clause; as, yravtM or ^uo, equivalent to ^avtu« quam mquum^ est 

These ablatives are sometimes omitted : as, lAberius vivibat, acaquo, 

* He lived more freely than im« proper r l e. " He lived too freely,** or, 

* rather freely." 

474. — Oba. 6. When one quality is compared with another, in the same 
subject, the adjectives expressing them are both put in the positive degree 
witn mOffU quam, or in the comparative connected by quam; as, an 
magia magna quam difficMie, Triumphue elarior quam gra- 
iior,**& triumph more/amoue than oceepiaJbteT Gr. Gr. 89S~S. 

475. — 06«. 7. The prepositions pro, ant^, preeter, and tupra, are some- 
times u^ with a comparative ; as, eedire ante alios immanior omnea : 
also with a superlative ; as, ante alios earistiimus. Pro is used after 
quam, to express proportion; as, Freslium airoeius quam pro nu9nir^ 

476.*— 06s. 8. MUgis and minus joined to the positive d^^ree, are 
equivalent to the comparative ; as, O Idee mAgis dtlecta. m(igis and 
plus joined with a comparative, only strengthen it ; as, Nihil invenies 
mdgta hoe eertius, 

477. — Oba, 9. Inferior, sometimes govenis the dative ; as, mr nuUd 
arte euiquam inferior; the ablative also is found, but it is usually 
followed oy quam. 

478. — Obs 10. Alius is sometimes construed like comparatives, and 
sometimes, though rarely, is followed by the ablative; as, non plUes 
alium sapienle bondque beOtum. 

479. — Obs. 11. The conjunction ae, or atque, in the sense of than, is 
sometimes used after the compantive degree (728X instead of ^imm; as» 
Arctius atque hedira prodra adstrinjj/itur Uejc, Hob. 


480. — ^RuLK XXV. Verbs of plenty and scarce- 
ness, for the most part govern the ablative ; as, 

Abundat dimliis. He abounds in richesi 

Cibret omni emlpd. He has no iault 


481. — ^EXPXiANATION.-^-The ablative after taeh verbs, may be gO" 
▼emed by a preposition nnderstood ; — Boxnetimea it is expressed ; aR, vacai 
a tulpA. Or it may be used to limit tbe verb, by showing iu what respect 
its meaning is to be taken ; as, **Ad abounds is bespkot ov biohes.'* (See 
K. XXXIV.) Instanoea of this oonstmction, however, are so oommon aa to 
warrant the rule here given. 

482. — 0b9, 1. Verbe of plenty are sach as, Abundo^ ajfluo, exubkv, 
rtdisndo, ntppedUo,' aeatio, Ac^ of waot, careo^ egeo, iftdiffeo, vdco, defiei&r^ 
desUftuorf Ae. 

483. — £xe. I. £!ffeOy and indigeo^ sometimes govern the genitive ; aa, 
Eget mrxB^ "He needb money,** Hob.; Non tarn artia indigent^ quam 
lab Or it, Cio. So, also, some verbs denoting tojilly to abound, such aa, 
abundo, careo, tatUro, teaUo. 

484.— Rule XXVI. Utor^aMtor^fruor^fwngor^ 
potior^ vescor^ govern the ablative ; as, 

VfUur fraude. He uses deceit 

AbutUwr libriMf He abuses booln. 

485. — Obs. 2. To these, add gaudeo, ereor, tuucor, fido, vivo, weCUo^ 
eofuto, labOro (" to be ill ") ; pateor, epiUor, nitor, Ae, 

486. — £xe. 2. Potior often governs the genitive; aa, Potlri urbi* 
** To fi^et possession of the mtv f Pottri rirum (never ribwt), " To posaesa 
tile chief oommand." In som caaes, the genitive may be governed oy tm- 
perio, understoocL 

487. — JSxe, B. Potior, fungor, vetoor, epUior, and pateor, sometimes 
gorem tbe accusative; aa, PoHri urbem, Cia; €ffieia fungi, dec. ; and also^ 
m aneieot writera, fltor, o^rfitor, and fruor. DepoBoo and depeucor have the 
aoeusative alwaya. 

N. B. For the ablative of the adjunct, see § 106, R. VIL 
—For the ablative governed by adjectives of plenty, or want^ 
§ 107, Rule XI. ; — hy verbs of hading, binding, &c., § 125 ; — 
by passive verbs, § 126, Rule V; — ^by a preposition, § 136, 

For the ablative of limitation, see § 128 ; — of cause, man- 
n^, &c., § 129; — of the place where, § 130, 'Ei&.',—from 
tokieh, § 130, 8 ; — of time when, § 131, K. XL. ; — How Umg^ 
R. XLI.;-— of WM?<Mwre, § 132, R. XLII. ^—oUxcess, R. XLIU.; 
—of price^ g 133 ;— in the case absolute, § 146, R. LX. 



488. — ^Many transitive verbs, with the accusative of the direct objeet^ 
govern Also another w(H*d, to which the action has an indirect or remite 


refercDce, in the genitive, dative, accusative, or ahlcUive, as the nature of 
that reference may require. All verbs under these rules, are transitiTii 
verbs in the active vuice, or transitive deponents. 

489. — Rule XXVIL — Verbs of dccueing^ conr 
deninmg, acquitting, and adnumiahvng, govern the 
accusative of a person, with the genitive of a 
thing; as, 

Arguit mejurti. He accuses me of theft. 

Meipmm inertice eondemno, I condemn nivself of laziness. 

Ilium komicidii abtolvunt. They acquit nim of manslaughter 

M6tiet me officii, He admonishes me of mj duty. 

490. — To this rule belong verbs of— 

1. AoocBiNG ; as, aecOeOy dgo, appello, arcetso, anguirOf arguo, coargno^ 
captOf incripot iticrepUOf urgeo, ineiUo, imimulo, interrdgo, poeHUo, eMigc)^ 
OMtringo, diftro^ eompello. 

2. CoNoxMNiNG ; as, damno, eondemno, in/dmo, nUto, convince, prehendo, 
deprehendo, judlco, plector. 

8. Acquitting ; as, absolve, libiro, purge, and perhaps eolvo. 

4. Admonishing ; as, moneo, admtmjeo, commoneo, commonefaeio. 

491.— 06a. 1. With many of these verbs, instead of the genitive of 
the crime or punishment, the ablative is used with, or without, a preposi- 
tion; as, Accueare de negligentid, Cia; LiberOre eulpd. Id. The 
ablatives criniine and nofnXne are often inserted before the ffenitiTe^ 
which may be regarded as the full form of the construction ; as, Areeseire 
atiguetn crimlne ambitus, Liv. Sometimes the punishment is put 
in the accusative after ad or in ; as, Damn&re ad pcena m, — i n metal- 
lum, rarely in the dative ; as, damndtus morti. Multo has always 
the ablative ; fis,multare pcend, pecunid, exiliis, Ao, 

492. — Obs. 2. Accuso, incUso, insimulo, together with verbs of ad- 
moo ishing, instead of the genitive, are sometimes followed by the accusative, 
especially of the neuter pronoims hoc, id, illud, quod, ^, and their plurals ; 
as. Si id me fwn aecUsas, Plaut. ; £!os hoc moneo, Cia; rarely by tha 
accusative of nouns; as, ^e me insimuldre falsian fa<knus, Plaut. 

493. — Obs. 3. Many verbs signifying to accuse, and among them some 
of the verbs enumerated under this rule, do not govern the genitive of th« 
crime, but, as transitive active verbs, govern it m the accusative by Rule 
XX; as, arguo culpam; ehts avaritiam perfidiamque aeeus^ 
rat. When thus construed, the immediate object of coodemnation is the 
crime; in the other construction, it is ihe person, 

494. — Obs. 4. Verbs of admonishing, instead of the genitive, are some- 
times followed by the ablative with a preposition ; as, Oro ut Tereutiam 
noneatis de te8tam,enio; sometimes by an infinitive or clause; as, 
Sdror tndnet succurrire Lauso 7%<mttm, Vmo.; MUnet ut suspp- 
eicnes vltet, Ojss.; Immortalia ne eperes monet annus, Hob 


496. — ^RxjLE XXVlll. Verbs of valuing^ with 
their oVn case, and sometimes without a case, go- 
vern such genitives of degree as magrd^ jparvi^ 
niliUi; as, 

,M*Simf^ te magni^ I yalue you mueh 

Mihi gtitit plUris, It cost me more. 

£gt pcurvi. It is of little value. 

496. — EXPLANATION.— By its own case is meant the oase which tHe 
verb usually governs. ^ Verbs without case, as #ttm, j^o, exido, <fecC, have the 
genitive only. The adjectives ma^niy parm, Ac., may agree with pretii^ 
momenti, or the like, understood, and the construction perhaps come under 
B. VII. If so, it would account for the ablative sometimes used after the 
same verbs. See 600. 

497. — Verbs of valuing are sueh as c»Amo, exMmOf diieOf/aeio, habeo 
pendea, puto, Uixo, wm^fio, eanato, <bc. ; also rS/ert and inUretL 

498. — Among the genitives of degree governed by such verbs, are the 
adjectives tanti^ quantif plUrU, mtndrtt, moffni, pluiimij mtntrnt, patvi, 
quantitlbet, <fec, and the substfuitives as»ia,Jhecif naMei,p^if teruneii, ku- 
jatj <fee. For tiie genitive of price, see 682. 

499. — Obs. 5. .^Sgui and bdni are put in the genitive after /ocio and 
eofiHUo ; as^ cBqui bonl qxte faciOf " I take this in good par t^ 

500. — Obs, 6. Instead of the genitive, cesfimo, and a few others, some- 
times take the ablative. After habeoy puio^ dikco, the ablative with pro 
is common ; as, ^ro nihXlo ptUdre, Itefert and inUreU^ with their cwn 
case (415), often take nihily or a neuter accusative, or an adverb, instead 
of the genitive, to express degree; as, mea nihil rifert; multum 
interest. So also nihifis used with cuefmo and mSror, 



. 501. — ^RuLE XXIX. Verbs of corwpa/ring^ gw- 
ing^ decla/nng^ and taking awa/y^ govern the ao* 
cnsative and dative ; as, 

OompHro Virgilium Ham9ro, I compare Virgil to Homer. 

Sunm cuiqtte tribwito^ Give every man his own. 

Ndrrat fabalam turdo, Tou tell a story to a deaf man. 

Eripuit me tnorti, He rescued me fix)m death. 

502. — EXPLANATION.— -This is a rule of v«ry extensive application. 
When, together with the tkiitg done (expressed by tiie transitive active verb 

260 SYirrAX— TWO AocusATiyBa. § 124 

■od iU koeiiMitiTeX '^^ express also the remote object to wftieft it is done, 
tbst objeol will be put in the datiye ; thus, in the above examples, the Yerb 
end the aoeesative tbllowiiig it, express the whoU of that which is represented 
as done i», or witk r^§rm^M to, the olgect expressed in the datiye ; L e. wm' 
p&ro VirgUium^ expresses all here said to be done {Bomiro) to Homer, " I 
oompare Virgil to him." UtorroM fdbblam expresses all here said to be done 
{turdo) to the deaf men, *' 70a tdl a story to him ;" sad so «r»pu*£ am, to- 
gether, express what is here done {fiwrti) to death, **• he rescaed me from 
it;" and so of other examples. See this more A1U7 illustrated, 6r. Qram., 
1 16S, Oba. ft. 


503. — O61L 1. Verbe ol oompftring and tRking aw&y, and some othen, 
loatead of the dative, often take a preposition ana its ease ; as, Camparart 
ftnoift rem cum alid^—^d a/tam, — res inter ««. Eripuit mf 
mortit-^^mortef — a, or ex morte, Ac 

504. — Obe, 2. Bistead of the aocusatiye, tiieee rerbe haye firequenUy 
an infinitiye mood or a pert of a sentence ; as. Da miki fatUrey Redder 
mUki dulce ldqui,ae^ Hoft.; Per/aeile faetu eite illia prd- 
bat ; Itemque Dumnar>lf^ ut Idem eonaritur pereuadet,CjK&. This 
ooBstnietion is espeeially eommon with such yerbe as aioj duca, inguam^ 
pereftadeo, reeponaeo^ ^ko, when the thing taid, replied, Ac^ though a sen- 
tence or a paragraph, is to be regarded as the accusatiye, and the word 
denoting the person or persons to whom said, is put in the dative. 

505. — Ohe. 3. Several verbs governing the accusative and dative are 
often e<Mtttrued differently; as, drcwfnd&re mania opptdo^ <Hr oppHdum 
manibuty ** to surround a city with walls f interclvdkre commeatum oHeviy 
or aft9u«mcornme<I^u,'*to intercept one's provisions f indiUre, exuire veetem 
f¥6t, or, se veeti. 80 the following, Univerioe frumento dondvitt Nxp. ; and 
PrtBdam mtlitibut dOnaiy Cjka. ; Aspergire eiUe camea, or, aeperffire adlem 
eamibua, Pux. 

506. — Oba, 4. The accusative is sometimes understood; as. i^u6^ 
alieui (sc. se.), Cedtre tdletU (sc Ideum), dstrahire alicui (sc laudeif^ <ko. 

507. — Oba. 5. Verbs signifying motitxi or tendency to a thing,- instead 
of the dative, have an accusative after them, with the preposition ^; as, 
Ad pratCrem homlnem traxit 


608.— EuuB XXX. Verbs of mking^- and teachr 
ing^ govern two accnsatives, the one of a person, 
and tne other of a thing ; as, 

Poat^fmaa te pOeem, We beg peace of thee. 

Docuit me graimmaiSieam, He tai^t me granunar 


509. — ^EXPLANATION.— The tot aoonsative, nnder this rule, belongi 
to Sole XX., the second may be governed by a preposition understood ; or 
the reason of this rule may be, that most of the verbs under it, admit either 
of the noons after them, as their immediate object. 


510. — Obt, 1. Verbs of asking, which goYem two aeeusatiTes, are 
fi2^, A^, er^o, nhteero^ pricoTy poaeo, reposco, Jla^Ot Ac ; of teaching, 
ioeeoj edoceo, dedoceo^ erudio. To these, may be added, eilo^ to conceal ; as, 
Antiff^ut iter cmne$ ciiat, Nep. For two accusatiyes after verbs of. 
naming, choosing, A&, see 440. 

511. — 06$, 2. Verbs of asking, instead of the aocnsatiye of the person, 
often take the ablatiTe with «6 or ea; ; as, Veniam orimns ab ipso. So, 
also, instead of the aecusatiYe of the thing, many verbs, both of asking and 
teaching, sometimes take the ablative with de; as, De itinire hottivm 
unotvnk ^dbeety Sall.; Sie ^o U eisdem de ribue inUrrHgem. 

512. — Obe, 8. Some verbs of asking and teaching, are never followed 
by two accusatives, but hj the ablative of the person, with a preposition ; 
such as, «i%o, pitOy quatroy 9&Uor, icieeUor, and the fbllowmg verbs of 
teaching, viz. : imbuOf instituoy inetruo, and some others, are foUowed by 
the ablative of the thing, sometimes with, and sometimes without^ a pre- 
position ; and s(Hiietimes they are otherwise construed. 

513> — Obs,4. Many other transitive active verbs, frequently, besides 
the accusative of a person, take also an accusative of ni'At/, or of the neuter 
pronouns, Aoe, id^ quid, or of adjectives of quantity; as, Fabiua ea me 
monuit, Cia; Aee te id eonMUOf Id. These verbs, however, in their 
significatioD, generally resemble verbs under this rule ; or the aecusativo 
of the thing may be governed by a preposition understood. 



614. — ^RuLE XXXI. Verbs of hading^ bindmffj 
dothmffj deprimThQ^ and their contraries, govern 
the accusative and ablative ; as, 

0%tna fUtfee awro, He loads the ships with gold. 

515. — EXPLANATION.— The accusative under this rule belongs to 
Bole XX. The ablative may be governed by a preposition understood. 


516. — ObM. 1. Verbs of loading are onirOy eumiilo, primo, cppfbna, 
obruOf impUo, expleo, eompleo ;— of unlofuilin|;, liWy exoniroy Ac. ;-— of bind* 
>D£& attringoy ligo^ alPigOy devindOt impedio, ttretio, illaqueo^ ibo.;— -of looe- 

262 STKTAX. — PAfiSIVS VERBS. § 126 

inff, 9olv&, er$oivo, lihiro, laxo, expedht Aa;— of depriTing, ptfvo, n/ttd(\ 
orbo. tpolio, frai^f emungo;—o{ clothing, vestio, omtdo, tnduOf dngo, 
UgOjifilo, corOfio; — of uaclothiug, exuo, ditcin^o, <ba 

To these may be added many other ¥6rb«, such aa miUOt dono, mutUra^ 
remuniro, eonwiunico, patco^ beo^ impertiorj dignar, affieio^ proUquar^ assi- 
9Mor, tpargOy ohlecto, Ac., with which, however, in many caaes^ the ablatiTd 
may come under Rules XXXIV. and XXXV. 

517. — Oht. 2. These verbs are sometimes followed by ttie ablative 
with A preposition expressed ; as, Solvire atiguem ex eat^ni^t Cia The 
ablative is sometimes understood; as, camplet naves, sc. vlrt<, Vmck 

518. — Obs. 8. Several of these verbs denoting to fiU, likewise goveni 
the ffenitive; aa, Adoletcentem nuB temeritati§ impUt^'^'Ke fills the 
yout£ wiUi his cwn rcuhneM.** Some of them also vary their construction ;. 
as, induit te veattbut, or, vestea Hbi; AbdieOre magutrMvan, Sall. ; Abdiodre 
•e magitiratu^ Cia See 606. 


619. — Rule XXXII. Verbs that- govern twa 
cases in the active voice; govern the latter of 
these in the passive ; as, 

AeeUsor fu rtu I am accused of theft, 

Virgiliiu eomparaiur ffomiro, Virgil is compared to JSomer, 

Doceor gramtnatieam, I am taught grammar. 

HOttis oner&tur aurOf The ship is loaded toith gold. 

This rule may be subdivided into the five following, which will be much 
more convenient in practice, than the general rule. 

520. — 1. Verbs of accusing, condemning^ acquitting^ and ad* 
fnonishing, in the passive, govern the Genitive. 

521. — II. Verbs of valuing, in the passive, govern such 
genitives as magni, parvi, nikili, 6lo. 

522. — III. Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring and taking 
away, in the passive, govern the dative, 

523.— -IV. Verbs of asking, and teaching^ in the passive, 
govern the accusative. 

524. — V. Verbs of loading, binding, clothing, depriving^ and 
their contraries, in the passive, govern the ablative. 

525. — EXPLANATION.— This rule applies to the passives of all verbe. 
under Bules XXVII. to XXXI. inolnsive. In all of these, the *' latter csae** 
is that which, with the active voice, expresses the remotSj and never the tM» 
m e d iate object of the verb. In all constructions under tlila rule, it must br 

% 126 8Ti<rrAX.— PAssms teres. 258 

Botioed, tluit tliftt which was, <^ wovM he, the aoduatiTe after the yerh in 
the active voice, must he its nominative in the paeaive, otherwise the oou- 
stmction does not belong to this role. Thns, active, Narrat fubUlam 
mtrdo; passive, Narraiur fahUla turdo. Here, fabulam^ the direct ol^eok 
of Aorroa, is changed into the nominative or subject of narrdivr; and mrdo 
remains the same in both sentences. The ** latter case," in other words, the 
remote object of the active voice is never, in Latin, converted into the 
imlgect of the paasive, except in a few instances, which are manifest Gm- 
flisms. See Greek Gram., $164, Obs. 2. In English, however, there are 
some expressions in which this is allowed. See An. A Pr. £ng. Gr., 814. 

Hence, where, in some cases, the Greek and the English idioms admil 
of two forms of expression, the Latin admits of onl; one, e. g. *^ This waa 
told to me," or, " I was told this," is rendered into Latin by the first form : 
thoSf Moo mihi diektm ut. Bat we oannot say, aooording to the second 
torm, Hoe dictus mm, 

526. — Bxe. toILY, In poetical langoage, with the passive yerbs tn- 
dnor, amicior, cingoTy accingoTy exuoTf dUcingoTy the accusative of the 
article of dress, Ac., is often used, instead of tiie ablative. Thus, instead 
of induor vette, the poets frequenUy say, induor vettetn. Hence the 
expressions, /m^ut^ur fact em eultumque Didnce^ Ovn>; InduUurque 
3ure$ aaelHt Id; Invttle ferrum cin^Uuff Vmo.; Ft*^ letfuo euspensi 
locHloe tabulamque laeerio. Hob. This reeembles the Greek ae- 
cusative, 588, 639. 

527. — Obs, 1. When the active voice is followed by three oases (481^ 
the passive has the two last; as, hoe missum ett mt At munirif "this 
was sent ob a preterU to me.* Here munM is the dative of the etui 

528. — ^RuLE X X X TT L Passive verbs frequently 
govern the dative of the doer ; as, 

Vix andior ulli, I am scarcely heard by any one, 

BeriberU Vario, Tou shall be described 6y Vdriua, 

529. — EXPLANATION.— This constmction is used chiefly by the poets, 
and by them, as a sabstitnte for another still more common; namely, that the 
voluntary agent, after the passive voice, is put in the ablative with a, or ab, 
and so comes under Bnle XLIX. as (in the active voice), Clodiue me dUigU, 
" Clodins loves me ;" (in the passive), A dodio diU^or^ " I am loved by 
Clodius." The preposition is sometimes omitted ; as, coUivrlinigh'A turbd, 

530. — Obe. 2. After passive verbs, the principal agent or actor if 
usually expressed in the ablative with the preposititxi a or a6 ; as, laud^ 
tur ab hie, cvlpotur ab i Hi 8,** he is praised by theie, he is blamed 
by thoee,** Biity 

Hie eeeendary agent, means, or instrument, after transitive verbs iu the 
Mlwra or paaaiTe TOMe^ or after inftranitive verbfl) is put in the accuaative 


with ^0r; m^ P#r Tkratf^bulum LifeiJU4m%mh eaoeniUu reeijnWmr» 
K<r. ; bat oSUner in the abUti^e, by Bule XXXV. 

^31.-»-*06& $. Th* puure partieiple in Am has the agent or doer al- 
BKJat always in the dative ; and beaidee, when it agrees with the subject 
af a sentence, oonveys the idea of obUgaition or neoessitjr; as, Sinui 
QfnnXbus ealcanda est via iHi, *"nie way of death (tt <o 6«» i e^) 
mu9t onee he trod hy aU^** Hon.; Adkibenda est ndbis diligentie^ 
" Diligence mutt be ttied 6y ia ** (i. e. we must use diligence), Cia ; Ca eUri 
omnia iino tempi^ iratit agenda, "All things had to be done b^ 
(knar at one time." 182-6. 

592. — Obe, 4. The accnsatiTe of vlace or time^ after intransitiyea in 
tibe passive voice, is not govemed by the verb, but by a preposition under- 
stood, or comes under other rules ; as, {hir A thin at, Bule XXXVIL 
nujpidtym eet biduum, R.XLL; dormUkir tHUun noetem, R. XU. 
We find^ however, Tdtm mihi dormMiur hyems ; Noetee viffUaniur amOree ,* 
Oeeifnua adUutf Tag 


533.— In order to express soma cmouicanAMCK connected with the idea. 
<^ the simple sentence, words and phrases are often tiirown in between 
the parts of a s^itence in an adverbial manner, and which do not depend 
for their case on any word in the sentence to which they belong, but on a 
preposition, br adverb, or other word, understood; or are, by conmion 
nsage, put in a particular ease in certain circumstances, without goveiH- 
ment or dependence on any words either expressed or understood. 

To this may be refenred eireumstances : 1. Of limitation ; — 2. Of eau$e, 
tnanneTy Ac ; — 8. Of place ;— 4. Of time ; — 1 Of snMMwv ; — 6^ Of price ; 


534. — A particular qualification of a general expression, mads In 
Knglish by the phrase " in respect o^ ** with regard to^" is expressed in 
Latin l^ tne ablative, or, more oriefly as follows : 

535, — ^Ruus XXXIV. Heepect wherein,^ and tlie 
pa/rt affected are expressed in the ablative ; as, 

Pietate JUiue, Inafeetiontkwoa, 

Jure peritue, SkiUed in law. 

Ved^bue etgety Lame in Am/mC. 

636. — ^EXPLANATION.— The ablative, under tnis mle, is used, to Hmll 
tho signification of nonn«, s4jeotive8| and vaiiba, and may bs variAaaly 

§ 129^ SYHTAX- • CIBCUMSTANCES. — CAUSB, 4c. - 256 

rendered to express the notnre of the limitatioD intended ; n^ im, m rt^pttL 

o/^ ioilh r€q>eci tOy with regat'd to, &c 

537. — Obi 1 Tbe part affeoted, after adjectiTee and yerbe, belongs to 
tkis rule, eontainisfl^, as it does, a aimilar limitation of a general exprea^ 
sion, as in the last of the examples above, llie following ai*e of a similar 
character: Anxitu animOy Tag.; Crlne ruber; Ore niger. Mart.; 
Contremiteo tdtd mente et cmn\bti9 artiibu$f Cia; AnimSque et 
torpbre torpe^, Hoa. 

538. — JExc. 1. The part affected, in ijaitation of a Greek oonstmctioi^ 
ii sometimes expressed in the accusative ; as, Nudue membra^ " Bare 
Of to hit limbii^ Ydlg. So, eibtla eolla tumentem. Id.; expliri 
mentem nequity Id; fraetus membra, Hoa.; tempbra eifiettu, 
Viaa. This eoostruetion is in imitatioD of the Greek. See Gr. GraoL, 
§ 167, Obs. 1. 

. 539. — JSxc, 2. In Hke manner, a noun or pronoun, denoting 

that in regard to which, or with respect to which, any thing is, 

is said, or is done, is sometimes put in the accusative ; as, 

J^unc ill 8 qui in urbe remanserunt, " Now, in regard to those 

who remained in the city;" Quod reUquum est, ^^ As to that 

whirk remainsw*' 

This construction is quite common with such accusatives as id, hoe, 
ahqnidy retiqua^ ccelira, inagnam partem, mcaftmam partem, and the like ; 
as^ reliqua simlUe; eait^ra egregivm; msoelibroe magnam par- 
tem amUi, dxi. In such constructions* ad, meaning " in regard to, ** in 
respect of^'* " as to," (Andrews' Lexicon, D. 1), is probably understood. 

540. — £xc, 3. After certain adjectives and verbs denoting 

an affection or state of mind, respect wherein, or the part 

affected, is, in imitation of the Greek, expressed in the genitive; 

as, integer vitas i diver sus morum; diserucior anhni; animi 

j^endeo ; recredbar anlmu See also 371. 

541. — Obs. 2. To this rule may be referred the matter of which any 
thing is made ; as, cere eavo elypeus, " a shield of hollow brass.** But here 
the preposition is commonly expressed; as, templwn de marmbre. In 
imitation of the Greeks, the matter is sometimes put in the genitive ; as. 
eraUres argenti, ** goblets of silver.** Gr. Gram., g 166, Obs. 8. 


642. — ^RuLB XXXV. The caitse^ marmer^ meana^ 
aud msPrv/meni^ are put in the ablative ; as, 

Palleo mitUf I am pale for fear, 

FScit suomdre, He did it after his own way, 

Auro ostrd que decOri, Decked with gold and purple. 

Seribo c alamo, I wiite with a pen. 

258 flTin?.4x.— ciBcn]iBTA:srG]s.— FLAC& § l&O 

543. — ^SXPLAKATION.— The abl«tive, in this role, is proliaUygoTem* 
•d by s preponition understood, — as there are nnmeroos instanoes in whieh 
(he preposition is expressed. The oonim will be known by putting the qaeA^ 
tioB, ^* Why r or '' Wherafon?" the hmmmmt, by *'HowP' the immm, \g$ 
*«By what means I" the inttrumeni^ by ** Wherewith F' 

544. — 06s. 1. The earue sometimes takes the prepositions per, prop 
Ur, o6, with the accusative ; or de, e, ex, prce, with the ablative *, as^ ae 
pulaue per invidiam; feetue de vid. 

545. — Oba, 2. The manner is sometimes expressed by a, ab, eum, de 
ex, per ; as, de mOre suo ; — the mgane frequently by per, and cum ; as, cum 
m«t< copiie wnnibiu vexdvi Amanientee, See 580. 

546. — Obt, 8. The inairmneni, properly eo called, seldom admits a 
preposition, though, among the poets, a,ab,de, eub, are sometimes used, 
MM^ peet6ra tre^eetut ab enee; exereire adlum 9ub vomire. 


547. — The circumstances of place may be reduced to four partieuian; 
1. The place where, or in vohieh; — 2. The place whither, or to which; — 
8. The place whence, or from whieh ;-^. Tne place 6y, or through which, 

N. B, The following rules respecting place, refer chiefly to the nantm 
ef toyme. Sometimes, though very seldom, the names of countries, pro- 
vinces, islands, Ac, are construed in the same way. With these, however, 
the preposition is commonly added. 

1. The place wheee, or m which. 

648. — ^RuLE XXXVI. The name of a town, de- 
noting the place where^ or, in which^ is pnt in the 
genitive ; as, 

Vixit Bdma, He lived at Rome, 

Mortuui ett Mi liti, He died at Miletue, 

549. — ^Exo. But if the name of the town where^ 
or m which^ is of the third declension, or plural 
number, it is expressed in the ablative ; as, 

ffabHtat CarthagXne, He dwells eA Carthage. 

Studuit A thSnis, He studied at AtJiene, 

550. — Oba, 1. When the name of a town is joined with an adjective^ 
or common noun in apposition, a prepoeition is commonly added; as, Rdmet 
in eelebri urbe; or, in RCmee celebrx urbe; or, in Rdmd^oelebri urbe; or 
sometimes, R&nee eelebri urbe. 262. 

Vote, — In this constructioni the name of a town, in the third decleusioi\ 


frequently ba» the ablatiVe singnlar in t; 1m, ffal^ai Cartha^ni, FkOrt 
SicyCni jamdiu Dionytia, Plavt.; TlbUri ffenUutj Susr. 

551. — Obs. 2. The name of the town tohere^ or in which^ is sometimefl^ 
though rarely, put in the ablative when it is of the first or second declen- 
sion ; as, Ty r o rex decessit, for I\/rif *' The king died at Tyre^ Jubt. ; H^yu9 
egetfiplar JkOmd nullum habimuiy YrrauY. 

552. — Obs. 3. The preposition in is sometimes expressed before th« 
ablative; as, in Philippic quldam nuncidvit, Subt. At, or near m 
place is expressed by adf or dpitd with the aocusatiYe ; as, oid^ or dpmd 
Trojam, " at» or near Troy." 

2. The place whithee, or to which. 

553. — ^RuLE XXXVn. The name of a town 
denoting the place whither^ or to whick^ is put in 
the accusative; as, 

V^it Rdmaniy He came to Jtonu 

Pro/ectus e9t Athinai, He went to Athena, 

554. — Obe, 4. Among the poets, the town to which is sometime! pat 
in the dative ;as, CarthagXni nuneioe mittanif Hoa. 

555. — Obs. 6. After verbs of telling, and fiving, when motion to la 
implied, the name of a town is sometimes put m the accusative ; as, i2 d* 
mam erat nuneiaiwn, " The report was carried to Home f* Meee&nam 
liliras didit, 

3. The place whence, or from which. 

556.— Rule XXXVIII. The name of a town 
whence or from which^ hy or through which^ is 
put in the ablative ; as, 

Discenit Corintho, He departed from Corinth, 

Laodiced tier fecit. He went through Zaodicea, 

557. — Obe. 6. The place by or through which, however, is commooly 
put in the accusative with per ; 9A,Per Thibas tterficit, Nxp. 

4. Domita and rus. 

558. — ^RuuB XXXIX. Donrns and rue are 
construed in the same way as names of towns ; as, 

Jf&net Jdmt(648), He stays a/ Aomtf 

Ddmum revertUur (558), He returns home. 

Da mo arceasUus siim (656), I am called /rom home. 

So also 

Vlvit rUre or rUri (548), He lives in the country, 

AUit rue (553), He is gone to the country, * 

£eJiU rUre (656), He has retained from the country. 


bS^.'^^OU, 7. ^ttmt, mt/tttcB, sod belli, aire UImwIm oonaiitied m tli€ 
g«iiitiTe like names of towns; ss, jAcet ft&mi, **h% lies on the ground;" 
Sdmt et militia (or belli), ** at home or abroad." 

560. — Obs. 8. When d&mue is joined with an adjective^ the prepoaitioa 
U eommonly used; as, in ddmo patemd. So, ad dirnvta pcUernam, ex 
ddmo patemd. — Except with metUf /mm, euut^ noeter, veeter, regiue, and 
aliinue ; then it follows the rule. When diknut has another subetantiYe 
after it in the genitiye, it may be with, or without, a preposition ; as, de- 
preheneue ett ddmi, ddmo, or in ddmo CcBt&ris. 

561. — Obe, 9. i2tM, and rare, in the singular, joined with an adjeetiTr, 
are used with, or without, a preposition. Sut rura, in the plural, is neyer 
without it 

562. — ObB, 10. The names of countries, prorinces, and all other jdace^ 
ezeept towns, are commonly construed with a preposition; as, ndtue in 
Jtaiid; abiit in Italiam; rediit ex Italid; trantit per Jteh 
Ham, io, A few cases occur, however, in which names of countries, pro- 
vinces, A/Q^t are construed like the names of towns, without a prepoaitioa; 
as, Fampeiut Cypri tUue est, Ac, Qjbl ' 

563. — Pito, ** I seek," or " go to," always govems the aoensatiYe as a 
transitiye aetive yerb, without a prepositioD; as, Fetlvit Egypttan, ''He 
went to f^pf* 

564. — 06a 11. llie word eontaining an answer to fhe question 
whither f is often put by the poets in the accosatiye without a preposition ; 
as, Speluncam JHao dux et TVoJontu eandem diveniunt, V lao. Likewise, the 
answer to the question where f or whence f in the ablative, without a pre- 
position; as, ailviique agrieque viieqtie earpbra foeda jficent. So, 
eadirennblbue; deacetidire e a I o ; eurruteareertbuemiuL See61L 


665. — ^BuLB XL. Time when^ is put in tlie 
ablative; as, 

VhUt hard tertid, "Ed eune at the third hour. 

BuLE XIX Time Tiow Icmg^ is put in tlie accu* 
sative, or ablative ; as, 

JToimK paueoe diee. He staid a few dagt. 

Sex men$\bu9 al^mtf He was absent six men^^ 

565. — ^EXPLANATION.— A preeite period or point of time, is usually 
put in the ablative,— continusnce of time, not marked with precision, for the 
most part, in the aoonsative. 

• 567. — Nate. — ^It must be observed here, that the point of time under 
this roUk ix^oit ooinoide with the time of the verb witib which it is eonneet- 


6d ; otherwise, the rule does not hold good ;-^iu, " He invited me (o dine 
with him next day/' is properly rendered under this rule : HSrum poaiiro 
die ut prafidirem invitdvit ; because poatiro die and prandiretn are 
eotemporaiy. But, if we change the yerb prandirem for a noun, postiro 
die will not do in the ablative, but must be changed thus; ad prandittm 
me invitdtit in poatirum diem. Pott^ro die, in this sentence, would 
mean that the invitation was given next day, and would be rendered, in 
£ogUsh, *' Next day, he invited me to dinner. 


568. — Obs. 1. All the circumstances of time are often expressed with 
a preposition ; such as, tn, de, od^ antCf circa^ per^ &e. Sometimes ad, or 
eircay is understood before hoc, illud, id^ iathnc, with aUOlitt tempiriB, 
hor<F, d^c, foUowing in the genitive ; as, {ad) id Umpdria, for eo tempore, die. 

569. — Obe. 2. Precise time, before or after another fixed time, is ex- 
pressed by ante, or post, regarded as adverbs, either with the accusative 
or ablative ; as, aliquot ante annoa ; paitcia ante diibua ; paucoa poat diea, <&c. 

570. — Sometimes quam, with a verb^ is added to ante, or poat ; as, 
Paiieia poet diibua quam LUica diaceaaircU, **A few days after he had 
departed from Lnca.** Sometimes poat is omitted before quam; as, IHe 
viffeaHmd quam credtua iroL 

571. — Oba.Z. Instead of poatqiuan, we sometimes find ex quo, or 
qutan, or a relative a^reeiug with the preceding ablative; as^ Octo difbua 
qutbuM haa litiraa d&bam, ** Eight days after I gave these letters^" 

572. — Oba. 4. The adverb abhine is used to express past time, joined 
with the accusative or ablative, without a preposition ; as. Factum eat a 6- 
kine biennio, or biennium, ** It was done two years ago." 


673. — ^RuLE XJiTT. Measure or distance is put 
in the accusative, and sometmies in the abla- 
tive; as, 

MUrua est dicem pidea altua. The wall is Uaxfeet high. 

JteryCritinireuauuadiHf One day's /ounujii. 


574. — Oba. 1. The accusative or ablative of measure^ is put aft«r such 
adjectives, and verbs of dimension, as longua, UUua, craaaua, profundus, 
al*^ja; Pdtet, porri^ur, emlnet, Ac. The names of measure are pea, 
cuiiUua, vlntia, digUua, palmua, mille paaauum, a mile, Ao. 

575. — Oba. 2. The accusative or ablative of distanoe, is used only 
after verbs which express motion or distanoe ; as, eo, €urro, dOco, eUfeum^ 


AVo, Ae. Tht accuBatiye, tinder this rule, maj be goyemed hj odor per, 
uudeivtood, and the ablative by a, or ab, 

576. — 06*. S. When the measure of more things than one is ezpreeaed, 
the distributive numeral is commonly used; as, Afuri sunt dinos pidea 
aitiy " llie walls are e<ich tefi feet high." Sometimes denum pSdwn, for 
deiiOrum, is used in the genitive, governed by ad mensuraniy understood. 
But the genitive is used to express the measure of things in the plural onlj. 

577. — Obs, 4. The distance of the place where any thing is said to be 
done, is usually expressed in the ablative or in the accusative with a prepo- 
•ition; as. Sex milllbus pasmwn ab wrbe coneedit ; or ad %ex tniltia 
pcueuum, Cjes, 

578. — Obi. 6. Sometimes Uie place from which distance is estimated 
is not expressed, though the preposition governing it is, and may be ren- 
dered off, dutani, dkc, as, Ab mx mill\bitM pasmum abfuit ; ** He was six 
miles ottt or distant^ (sciL Rdrndf fi'om Rome^ 

579. — Rule XLIII. The measure of excess or 
deficiency^ is put in the ablative ; as, 

Sesguipide lon^or, Taller by afoot and a half, 

Nivem pedibus minoTf Less by nine feet. 

Quanto doetior, tan to tubmU- The more learned, the more humbleu 

580. — Obe. 6. To tins rullB are to be referred the ablatives tanto, q%uuUo^ 
guOf A>, hoe, aliguanio, multo, paulo, nihUo, A/e., frequently joined to oom- 
paratives, and sometimes to superlatives. 


681, — Rule XLIV. The price of a thing is put 
in the ablative ; as, 

ConsfUit talento. It cost a talent. 

Vendldit hie auro patriam, This man sold his country /or gold. 

582. — Exc. But tantiy quantij pluriSy mtndm, are used in the 
geniiive; as, 

Quanti conBtitiif JTow mu^A cost it f 

ybn vendo pluris qttam eeetiri, I do not sell for more than others. 

583.— 05«. 1. When joined with a noun, tanti, qttanti, Ac, are pat in 
the ablative ; as, Quam tanto pretio mercOtue est. TantOy quanto^ and 
plUrf. are sometimes, though rarely, found without a noun ; as, je) ^ j7 r « 
vinit, " it is sold for more'* 

584. — Obe. 2. The ablative of price is often an adjective without a 
noun ; as, magno^ permagno^ parvo^ patilulo, minlmo, plurtmo^ vUi, nimia 
These ref«!r, however, to some such noun as pretio, aare, <to., understood 
Valeo is found with an accusative. 

§ 184 SYNTAX. — ADVERBS. 261 


585. — ^RuLE XLV. Adverbs are joined to verbs, 
adjectives, and other adverbs, to modify and limit 
their signification ; as, 

Bine scTlbitf He writes welL 

I^orfUer puffnana. Fighting brayely. 

JSgregie Jidelis, Remai'luibly iiEUthfuL 

S&iii bine. Well enough. 


586. — Obt, 1. AdTerbe are Bometimes joined wiUi nouns; as, BwnirM 
pldne or&tor, ** Homer evidently an orator.** 

587. — Obs, 2. The adverb is usually placed near the word modified or 
limited bj it 


588. — Obs. 8. Two negatives in Latin, as well as in English, destroy 
each otlier, or are equivalent to an aflSrmative; as, Nee non eeniirunt^ 
" nor did they not perceive ;" \, aenairutUf " and they did perceive." 
So, Non poliram non exanimdri mitik, Cia Non ntm neeciue, l e. seio ; 
hand nihil est, " it is not nothing," i. e. "it is something f* wmnuUit *" not 
none," L e. " some f nonnunquam^ ** not never," i. e. " sometimes ;" non nSnio, 
" not nobody," i. e. " somebody," Ac 

589. — Obe, 4. J£xe, In imitation of the Greeks, however, two negatives 
in Latin, as well as in English, sometimes make a stronger negative ; as^ 
Nique ille haud objiciet mihi^ ** He will not by any means object to 
me ; -/ilra, te non nodturwn homXni nemXni^ Ac. NSque, and n«r, and 
sometimes non, are especially thus used after a negative ; as, Non me 
earminibus vincet, nee Orpheus, nee Linus. 

590. — Obs. 6. Non is sometimes omitted after non mddo, or non sdlum, 
when followed in a subsequent clause by ne quldem ; as, Jdihi non mddo 
irasci, '\. e. non irasci,) sea ne doiSre quiaem impUne licet Sometimes, but 
rarely, it is omitted after sed, or vdrum, with etiam ; as, Non mddo ea fu- 
tHra t1nf£t (i. e. non tlinet,) vSrum etiam fert sustinetque prcesentia. For 
r*«, anu u/, with timeo, Ac, see 683. 

59 J . — Obs, 6. Certain adverbs are joined to adjectives, and also to -ad- 
verbs, 1.J all the degrees of comparison, for the purpose of imparting greater 
force Ia) their signification ; as, 

1st. To the positive are joined such adverbs aS) appr^me, cuhnddum, ve- 
kementer, maxlme, perquam, valde, oppUdd, tJidper, in composition ; as, grO- 
turn admddum, " very agreeable ;" perquam puerile, " very childish ;" 
Ac lu like manner, pHrum, mtUtum, nimium, tantum, quafitum, aliquan- 
turn ; ii9, p&rum firmus ; multum bUnus. 

2d. To the comparative are joined, paulo, nimio, aliquanto, «o, quo, hoe, 
impendio, nikUo; as, JEV> gra»ior est dolor quo etdpa major. — Cia So* 
S80. Sometimes, also, p&rum, multum, Ac, as with Uie )K>8itive. 

262 SYNTAX — ^ADyBRB&. §185 

8<L To UifB nmerlatiTA are jobed, Umge, qwim^fa4SiU^ meaning " eertain- 
ly " " nndoubtemy ;** also tomlo, quantOy ntMlto, Ae. ; as^ Jf'a eiie doetisfUmuSf 
* certainly the most learned f* longe beUicons^fma {wi, getui), ""hyfar the 
moet warlike;" ^waw» maxtmax fi^ti eopias annai, **he arms oj 
grMU forces <w pMnble.** 

4th. QtMim, (and also tU,) is also used as an intensive word with the 
positive, but in a sense somewhat different, resembling an exclamataoii a8» 
Quam diffic^U ett! **hon> difficult it isP gugm, or ut erudilUf ** %ow 
erueir.F7Mi« quam familiariter, "weeping how affectionately" i e. 
mry affecHonately ; quam itvire^ ** how severely f" i, ^ very 9everely 


692. — ^RuLB XLVI. Some adverbs otttme^plaoA, 
and quantity^ govern the genitive ; as, 

Pridie efue diH, The day before that day. 

Ublque gentiwn. Every where. 

Sdtie est verbSrum, There is enough of worda 

593. — 1. Adverbs of time governing the genitive are, intereot postea, 
inde, tunc ; as, Interea Idei^ ** in the mean time ;" po*tea Idci, " afterwards f 
inde Idci, ** then ;" tunc tempMet " at that time." 

594.-2. Of place, {/6t, and quo^ with their compounds, uhlque, M- 
eunque, u6iu6t, quovtMy iuL Also, «o, Auc, hucclne, unde^ usquanit nuequam, 
longej ibidem^ Ae.', as, wide terrarum or gentium; longe gentium; xbldem 
Idci, Also, hue, eo, and quo, expressing degree ; as, ^o audacice, — vecor- 
dies — miseridrum, tftc, ** to tliat pitch of boldness — ^madness — ^misery," ^ 

595. — 8. Of quantity, abunde, aff&tim, largiter, ntmie, adtis, p&rum^ 
min\me\ as, abunde glorice; a^&tim divitidrum ; largiter auri; eitie dp- 
quefUim ; sapiential pdrum est iUi, or hdhet, " He has enough of glory, riches .' 
«feo. minisni gentium, ** by no means." 

596. — Obs. 1. Ergd (for the sake of), instar, and partim, also goveni 
the genitive ; as, dondri virtutis ergo, 

597. — Obs, 2. Pridie and postridie, eovem the genitive or accusative, 
as, Pridie Kalenddrum, or prtdie KaXenaas, sup. ante; Postridie Kalendd- 
rum, or Kalendas, sup. post. 

598. — Obs. 8. En and Sees govern the nominative or aeeusative ; asi 
£n causa ; Sece hUmo or Aomffum, sometimes a dative is added; as, Ecee 
duos aras tVn. Viro. In such constructions, a verb may be understood. 
Ihe dfitive may be referred to^ 877*8. 

599. — Obs. 4 Certain prepositions used adverbially by the poets, are 
followed by the dative ; as, rnihi clam ««^ '^ it is unknown to me.*^ Oot^sra 

§ IStf SYNTAX — PBBPOsrnoNa 263 

600 — ^RuLE XLVn. Some derivative adverbs 
govern tlie case of their primitives ; as, 

Omnium op time loquitur, He gpeaks the beet of M, 

Convenienter natikriB, Agreeably to nature. 

VSnit obviam ei. He came to meet him» 

I'roxime eaetrie weaetra, Next the camp. 

601. — ^EXPLANATION.— In the ilret example, opUme is derived from 
epUmue, which ^Yeme the genitive by Bnle X. 865. Qmvenienter and obvir- 
&m, are derived fh>m eonveniene, and ehviue, which govern the dative by 
Bnle XVI. 882 ; and proooSme is derived from prosrimus, which governs the 
dative or aoonsative. (888.) 


602.. — ^Ruus XLVULL Twenty-eigli.t preposi- 
tions, 06?, €^mdy cmte^ Ac., govern the accusative ; 

Adpatrem, To the father. 

603. — ^RuLE XUX. Fifteen prepositions a, o^, 
abSj &c., govern the ablative ; as, 

A poire. From the father. 

604. — EXPLANATION.— The twenty-eight prepositions which goyem 
the aocosative are those contained in the list 220-1, and the fifteen govern- 
ing the ablative are those in 220-2. 


605. — Obs, 1. Clam^ one of these fifteen, is sometimes followed by 
the aocusatiye ; as, clean v<m, " without your knowledge.** When foUowed by 
a genitiTe or datiye, a substantiye may be understood, or it may be re- 
garaed as an adverb; as» clam patrie. lia. mihi clam eel. Plaut. 

606. — Obie. 2. ?^i/« after a plural noun, oonmionly goyems it in the 
genitiye ', ba, eriirvm tinua. Y i ag. 

607. — ^RuLE L. The prepositions m, svi^ super 
and s^ihter^ denoting motion to^ or tendency towards 
govern the accusative ; as, 

Vinit in Uirbem, He came into the city. 

Amor in te. Love towards thee. 

Sub jugummieeue ett, He was sent under the yoka 

inclm/ 9uper agmlna It fell upon the troops. 

264 8YKTAX. — ^PKEPOSITIONS, § 136 

608. — 'Rttle LI. The prepositions in and *w5 
denotii^g situation^ govern the ablative ; super and 
mkbter either the accusative or ablative ; as, 

J^ett in terrA^ He lies upon the ground. 

Medid in urbe. In the middle of the citj. 

InpoitiSf Among the poeta. 

Bub moenibut. Under the walle. 

tf09. — Obs, 8. To both of these rules there are some exeeptioDS. b 
•tunces occur in which in and *ub denoting motion to, or tendency towardsy 
instead of the accusative, eoTern the ablative ; as, /n contpeetu tneo 
audet venire ; sub jUgo dictator hostem mUit. Others are found in which 
Uiej govern the accusative when they denote miuation; as, Jiiki in 
men tern /uit Hottet »ub montem consediMe, <&& 

610. — Obi. 4. The preposition in with the accusative, usually signifie: 
into, towardty until, for, against ; with the ablative in, upon, among. 
With both these cases, however, considerable variety of translation is 
riecessary to convey correctly the idea of the original. The following 
are instances, ^ In the case of," talis in haste fuit Friavno. Vnio. " Ob 
account of,*' in quo facto d6mum revocdtus; — In sex mensibus, "withio 
six months ;" in dies, "■ from day to day." So, in h&ras, ** from hour to 
hour ;** in capita, ** per head ;" in pueritia, ** during boyhood ;" in hoc tern. 
p6re, ** at this time,** 4fcc. 

611 . — Obs, 5. The preposition is frequently understood before its cases 
as, devenire Ibcos, Vibo. hAmo id cetdtis. Cia propior montem. Sali.. 
in which ad is understood. So, Nunc id -prodeo, sc. ob ; — Tsr. Maria 
aspHraJftro, sc. per. 8e tbeo movire, sc. e, or de. Quid illofacifu ? sc. in oi 
de, ** what can you do in this case t" Ut patrid expelleritur, sc. ex, Nep. 

612 — Obs. 6. Sometimes, but much more rarely, the case is omitted 
after the preposition ; as, circum Concordia, sc ceelftm. Sall. midtU poti 
annis, I e. post id tempus. 

613. — Rule LIT. A preposition in composition 
often governs its own case ; as, 

Adeamus urbem. Let us go to the city. 

Exedmus urbe; Let us go out of the city. 

614. — EXPLANATION.^By "its own case** is meant the case it gov- 
sms when not in composition. This rule only takes place when the prepo- 
sition may be separated from the verb, and placed before the case without 
altering the sense. Thus, adeamus urbem, and edmus ad urbem, express 
the same thing. 

616. — Obs. 7. The preposition is often repeated after the compound 
word ; the case is then governed by the preposition repeated ; as, ex no* 
viAus expositi. Cms. Nunquam aecedo ad te, guin abs te abeam doctior. Tsa. 

Note — SoTie verbs never have the preposition repeated after them ; such 
M^ Affnris, alliiguor, allatro, alluo, ac^lo ; circum with venio, eo, sto, sedo. 


vblo : obeo, prcetereOy abdico, *firOf evertOy Ao. Some oompoundB with ijiier, 
And prcBter, commonly omit it *i prepoBitioD. The compounds of tn, 06, and 
»abj g^ierally take the dative those of super, generally the accusatiye. 

616. — Obs, 8. Some verbs 001 r pounded with e, or «t, are followed by 
an accusative or ablative ; as, exlrt 'imen, Teb. exlre tejHis, Vulg. Some 
words compounded with prcB^ take nn accusative ; as, 7'l6ur aqiuB pro- 
fiuunt. Hoii. In some 01 these cases, however, the accusative may be 
governed by prceter or extra, understood 


617.-^06t. 9. The case governed by th^* preposition in composition is 
sometimes omitted ; as, Mmittire servum, sc nUinu, Plaut. JSwmUre vUrui, 
SOL &re. Cia Edaeire eopias, sa castria, Css, 

For the oonstraction of interjecti<HiS) see g 117. 



618. — The tenses in the indicative and subjunctive moods, so £ur at 
relates to their construction, may be divided into two elasses, Primmrff aim! 
Swondary, as follows, 

Primary, Secondary, 

Present Imperfect 

Perfect definite. 162. Perfect indefinite. 168. 

. Futures. Pluperfect 

With the primary tenses may be classed, the Imperative Mood. 

Of these tenses, the Primary are used to express actions, Ac, as present 
or future ; the Secondary, in the recital of these actions as past 

In the construction of sentences consisting of different members, the 
subjunctive mood, in the subordinate or secondary parts, usually corre- 
sponds, in time, to the tense in the primary, or leading part Hence the fol- 
lowing Rule. 

619. — ^RuLE LIIL Any tense of the subjunctive 
mood, may follow a tense of tlie ea/me daee in 
the indicative ; as, 

Pees. Zigo, ) I read, J 

Pe&f. Dmt. L?ffiy > lit diecam, I have read, V that I may leara 

Fur. Ligam, ) I will read, ) 

Imfxb. Lige, vt discas. Read, that you may learn. 

bcFERF. ^Legibam, ) I was reading, ) 

Pbu. Indxf. Ligi, ^• ut ditdrem, I read, >■ that I might leam. 

Plop. Legiram, ) I had read, ) 


26S SYNTAX — ICOODS. § 188 

620. — EXPLANATION. — In olaQBes connocted, the present, the perftot, 
and periphrastic future with nm or /uerim, 214-8, in the subjanctive mood, 
may follow either the pretsent, or the perfect definite, or the futures, of the 
indicative, or the imperative mood. In like manner, the imperfect, the 
pluperfect, and the periphrastic future with esaem or fuisMm, in the subjuno- 
tive mood, may follow either the imperfect, or the perfect indefinite, or the 
pluperfect in the indicative. 

621. — Obs. 1. When the present tense of the indicative is used in nar- 
ration for the past, 167-8, it may be followed by the secondary tenses of 
the subjunctive, as Legdtot mitturU tU poeem impetrdrent, 

622. — Oh8. 2. Primary tenaea are sometimea followed by aeoondary, 
and secondary by primary, in order to express aetiona whose time ia dif- 

623. — Obs. 8. When the subjunctive follows an infinitive or participle 
in the primary clause, the class of tenses employed, usually corresponds 
to the time of the verb on wluoh the infinitive or partioiple depends. 

N. B. This rule and the ooservationa und&r it, are to be regarded as 
stating only general principles, the deviations fi^m which, in expressing 
the endless variety of relations amcxig actions with reference to time, de- 
pendence, «Ico., can be learned only by practice and dose attention to classic 

For the interchange of tenaea in the same and in different mooda, see 
obMrratiooa on the tenaea, g§ 44 and 46. 


MOOD. * 

1. The indicative mood is used in Latin, to express what is 
actual and certain, in an absolute and independent manner ; 
as, vini^ vldi^ vlci, " I came, saw, and conquered." It is also 
used in direct and independent interrogations ; as, Quid dgis f 
" what are you doing ?" 

2. The indicative mood is used in conditional and dependent 
clauses, to denote, not what is contingent or uncertain, but 
what is supposed, or admitted as fact \ej^ Si v&les^ bene est, 
" if you are in healthy it is well," i. e. " since you are in 

3. Independent assertions made in English by shall^ wUl^ can, 
mat/y ought, and the like, are made in Latin by the indicative 
of verbs expressing these ideas; as, volumus Ire, "we will 
go," debes facere, " you ought to do it,** 147. In general, the 
verbs oportet, necesse est, debeo, convenit, possum, Rcet; — also, 
the expressions par, fas, asquum, Justum, cansentaneum est; — 

§ 139 SYNTAX.— MOOM. 287 

and csqums^ melius, uHlius, optabtlius est, are put in the past 
tenses of the indicative, though translated by the imperfect or 
pluperfect subjunctive. Hence, 

4. The indicative is used in the sense of the subjunctive, 
and translated by the potential in English, when an act, 62c., 
though not performed, is expressed as what would have been 
proper, practicable, or advantageous ; as, MiUyni optahilius 
fuit dare jugulum P. Clodio ; " it would have been more de- 
sirabU;' &c., 164-4. 

5. The past tenses of the indicative, are sometimes used 
for the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive, in the conclusion 
of a conditional clause, by which the description is rendered 
more animated ; sua, pons srublidusiter kosHbus didit, ni, &c. 
^* the wooden bridge would have afforded a passage to the 
enemy, unless" &c \ so, actum irat de pulcherrim^ imperioy 
niM, <kc^ 140 and 625-4th. 

The aigoificatioii and lue of thii mood, in its Mveral teofiea, are specified, 



[For the ehanuster sad meaning of thie mood, m iti eeveral t«Daee» see 

§ 42. IL and § 46.] 

The sabjnnctiye mood is nsed sometimes in in- 
dependent, but, for the most part, in dependent 



625. The subjunctive mood is used, apparently at least, in 
iadependent propositions: — 

Ist To soften aa aaaertioD or statement; aa, nmw istud tibi eoneedat, 
** no one tooidd grant that to you ;" foniUan temire fecirim-j** per* 
hapB / may have acted rasmy f guie dubXtetf " who can doub 

2d. To express a wish or desire, like the Greek Optative; BBfCdmug, 
**let U9 go;^ moridmur, "let us die;" nunc revertOrnur^ "let us now 
return." In the second, and the third person, it is used to exhort or 
command; and, with a negative, to forbid; as, facial^ **let him 
do it;" ipse vid^rit, *'let him see to it himseir' Cio. He me 
attingdSf **do not touch me" Tee. Emas quod neceste est 
iliun Skn. 

268 SYNTAX. — ^MOODB. § 140 

td. To ezpreas a doubtful question; as, gtto eamf **w\aiher tkall I 
go IT quid aliud facireii " what else cotdd hedoT (171-2). Gio. 

4th. Alter the imperfect, and pluperfect subjuDctive, iu a oonditiaoal 
clause with n, etn^ qudsi, etiatfiM^ tamelsiy nt, »m, the subjuDCtiye 
is used iudependeutlv in the apodosis, or conclusion, in the same 
tenses, when the thing supposed did not exist Also, after the 
present, and perfect in the sense of the imperfect or pluperfect ; 
UB,nhie siSf atUer 9 « nti a m,** if j9u«fereherBf you vxnud think 
otherwise." Tee. Qtiot nt wtea eura reMistat^ jam^ammtB tuli- 
rint. YiEG. In this oonstructi(»i, the conditional clause is some- 
times omitted ; as, magno mercentur Atrida («t possint). Yieq. 

ybte. — But, though in these and many similar expressions, the subjunc- 
tiye appears to be used independently, it is easy to se^ that in most cases, 
if not m all, it depends on an indicatiye or imperatiye understood, and 
which has been omitted for the sake of breyity (146). 


626. — ^The subjunctive mood is used, for the 
most part, in dependent clauses, and is preceded 
by another verb in the indicative, imperative, or 
infinitive mood, expressed or understood, with 
which it is connected by a conjunction, a rela- 
tive, or an indefinite term, and may generally be 
rendered by the potential in English (142-2d, and 

Obs» — The construction of the subjunctive mood, in Latin 
agrees, generally, with its construction in English and in 
Greek. Its use, however, is much more extensive in Latin, 
being employed in many cases in which the indicative is used 
in these languages. Its construction in d^endent propositions, 
is subject to the following Eules, 


627 — EuLE LIV. The conjunctions, ut^ quo^ Ucetj 
716^ utinam^ and dummddo^ &c., and words used 
indefinitely in dependent clauses, for the most 
paii;, require the subjunctive mood ; as, 

Ligo ut di9cam, I read that I may learn, 

Ne^cit qui »itn, He knows not teko I am. 

§ 140 SYNTAX. — ^MOODS. 269 

KXPLANATION. — ^The ooDJnnctionB requiring the snbjnnctiye mood, art 
ihoM which imply dovdt, cowtMvgtncy^ v/ncertaimty^ and tho like, as followa : 

1 . TJi^ quoy " that," n«, quominua, ^ that not," referring to 
the remlt^ end, or design^ take the subjunctive ; thus, 

Itft Uij ** ihatr denoting a retultj after such Trorda as tie, Va, adeo, tarn, 
ialiSt tantiUj it, efutmdcU, is followed by the aubjunctiye. 

2d. Utj " that," and ne, " that not," denoting purpote or design ; or wheo 
** that*' is equivalent to ** io order that^" " ao that»" take the aub- 

Sd. After varba signifying to request^ admonish^ aduiae, oommtMiofi, «fi- 
ecuraatf command^ and the like; or to endeavor ^ aim at, or a^ 
ecmplieh ; as, faciOf ^fieio^ <fro. ; and sometimes to permit^ to louA, 
to he neeeasaryf Ag^ ut and ne usually take the subjunctive. 

4th. Ut, with the subjunctive, usually follows auch imperaonals as JU^ 
jUri non potest, accidit, ineidit, oeeurrit, eontingit, evhUt, ileu vhiit, 
tOrum est, eequitur, futUmm est, retiguum est, relinguitur, rest€U^ 
supirest, iipus estf est signifying it happens, it oeeurs, U remains, Ao, 

2. Si ^^ if;" ut sif qiidsij ac si, ceque ac si, perinde ut si, dtUer 
ae si, vUut si, tanquam, ceu, " as if," expressing a condition or 
supposition, commonly take the subjunctive. 

3. Ut, Ucet, etiam si, quamvis, '' although ;" quin for qui non^ 
or ut non, or quominus, take the subjunctive. 

4. AntiSquam, prittsquam, '^ before ;" dum, dOnee, quoad^ 
" until," rnMo, dum, dummddo, " provided,*' and the particles 
of wishing, ufinam, si, ut or Oti, for utinam, commonly take 
the subjunctive. 

5. Interrogative words used indefinitely in dependent clausea^ 
or containing an indirect question, take the subjunctive. 

The words thus used are, the particles an, ne, nian, uirvm, anne, an- 
non ; — the adyerbs iibi, quo, unds, mursum, guamdiu, qitoties, cur, gudre, 
quamobrem, quemadrnddum, qvotnMo, ut, quam, quantopire; — ^the adjeo* 
tives quantus, qudlis, quot, qudtus, Uter; quis, qui, eujas, Ao, 

Note, — In double Questions, direct or indirect, ezpreaaed in English by 
* whether — or," the nrst is commonly made by utrwn, or the enclitic ne, 
and the second by an, or anne. The first particle, however, is often omit- 
ted, but must be supplied in translating ; as, idfrustra an ob remfaeiam, 
{** whether) I shall do this to no purpose or successfully." The English ** or 
not" is made, in the second part, by neene; as, dii utrwn sint neene sint 
quter^ur. Posset lige dgi neene pauei qttofuhm sct^nL It is used 
also in direct questions; as, sunt hcee tua verba neene f 

628. — Obs. 1. Many of these conjunctions are used also with the ith 
dicative mood In such cases, they are to be regarded merely as con- 
nectives, or used adyerbially, denoting circumstances of time, manner, Ao, 

i\2>\}. — Obs. 2. Many othei conjunctions are used, sometimes with the 
faidioative, and sometimea with the subjunetiye mood ; such afl» quum (or 

270 8Ti$rrAx.~xooD8. § 143 

ytMO) 4fea Quofiiam, guandoi aiid quandoquWan, unially hare the uidica- 

^0. — Ohs. 8. Qutim (or eilan\ -when it signifies time, merely, takes the 
indicatiye, and is translated when ; as, Umpusfuit guum homln«s r nr/a- 
bmniur, Whesi it denotes a conneeiion of thauffht^ implying dependeuoe, 
it takes th* tuliiiiiDetiye, and xnay be traofllated yariously, aiooordiDg to tU<3 
nature of the ooonectioD, Hnce, although, <ut non a<^ ueing thai, dbc ; ut>, 
«ilfn eaUa nW, "Mnee these things are so." 

631. — 06«. 4. In narratioD, guum is joined with the imperfect, and 
Uie olaperfeei subjunetiye, •▼en when it relates to ime, hot the event do- 
Dotea by the subjuaotiye, usually relates to that en>ressed in the clause 
oo which the subjunetiye depends, not only in regard to Imm, but also, io 
some sense, as a cause; as, cum seiret Clodiut Her m ee tatar ivm Milwi 
MS0 Lanuvium, Rcmd iubUo ipte pro/ectus cmL 

632. — Ob», 6. The eanjiBiotion trf, is elegantly omitted after vdlOf nolo, 
rdffo, prieor, eetueo, tuatho, Heet, cportet, neeesM ett^ and the like. Also, 
after the imperatiTsa Hne^^ae, or fatUo; as, prieor Mittot, ** I beg (that) 
you would come ;" fae/acuUf ** see (that) you do it" So also ne is omitted 
after the imperative e&ve; as, eave facias, ** See thou do it not" 

633. — Oba. 6. After the yerbs timMt vereor, and the like, ui is used in 
a negative sense, " that not," and ne, in an affirmative sense, ** that ;" as, timeo 
uifaciat, " I fear that he will not do it" Timeo ne/aciat, ** I fear that he 
will do it" In a few examples, however, ut seems to have an affirmative, 
and ne, a negative meaning. Ne non, after timeo, vereor, is equivalent to 
ut non after other verbs; as, timeo ne non impetrem^ '*! fear that I 
shall not obtain it" 

634. — 6. In oblique disoottrse (651 Exp.), the verb, in de- 
pendent clauses, takes the subjunctive after any conjunctivp 


686. — ^RuiiB LV. The relative qui^ jmp, quod^ 
requires the subjunctive, when it refers to an in- 
dejimte^ negative^ or mt&rroffoUve word, — ^to words 
implying oorwpoHaon^ — or assigns the reason^ comae^ 
or end of that which precedes, — ^and also in all 
cases of oblique na/rraUon. 

This General Rule may be subdivided into the following 

636.— i^K^ I. When the relative qvi^ gwe^ quod reiejn to 

§ 141 SYNTAX.— HOOPB. 271 

AQ indefiniUy nspative, or interrogative word, it requires the 

subjunctive mood ; as, 

8wU {kom\ne8) qui dlcant^ , Somepeople Bay. 

yimo est qui kavd inteltigaty lliere is fio on« wAo does not nnderataiid, 

QutB est qui utiliafugial f Who is there that shuns what is useful t 

637. — EXPLANATION.— This rule takes effect only when the antece- 
dent is something indefinite, and when the relative clause is the predicate of 
the sentence, i. e. when it expresses what is affirmed or denied respecting 
thdsubgeet'Of the verb, and has for its antecedent, the indefinite, negative, 
or interrogative itself, and not any intervening word. These are indispen- 
sable conditions of this rule. 

638. — Oba. 1. The indefinites referred to in this rule are the indefinite 
p)ronouns (127-1, and 128, except quldam), and the periphrastic expres- 
sions, est quif " some one,*' sunt quiy fuSrunt qui^ ** some ; to which may 
be added the verbs reperio, invenio, habeo, aasum, desuniy venio, and some 
others, used in a similar manner, by which indefinite expressions are formed 
nearly of tbe same import with est quif sunt qui^ Aa; as, omnis mtas quod 
Hffai inveniet, 

639. — The negative antecedents most common under this rule are 
such as nS7no eat^ nullus e«/, Unics non eat, alius non eet, or eztatt nihil est, 
nee estf or non quisquam est^ viz ullus est^ nee ullus est^ vix dectmus quisque 
est, (or any other ordinal used in a similar manner,) non multi sunt, non 
multum ent ; also, non est^ or nihil eat, meaning ** there is no cause, or 
reason why ;" and also after non or nihil haheo. After these last, quod 
* which," must follow, governed by propter understood ; as, noti est quod 
seribets ; ** there is no reason why you should write." 

640. — The interrogative expressions in the antecedent clause under 
this rule are chiefly these: Quis estf qitantus estf iUer eetf ecquis estf 
nvmquis estf an quisqtiam est t an est atlquiaf quotiuquisque estf quH- 
tus estf gjuot suntf quam multi suntf And also, quid estf numquidestf 
** what cause T as, num quid est quod timeasf " why should you fear V* 

Nott. — Interrogatives under this rule are of a gaieral character, and 
usually imply a negation ; as, quis est quifaciatf ** who is there that does 
it r i e. "nobody cbes iV* 

641. — Bule II. The relative is followed by the subjunctive, 
irhen the relative and antecedent clauses involve a comparison, 
or when the latter expresses the purpose, object, or design, of 
something expressed by the former ; as, 

Diffnus qui amUur, "worthy to be loved." Quis tarn esset Omens ^ 
semper viviret f ** who would be so foolish as to live always T 

642. — ^EXPLANATION.— In all cases under this rule, the relative is 
equivalent to «f, with the personal pronoun representing the antecedent ; i. e. 
it is used for td ego, ut tu, ut iUe, ut not, ut vos, ut illi. In such oases, ut 
with the personal pronoun, is frequently used instead of the relative. Here, 
also, the relative clause must belong, not to the subject, but to the predicate 
of the sentence, for in such cases only can it be resolved into ut ego^ Ao. 

272 SYNTAX. — ^XOODS. § 141 

643. — Obg. 2. Tlie relatiTe is used in this sense, and requires 

the subjunctive. 

lit When it comes after dignuM, tn diffnut , idonema, and the like in the 
predicate ; u, pa/re«, n dignum qHHiUiUe)mcumdua^Iiam&io 
HumeritHTf crearUiM, ouetHret^enL 

9d 'VTheo it follows lam, tantut, adeo; aa, quU est tarn lAfneeua, qui tn 
ianttM teyiebru nihil offenda tf L e.iU in tantis, Ac^ ** who ia bo 

2mck-«ighted th4xt he would not tiumbU in such darknesa f — In 
ike manner when it follows tdlit, ejutrnddi, hujuunUdi, the anb- 
jonctive is commonly used; as, eat innoeentia affectio tdlis anV 
mi qui ndeeat nemXni, Also, aft«r m, iUe^ and hie, in the senae 
of tdli* (123-2, b.); as, non tu ts e* qui neseias, ''you are 
not such a one om not to know." Sometimes, in such cases, ut takes 
the place of qw; as, nique inim is €*, Catillna, ut te piitior 
revocdritj Ac 

Id When it follows a comparative with quam; as, major turn quam 
eui possit fortuna noeire, 

4th. When the relative clause expresses the purpose, object, or design, for 
which the person mentioned in the antecedent clause is appointed, 
or the thing spoken of is possessed, or dotie ; as, Laeedoemouii le- 
gMos Athenas misirunt qui (i. e. ut iUi) eum absentem aecu^ 
sArent. In such sentences the relative and subjunctive may be 
properly rendered, to, in order to; thus, "the Lacedemonians sent 
ambassadors to Athens, to accuse (or in order to accuse) him in hia 
absence." Sometimes here also, ut takes the place of tne relative; 
nM,missussum ut (I e. qui)te addueiretn. 

644. — Oba. 8. When qui combines with its significati<m as a relative^ 
w when the preceding clause implies, a force eaual to so that, s%tck thcU, 
the man to, such a man as, it requires the suDJunctive ; as, stultum est 
timlre quod vitdre non poaais, **it is foolish to fear that which (i e 
such a thing as) you cannot avoid** In all such cases, the antecedent clause 
ooDveys a vague and general idea, i e. the person or things referred to are 
regarded as a specie* or class, rather than as individuals. 

646. — Rule III. When the relative with its clause assigns 
the cause or reason of the action or event announced by the 
antecedent clause, it requires the subjunctive ; as, 

« Peccaviste mihi videor qui a te decesshrim, ** I think that I have erred 
in having (or, becatue I) left you." 

646. — EXPLANATION.— In all constmctions of this kind, the lelative 
is equivalent to quum^ quod^ quia^ or quoniam igo, tu, is, luw, Ac, signi^inff 
" because," or " seeing that I," " thou," c&o. 

647. — Obi. 4. The relative has this force in the expressions qu^pp* 
qui, ut qui, tUpbte qui, and consequently is followed by the subjunctive ; 
as, libro9 non eorUemno, equtdetn, quippe qui nunquam legirim,*^\ 
do not, indeed, despise the books, /or (or hecause) I have never read tiiem.* 

648. — Mule IV. When qui possesses a power equal to qfiat^ 
gttam^ or eisi is, or to si, mddo, or dummddo, '^ alUiough — if-* 

§ 141 SYNTAX.— MOODS. 278 

provided that he, she, it," &o., it requires the subjuiicti\re 
mood; as, 

Tu dquam pumice postHlas, qui ipse aitiat,** you demand water fruiu 
a pumice sione, though it9elf i» parched with thirst." L&co^ eon^lii guam* 
ffis egregii quod non ipse afferret inimleus^ ''Laco was the eEiemy of 
any measure, howeyer excellent^ ^ (i* ^ provided theU) he himself did not 
propose it." 

649. — Rule V. The relative qui takes the subjunctive after 
Unus and sblua ; when they restrict the affirmation to a particu- 
lar subject; as, 

Hcee est una contentio qua adhue permanshity * this is the only dis- 
pute tohich has remained till this time." 

650. — Hule VI. In oblique or indirect discourse, the relative 

requires the subjunctive mood ; as, 

Socr&tes dicire solebat, omnes in w quod sclrent sUtis esse eloquentes, 
** Socrates was accustomed to say, that all were eloquent enough m that 
which they knew." 

651. — EXPLANATION.— Discourse is said to be direct, when a writer 
or speaker delivers his own sentiments,— <^i^tM, when a person relates in 
his own language, what another speaker or writer said ; an example will best 
illustrate this distinction. — Tacitus introduces Galgaous, addressing the Cale- 
donian army as follows : '' When I contemplate the causes of the war, ana 
the necessity to which we are reduced, great is my confidence that this day, 
and this union of yours, will prove the beginning of universal liberty to 
Britain.^* This is the direct discourse. If, instead of introducing Galgacua 
himself, to speak his own speech, the historian had only told us what he sud, 
he would have used the oblique or indirect style, thus : Galgaous said, ** that 
when he contemplated the causes of the war, and the necessity to which they 
(the Boman army) were reduced, his confidence was great, that that day, 
and that union of theirs, would prove the beginning of universal liberty to 

In the first of these, or the direct discourse, it will be observed that when 
the speaker refers to himself, he uses the^r*^ person, " I," " we." "When 
he refers to those addressed, he uses the second person, " thou," " you," — 
and that the leading verbs in Latin are all in the indicative mood, and inde- 
pendent of any previous word. But in the second or obliqus discourse, the 
third person only is used, whether the speaker is said to refer to- himself, or 
his hearers, or a third person. And the leading verbs in Latin, are in tne 
infinitive mood, or in the subjunctive with ut, and, in either case, dependent 
on the verb with which the account is introduced such as, **he said,^' 
" stated," ^^ replied," or the like. It is evident, therefore, tliat while in both 
Ibrms, the same idea is expressed in nearly the same language, the construc- 
tion of the sentence In each is entirely different ; thus, in direct discourse; 
AnUMwus inquity " Ars edrum rirum est quce seiwUurJ*^ Cio. QuinctUian re- 
lates the same thing in the obUque form ; thus, *^ Antonius ait, artem edrum 


274 STKTAX. — KOODB. § l4l 

r9tum mm fum JMon^iir." Here, the leading yerb in the diieet fonn, is mt 
in tbe indicative mood, having no dependence on any previooa word, and 
having ita aubject in the nominative caae. In the oblique formi, the aame 
verb ia iu the iuflnitive, «m ; it ia dependent on aU^ and haa ita aabjeot in 
the aocoaative* In the Jird^ the verb in the aubordinate oUnae, ia in tha 
indicative, sdmUyr ; in the laat, it ia in tha snlganQtive mood, miamiwt. 
Hence, the following genera) principle. 

d52. — In every unmixed example of oblique narration^ two 
moods only are admissible, the infinitive .and eubfuncHve^ and 
consequently, as the relative is never employed but in the 
teeondfuyy and subordinate members of a sentence, it must 
always, in oblique statements, be followed by the subjunctive. 

653. — Obs. 5. In connection with this general principle, however, two 
thinga muat be noticed : 

tat In obli^u* diaoonraa, the narrator frequently introduces a remark of 
his own, for the pnrpoae of explanation, but yet ao cloaely interwoven 
with the diacourae he ia reporUng, aa to seem to be a part of it Such 
remark ia ueually introduced witb the relative, and the indicative, and 
mav be detected by thia construction : Thus, DiMeruit Cceaar, non q'tiidem 
aibt ignOra qua de Hildno vulgabantuTy sed non ex rumore statuenr 
dwUf ** Caesar replied * that those things, indeed,' viz. : which were rumored 
etmeeming Stlanun^ * were not unknown to him,' " Ac Tag. Here, the clause, 
quee ds Suono vuigmbemtuTf ia not to be regarded as a part of what Caesar 
aaid, but as a clause thrown in by the historian to inform his readers what 
things they were which Caesar meant But if the verb had been mUgA- 
rentur^ it would have shown that it was a part of what Caesar aaid. 

2d In animated oblique narraticm, the historian sometimes suddenly 
passes from the oblique to the direct discourse, and, instead of r^fwrthig 
the remarks of the speaker, introduces him, as it were, to speak for hiro- 
ael£ This is always manifest by the transition, from the use of the infini* 
tive and subjunctive, to that of the indicative, and from the use of the 
third person to denote the apeaker, and the person addressed, to that of 
the firat and second. The following is often quoted as an appropriate 
example of this. (Obuqux) **<Sa^«i4^ mM/tIre; dirivUre infe9ta§ acieg, 
hinc patree, hinc ^ro* orantCB^ ne se sanguine ne/andoy todriy generigue 
respergirent ; ne parricidio macul&rent partus tuos^ nepOtum illi^ I'biAm 
• k* progefttem. (Dirict) Si pXget affinitMit inter vox, «t connubii plgei^ in 
nos vertUe Ircu^ nos causa belliy no* vulnirum ae ceedium vlp« ac parenflbtu 
fiimiM, melif$9 peribitmie, quam Ane altiris vettrum vidua aut oroce vivimus. 
lay L18. 

654. — Obs, 6. A verb in the Fttture-perfect indicative, in direct dis- 
oomve, will always take the pluperfect subjimctive, when the same Ben* 
tenee is thrown into the oblique form, whatever be the tense of th<) intro- 
dmetory verb ; thus, DablUur quodctmque optdHs, Ov. ; in direct diacourae, 
ia thus related by Cicero, in the oblique foim : 8ol FheBthmUi JUio fao- 
ilirum esse dixit quidquid optdsset, 

655. — 06a. *l. To thia conatmetion may be referred Hie aubjnnetive 
eonnected by a relative or casual conjunctfeMn with the preoadii^ verb ia 

§ 142-3 SYNTAX.— MOODS. 276 

unj of ks partB» for the pnrpoM of ezpressing, not what the writer aaserti 
hdmself^ but what is alleged bj others ; as, Socrates accusaitu est qy/td cor- 
rwnpiret juventuUnty **SoorateB waa accused, becauae (as was alleged) he 
oorrupted the youth." The indicatiTe here would asseit^ on the part of 
the writer, that Socrates did corrupt the youth. 

Note, — ^The yerbs pHtOy dleoy arhUror, and the like, are sometimes uBed» 
especially by Cicero, in the subjuDctive, with the verb following in the 
innnitive, wuen properly they should be in the indicative, (meaning, ** as 
they said, thought, <bo.") and the verb^ in the clauses dependent on tli^m, 
in the subjunctive ; as, Re^U paiUo post, quod te obatum ntscio qijtid 
didrety Cia, ** He (Hannibal) returned soon after, because, as he sai<l he 
had forgotten something f for quod, %a dieibat, o^Uim euet neaeio quid. 
Ementiundo qua 9e . , . audine dicirefU, Saiju, ** By forcing stories which, 
as they said, they had heard f for qwa, ut dieSbant, audiviuent, 

656. — Obs, 8. When an infinitive or subjunctive mood has 
a clause connected with it by a relative or other connecting 
word, for the purpose of restricting the predicate,* otherwise 
indefinite, the verb of the latter clause is put in the subjunc- 
tive mood ; as, 

Quid Snim pdtett ene tarn pernpicuum, quam mm aliquod nUunen quo 
hoe regantuTf ** For what can be so dear, as that there is some divinity 
by whom these tiiingB are governed f" 


1. The Imperative mood is used to command, exhort, Ao, 149. Its sub- 
ject, with which it agrees by Rule IV^ is the person or persons addressed 
m the command, &G,, and hence, it is properly vsed only in the second per- 
eon. In Latin, as well as in Greek, the imperative mood has a distmct 
form for the third person ; it is, however, but seldom used, and diieflv in 
the enacting of laws, having the force of a command on those for whom 
they are designed. 

2. Wilii the imperative, not is expressed by n«, and nor by nifve ; ai^ 
Ne eride eolOri. Yibo. SomXnem mortuum in urbe ne eepelltOf 
neve urtto. Cia 

8. Instead of the simple imperative, sometimes fae or dtvej with the 
•ubjimctive, are used, and noli with the infinitive ; as,/ae veniae, " come ;;" 
e&ve exist\me9f <*do not think;** Ndli titmrey **do not fear.** For otlier 
tongcn, used imperatiTely, see 150. 


[For the tenses of the infinitive mood, in connection with different tensea 

of the verb, see g 47.] 

658. — The infinitive mood, in Latin, is used in two ways ; l^irstt as a 
verbal noun, and Second, as a verb. As a verbal noun, it has no subject ; 
•■ a verb, it always has. Witiiout a sukgeet it cannot form a propoution, 

276 SYNTAX. — MOODS. § 144 

or expreM an affirmation ; with a nibject, it always does. Id the first 
case, it oomes under the regimen of the yerb^ either alone as a verbal 
DOuD, or with the words depending upon it» as a tuhstantitfe phrase. In 
the second, it oomes under its regimen, only in 0(X]nectioa with its subject^ 
as a distinct, though dependent proposition, or tubUantive da%t9e. Hence^ 
all that belongs to the construction of this mood, may be comprised id 
what relates to the use 6{ it, in these two ways. 


659. — ^The infinitive without a subject, may be regarded as a 
verbal noun in the singular number, neuter gender (271), and 
in form indeclinable, but differing from all other nouns, inas- 
much as it involves the idea o^ time, and has all the power of 
toveming that belongs to the verb. The character of the in-' 
nitive as a noun, is manifest from its being used in almost , 
every waj that a noun is. It is used, 

1. As the nominative to a verb; as, invidere(invidia)tioneSdit tn 
§apientem. Didieisse fdelUer artes emollit mdret, Ov. Uhnam emdri 
fort'Qnis meis honestus exXtus esset; or as the nominative after the 
verb ; as, Hve iUud frat nfiefunirefe rri; bine vivire eat bit vivire, 

2. As a case in apposition to a preceding nominative ; as, r«< irai spec- 
taeiUo digna^ vidSre JLerxem, itic. ; ** it was a thing worthy of being seen, 
to tee Xerxes," <iEc. 

8. It is used as a genitive after substances and adjectives ; as, tern put 
est ablre^ for abeundi; — noli eantdre periti Areiides, equivalent to 
cantandi or cantut. Rules VIL IX. 

4. As a dative after adjectives, <&c.; thus, et voe'tervlre m&gie quam 
imperare parati estis. RuleXVL 

5. As an accusative after an active verb ; as, <f a mihi fa Hire, Hoa. ; 
terrain cum prlmum drant^ prose in dire appellant; cum itirum, 
offr in g ire dicunt, Varr. — After a preposition ; as, nikU intireai 
inter d&re et accipire. Sen. Prceter plordre. Hob. Procter 
lHqui. Lrv. 

6. As a vocative ; as^ vivire nostrum^ for VUa noetra, 

T. As an ablative in various constructions; as, dignus am art; as Uie 
ease absolute ; thus, Audi to rSgeni in Siciliam tend ire. This example, 
however, has a subject rigetn^ Rule XXIIL 

8l It has an adjective or pronoun agreeing with it; as,«efre tuum. 
nihil est; ipsum die ire nunquam non ineptum est^Ac Cia In this 
way, we may account for the poetic **dulce Uiqui^* **ridire decdrum,** &e. 

i It governs the genitive like a noun; as, eujut non dimieare fuU 

N'ote.--'Ji is however, chiefly as the subject or the object of a verb, in 
the nominative or accusativei that it is used as a noun. Tlie examples 

§ 144 SYNTAX.— MOODS. 277 

ab:>ye (3, 4» 7,) in which it ib uiMd, where a noun or pnmoim woiild be pot 
in the genitiye, or datiye, or ablatiye, are of rare occurrence, and in some 
eases may be otherwise explained. The infinitive as a noun, in the nomi> 
native or aoeusatiye, is subject to the following Rules: 

660. — ^RuLE LVL One verb being the snbject 
of another, is pnt in the infinitive ; as, 

JfaefU est guirif 7\> complain is easy. 

Me ntlri turpe est, To lie is base. 

661. — •'EXFLANATIOK.^In the first example the subject or thing 
spoken of is expressed \>j the infinitive queri^ which is therefore the nomi- 
native to the verb ett. A noun used instead of gueri would have to be in the 
nominative case. In such sentencesi it is manifestly improper to say that ut 
governs qysri^ just as it would be improper to say the verb governs its nomi- 
native. This rule applies also to the infinitive with a subject. 

662. — Ohe. 1. A proper attention to this rule will show that many 
yerbs considered impersonal, or thought to be used impersonally, are not 
really so, but have an infinitive or a clause of a sentence for their subject 
or nominative ; thus, n«e profuit Hydra creseire per damnum^ ** nor did it 
profit the Hydra to grow by his wounds." Ovid. Here, instead of saying 
that profuit is used impersonally, and governs ereseire in the infinitive ; 
the true construction is, that profuit is used personal^, and has crescire 
for its nominative. So, the following, e&dit in eundem miterSri et invidSre. 
Gia Viiedre cutpd magnum egt eolatium; tiegue est te failure quidgitam, 
Ac, 807. 

663. — ^RuLE LVn. One verb governs another, 
as its object, in the infinitive ; as, 

Oupio diMcire, I desire to learn, 

664. — EXPLANATION,— The infinitive mood under this rule is equiva- 
lent to a noun in the case which the preceding verb usually governs : Thus, 
in the example, eupio Is a transitive active verb and governs diaeere^ as if it 
were a noun in the accusative. The meaning is, that a verb, used as the ob- 
ject of another, without a conjunction or connective word, must be put in 
the infinitive. This Bule also applies to the infinitive with a subject. 

Note. — Tn all cases of the infinitive without a subject, imder this rule, 
the infinitive expresses an act, or state, of the subject of the prec<i.<21ng 

665. — Obs. 2. The infinitive without a subject, is used only after cer- 
tain verbs, especially such as denote desire^ ability ^ intention or endeavor ; 
such as, cupioy opto^ vdlo, nolo, mdlo ; — poseum, gueo, nequeo, valeo, cogito, 
e&nor, tendo, disco^ doceo, debeo, Ac. By the poets it is used after f&,Q€^ 
parce for ndli, and sometimes after caveOffugto, gavdto, Ac In a few in^ 
stances it is used after verbs of motion, to denote a purpose ; as, introiU 
vidire, "became to see!* Tse. Iniit cofiailia to f lire rBgeSy**he d& 
y\sed a plan to destroy the kings.*' 

278 STHTAX. — ^KOOBS. § 146 

6d6.—- '(I&t, 8. Li mnnj easM, tbe mfinitiTe after eaA verbs may be 
ehanged for the infinitiTe with a Bnbjeet ; as, <nipto m « esse elementem, 
Oia ; for erne element, or elementem. 826. Or, for the Bubjunctive with ut^ 
orne; as, aenientiam ne dieiret reeusavitf for sententiam dicire. 

667. — Obs. 4. The infinitiye without a subject is also used after adjee- 
tives, and douds. So used, it is equivalent to a noun in the case governed 
by such adjective or ooun. See examples, 669-8, 4, 7 . 

668. — Obs, $. Sometunee the infinitive is understood; as, ei pronn' 
dam Nvmidiam popHita jusaU ; BC ddri. 

Note 1. — When the verbs possum, tfdlo, nolo^ md^, in the indicative or 
subjunctive, are translated by the EWUsh auxiliaries can, toUly mil nat^ 
wilt rather ; or in the past tense by eotudf vfottld, Ao., the infinitive follow- 
ing is translated without le before it; as, pdlest JUri, " it can be donef* 
vdlo Irv, ** I will gof molo faeire, * I would rather do it f nolUe tim9r«, 
" do not fear." 

Note 2. — The present infinitive is gemeraUy translated as the perfeet, 
without to, when it comes after the imperfect, perfect or jduperfeot, of 
possum, vdlo, n/Aoj m&lo, translated could, would, would not, voould rather ; 
and with to after the same tenses of debeo and oportet, translated ought ; 
as, melitu JUri non potuit, ** it could not have been done better ;** volui 
dicire, ** I would have said f mmire arma tioluit, " he would not have 
tak^Q arms ;** dividi oportuit, ** it ought to have been divided." Ao. 

Note 3. — After verbs denoting to see, h6ar,fed, and the like, the present 
infinitive is somefSmes rendereid b^ the JEnglish present participle ; as, 
audlvi eym dicire, " I heard him saying." Also when the infinitive is the 
subject of another verb ; as, mordri periculosum. est, ** delaying (to delay) is 

The HiMoricaL Injmitwe. 

669. — Ohs, 6. The verb governing the infinitive is sometimes ondtted , 
especially is this the ease in historical narration, when the infinitive fol- 
lows a nominative case in the sense of the imperfect indioative, or the 
perfect indefinite; as, invidire omnes mihi, **all envied me." Tsii. 
At Jiomdni, d6mi militicsque tntenti, festindre, pardre, alius 
alium hortdri. Sall. When Ibns used, it is supposed to be governed 
by eapii or cespirunt understood. Oases occur, however, in which IAob 
supplement cannot be made ; as, verum ingmUutn ^us haud absHrdum ; 
pos sef ochre verms, joeum movire, <&&, (810.) Sxll, The historical infini- 
tive and the imperfect, are often connected in the same construction ; aa, 
Alblnus .... sendtum defoMHre consulibat; et tdmen intirim exernHtm 
supplementum seribire . , , .auxUia areessire, deniquemddis omni- 
bus festinars, Sall, Jug. 89. 


The infinitive with a sabjeot poasesset the oharacter of the verb, and 
aflSnns of its subject as in the indicative or the sabji^iative mood ; bill 

§ 145 SYNTAX.— MOODS. 279 

only in suWrdinate imd depeodent propositionB. These propoeitioDs tfaem- 
seWoa have a BubstaDtive character, and generally Btand in the relation of 
Bubetaativefi to a vei b, or phraae, on which they depend ; sometimes as a 
noounative to, or the subject of the verb, but generally as an object or aa 
accusative after it. Thus used, they may be called mbataniive datue^^^ 
and as such, they^U under the two preceding rules. Thus : 

1st The infinitive with a subject must be considered as the nominative 
when it is the subject of a sentence, L e. when anything is declared of it ; 
aa, te non istud audlviase mirum est^ " that you have not heard that 
is wonderful" Here, te non Utud avdfoisee stands aa the n<Nmnative to 
ett. Rule LYL See 661. 

2d. The infinitive with its subject is the accusative or object after a 
verb, when it has for its direct object, the idea expressed by a dependcLt 
infinitive dat^e, tir when such clause takes the place of a noun or pronoun 
governed by the verb; as, mlror te non seribirej **l wonaer that 
you do not writer Here, te non scribire stands as the object of mirory 
which governs it as an accusative by Rule LVII, or XX- See 664. 

Note. — ^The verbs which admit an infinitive with its subject as their 
direct object, are those which denote an action of our senses, or internal 
fibculties, or such as denote/eelinff, knowing^ thinking^ or saying ; as, audio, 
video, aentio, cognoscOj inteltlgo, mcfnXni^ puto, ducOy rflco, prddo, scrlbo, pro- 
fnitto, and the like. These seldom take a conjunction {ut or q%u>d) with the 
indicative or subjunctive as their object See Obs. 5, et seq. 

6Y1.— KuLE LVIII. The subject of the inimi- 
tive is put in the accusative ; as, 

Gaudeo te vaUre, I am glad that you are welL 

672. — EXPLANATION.— The subject of the infinitive is the person or 
thing spoken of in the dependent clause, and may be, as in Rule IV., a noun, 
a pronoun, &c., and is always to be in the accusative case ; except as in 669. 

Under this Rule, the infinitive with its subject forms a distinct propo- 
Htion, and is equivalent to the indicative, or subjunctive mood in English, 
together with the connective '^ that,^^ Thus, in the example, te val^e con- 
tains the simple proposition, " You are well/^ The equivalent of the Eng- 
lish ** that," connecting it as a subordinate clause with the preceding verb, 
is implied in the infinitive form. If the infinitive stand after an accusa- 
tive which does not form with it a distinct proposition, i. e. which is not its 
subject, it does not belong to this Rule, but the accusative is governed bv 
Rule XX. ; ba, PrGtmu pious igU altoe visile tnoniei. HoA. Henoe* 


673. — Obs. 1. The English particle **that,'* may be called Uie sign of 
tile accusative before the infixiitive, being used to connect the infinities 
clause with the preceding. It may often be omitted, however, :n-tran8la> 
ting, as it frequently is in English ; thus, aiunt rigem adventdrej " tibey say 
the king is coming, or^ ** that the king is eoming." 

280 SYNTAX.— ^MOODS. § 145 

674. — Ob8. 2. The aocusatiTe subject, in Latin, is tranfllaied by the 
Dominatiye in English. Hence, the accusatiye of the relative prouomi. 
referring to persons must be rendered toAo, not toham ; as, qu*m eonfte- 
tum vwtierXoM diafynus, ** wAo, we said, was exhausted with his wounds." 

Note, — The infinitlTe with its subject in the accusatiye is sometimes 
tnmslated in the same form in English; as, cvpto te v en Ere, ** I wish 
yoti to come;** quo$ diacorddr* noviratt ** tonom he had known to (ft/*- 
/er ;" *umvocdri jumt, ** he ordered him to be called." 

N. B. — For the various ways of rendering the different 
tenses of the infinitive after different tenses of the indicative 
or subjunctive, see at length, 180. 

675. — Ob8. 8. When the subject of the infinitive is the same with the 
subject of the preceding verb, it is seldom expressed, unlest required to 
be emphatic ; as, pollicltui sum acripturum (esae) sc m«, " I promised that 
I would write.** After verbs signifying to be accystomedf to dare, I can, I 
ought, the infinitives ease, judicari, vidiri, <&c., having the same subject with 
the preceding verb, have an adjective or noun after them in the nomina- 
tive case, indicating that the subject of the infinitive understood is re- 
Sarded as a nominative according to the Greek construction. Gr. Gr. § 176. 
'!xe. Thus, sdlet triatis videri; aude aapiena eaae; dibea eaae diligena. See 
also, 826-328, and 738-3, 8d. 

676. — Oba, 4. When the preceding verb is in the passive voice, the 
subject of the infinitive may be changed into the subject of that verb, or 
remain unchanged in the accusative, "the passive verb being used imper> ' 
sonally, or rather having the infinitive clause for its su^ect ; thus, m o- 
trem Pauaanica eo iempHre vixiaae dicUur, or, mdter Jrauaanice eo tern- 
pdre vixiaae dicUur, ** it is said that the mother of Pausanias was livii^ at 
that time," or, " the mother of Pausanias is said to have been living, 4&a 
Gr. Gr., § 176, Oba, 8. 

Note. — When a relative clause has the same verb as the proposition 
with the infinitive on which the relative clause depends, but without the 
repetition of the verb, the subject of the verb in the relative clause is put 
hy attraction in the accusative ; as, Platonem ferunt idetn aenaiaae quod 
Py thagoram,*^ They say that Plato thought as Pytkagoraa did.** But^ 
if the verb of the relative clause is expressed, its subject must be in the 
nominfitive ; as, Platonem ferunt .... Idem aenaiaae quod Pythagoras 

The same analogy is observed with the conjunction quam after a com- 
parative. See 470, 1st and 2d. 

671,— Oba, 6. The accusative with the infinitive, in a subordinate 
clause, is in some cases equivalent to the subjunctive with ut or qwxif 
** that," preceding; as, OptOvit ut in eurrum patfia tolleritur, or, 
Optdvit ae in eurrum patria tolli, " He (Phffithon) desired that he 
ahould be taken up into hia father^ a chariot,^ Gaudeo tevalire, or gaw 
deo quod valeaa, **I am glad that you are toell" But though, in a few 
cases, the one expression may be changed for the other, usage has given 
so decided a preference in some cases to the one form, and in others to the 
other, that such change would be improper ; thus, 

§ 145 SYNTAX — ^MOODS. 281 

let. When the dependent clause expresses purpow itr deiign, or wlien 
** that " is equiyalent to ** tn order that" ** «o that, ut with the subjunotiTe is 
used. 627-1. 2d. 

2d. After yerbs of endeavoring, aiming^ aeeompliehing, sndi ts faeio, 
^fie':o^ periUsio, <&c., the subjunctive with ut is always used. Hence arises 
the -sse ot fadre tU, instead of the indicative, to denote a fiust ; thu8» fie it 
ut dimittiret mitites, is equivalent to dUnltit milUe$. 

Sd. Verbs signifying to requett, demand, admoniah, adviae, eammieeian 
fineourage, command, and the like, usually take the subjunctive with uii 
which may generally be rendered as the iimnitiTe ; tj^pratcipit ut Irem 
" He commanded me to go!* 

Note. — In narrative, dependent clauses, expressing obliquely the wisl^ 
command, or message of another, whether the verb be in tne subjunctive 
with ut or n«, or in the infinitive with a subject, or both in connection, 
often depend x^^ x word denoting to say, eaying, understood, or implied in 
the leading verb; as, Ad Boeehvm nuntios mittit (gui dieirent ut) 
guamprimum eopiae addueihret ; prceliifaciundi tempua adene, Sall. Jug, 
97. Verba f&cit (die en a) §e arma eepiaae. Id. 102L 

4th. Ut with the subjunctive follows verbs signifying to happen, to oeeur^ 
«bc., as,^, ineldit, oecurrit, contingit ; eat, reatat, aupireat, Ae, 627-1. 4thi 

6th. Verbs signifying toillingneaa, unvAllingneaa, permiaaion, neeeaaitg, 
Ae^ commonly take the accusative with the infinitive. Also, generally, 
verbs denoting aeeing, hearing, knowing, feding, thinking, aaying, Ac, but 
sometimes they take the subjunctive. 

6th. When the dependent clause expresses, not a thought or conceptioQ 
only, but a fiict, the verb is put in the indicatire or subjunctive with quod; 
as. Inter eauaaa malGrum noatrbrum eat quod vivimua ad exempla, 

7th. After verbs denoting a feeling of pain or pleasure, and the out- 
ward expression of those feelings, such as, gaudeo, deleetor, angor, doleo, 
and the like, quod, "' that,'' in the sense of '' because," with the indicative or 
subjunctive is used, or the accusative with the infinitive; as, Quod 
apirdtia (or voa apirdre) indignantur. Whether the indicative or sub- 
junctive is to be used, depends on whether the proposition expresses a 
fact, or only a conception of the mind. 

678. — Oba. 6. After such verbs as exiafCmo, pUto, aplro, affirmo, aua^ 
pXcor, <&c., the place of the future infinitive is elegantly suppbed hj fire^ 
or futurum eaae, followed by ut with the subjunctive ; as, tfunquam pvf 
tdvi f5re ut aupplex ad te venlrem ; for [me) ventfLrum eaae. 

This construction is necessary when the verb Has no supine, and conse- 
quently no future infinitive active. See 179-9. FUre is sometimes used 
with the perfect participle, to denote a future action in the passive voice ; 
as. Quod vidSret nomine pOcia belluminvo latum fd re, 

679. — Oba. 7. The verb on which the infinitive depends is somettmes 
omitted, especially in interrogations, or exclamations, expressive of indig- 
nation; as, Mene iwepto deaiatire nee poaae, Ao, Viao. In such 
eases, some such expression as credibile eat is understood. 

680. — Bxe. The hietorical infinitive has its subject in the nominative 
(SIO and 669} ; as, Foma prceddra eaae, " Ilia fame was illustrious.'' Sall. 

2ftS STJXTAJL—FAXnOrBhES. § 146 


[For tiM tMMt, Mid the um of the pertioiplee in certuu conneeticob, 

■ee g 49.] 

681. — ^RxTLE LIX. Participles, like adjectives, 
agree with their substanlives in gender, number, 
and case; as, 

ffUmo cdrefu fraudBf A man wanting guile. 

Pax tanium amOttif Peace so greatly loved. 

682. — RxM. Participles together with gemnde and sapines being parte 
of the verb, goyero the case of their own verbs ; so that no separate rule for 
the government of OMes by these, is at all necessary. 


683. — Obi.!, TTie verbs <fo, reddOf vdlOy c&ro, faeio, kabeOj comperia, 
mth the perfeot partieiple, form a periphrasis similar to the compound 
tenses in Knglish, and other modem li^piages; thus, Habeo eampertum, 
tat €ompiri, ** I have found f Mistam iratn fadet, for irom mitteiy <Seo. 

684. — Obt. 2. The perfect passive participle is often used, to supply 
the place of a verbal noun, when such a noun is wanting, or but seldom 
used; as, Ha litira reeitatm magnum luehtm f»inint, ''The read- 
ing of tkit UtUr, (not "this letter being read") caused great mourmng." 
So, Ct^imn Tkrwitiim, ** The taking of Tarentum ;" rto^tus HannXJbai, ''the 
receptioo of HannibaL^ Ah yrh9 con/dUa^ " from the Irailding of the city." 

685. — 06«. 8. Hie future active participle is frequently used, to de- 
note the purpose or design of an action, and is in such case rendered f o, in 
iyrder to; as, adJbwm Hammifnem perpit eonmltHrut de otigine gud^ 
" he goes to Jupiter Ammon to (or in xnrdeif to) eonmdt him about hia 
origin." So ako the present ; as, p l/tffi « fteniam vinit. 

686. — Obs. 4. The future participle in dus^ also, denotes a purpose, 
when joined with verbs sigui^ing to givey to deliver, to agree for, to Aatie, 
to receive, to undertake^ A/fi.\ as, Tittamentum tibi trddit legendufnf**he 
delivers his will to you to be readf So, Am atra d^t habendum, 

687. — 0b9. 6. The participle in dtu, generally implies the idea of pro- 
prietg, neceanty, ot obligation. This is almost always the case when it 
agrees with the subject of a sentence; as^ JDelenda est CartkOgOy'^Chr' 
thage must be destroged!* Sometimes, also, when it agrees with words not 
in me sub^'ect; as, Facta narrObas ditsimulanda tibi, "You were 
relating (things which) ought to have been concealed by you." Ihe doer 
in sueh eonstruotiooB, when espressed, must be in the dativa 681. 

Note. — In some eases, the particifde in due, is used as a present parti- 
ciple passive. 182, Note 8. 

688. — Obe. 8. Participles are often used instead of a dependent clause 
to express some condition or explanatory circumstance usually introduced 
in English, by a rehitive pronoun, or the particles as, when, aihomgh, tinee 


mkiley and the like ; aa^ CcBtar kostea in fUgam eonjeeiot permeOtua ewi, 
" OsBsar pursued the enemy who had been put to Jliffht" Ouvio ad fdcmn 
udentiy ^ Tu Ourius aa he %oaa sitting by the fire" Dionynutf Syraeueis 
ex^pnleuSf Corinthi puiroe docebat^ ** Dionyaiua^ vhen he waa expeUed from 
Syraieuse," (be. 

689. — Obi. 7 A iMirticiple is joined with another verb, and in the 
same case with il.3 subject, for the two following purposes, viz. : 

1st. It is used simply to connect an accompanying with the main action, 
whether simultaneous or antecedent in the same subjeet. Thus used^ the par- 
ticiple and verb may be rendered as two yerbe connected by a conjunction; 
as, venit ad me clamitan8y**hQ came to me and cried oui^hty crying out^ 
Ccesar hostea aggreaaua fugdvit, "Cffisar attacked and defeated the 

2d. Sometimes, as in Greek, it is used to connect an accompanying with 
the main action, in the same subject, as the cause, manner, or means of 
effectin£f it ; as, hoc fa eiena vlvam melius, ** by doing this I will live 
better. Hon. So used, it is equivalent to tiie ablative Gerund. 

When a participle does not refer to some leading subject in the propo- 
sition, but to a new subject introduced, and not depending on any \ford in 
the sentence, the participle is put with that new subject, in what is called— 


690. — ^RuLE LX. A substantive with a pai;tici- 
ple, whose case depends on no other word, is pnt 
m the ablative absolute ; as, 

jffx7^^..*.^4.^ • * * 1 \ The Mtfi rmntf, or vshiU tht sum 
Bsle ortente fugxv^tenebr<B,}^^^^^i^^^^^^ 

691. — EXPLANATION.— This Bule properly affects the substantive 
only, with which the participle then agrees by fiule UX 

692. — Obs, 8. This construction is much more frequent in latin, than 
in other languages, partly, because there is no perfect participle in the 
utftive voice. When, therefore, in connection with an active or deponent 
verb, a past act of its subject is to be expressed by the participle, the per- 
fect participle passive must be used ; and hence, the object of tne act must 
be introduced as a new subject, which, having no dependence on any word 
in the sentence, must, under the rule, be put m the ablative absolvie. Thu^ 
in English we say : OsBsar, having sent forward the cavalry, followed with 
%11 his forces, lliere being no perfect participle in Latin corresponding to 
"* having sent," which would agree witii Cmsar, in the nominative case, this 
clause must be changed into the passive form ; thus, Cauar, e quit at u 
prcemissoy subsequebotur, <fee., '* literally, OaBsar, the cavalry being aetU be- 
fore, followed," Ac Hence, 

Rem. — When in this construction, the act expressed by the perfect parti- 
ciple passive, is an act of the subject of the leading verb, it is better to 
render it into English by the perfect participle active ; thus, Cassar, hi a 
did is, profectus est, ** Caesar having said ttiese things departed." 

693 — As the perfect participle of depaoent verbs haa aa active aig- 

284 SYNTAX. — GKEUNDS, § 147 

nifieatioii, it is not neeeisary to resort to such a change, in the use of themu 
Thus» Coiiar hax locUtua concilium dimUity ** CcBsaTf having said these 
things, dismissed the couuciL*' With »he participle of a verb, not depo- 
nent, the passive form and the abhitive would be used thus; Ccesar hin 
dictis, concilium dimUit, <bc^ ** Csesar, these things being said, dismissed 
the council" — The fii-st of these expressions, besides being more direct, is 
also much more definite ; for here, there is no doubt as to who said the 
things referred to, but in the second, it is left in doubt, whether the things 
referred to were spoken by Ccesar or by «oi/t« otiier. This doubt can be 
removed pnly by the context, or by express mention of the doer, which is 
not often done. In the following sentence, the two forms are combined : 
Caesar omnium rem. Otis iquis , cohortatus suos prodiwm comm.i' 
9U. — SOf agros Remdrum depopuldti^ omnibus vlcis cedificiis- 
que i nee 71 sis. Gjes. 

Note. — A few instances occur in which this construction is used wh^i 
there is no change of subject, and where a different case would have ex- 
pressed the same thing ; thus, legio ex eastris VarroniSy adstante et 
tnspectante ipso, for adstantis et inspectantis ipsius, 

' 694. — Obs. 9. The ablative absolute, in the case of deponent, as well 
as of other verbs, is used to indicate the order and connection of events 
narrated, as in the above examples ; or to mark the time of action by refer- 
ence to that of another action ; as, Pythagdras, Ta rquinio 8 up erbo 
regnantey in Italiam venit, "* Py thagdras came into Italy in the reign of 
Tarq^Hn the Proud^ In all such cases, it is equivalent to the subjunctive 
with a connective word. Thus, his dictis, in the former example, is equi- 
Talent to quum hcec dixisset — Tarquinio Superbo regnante, to quum Tar- 
fuinius Super bus regndret; and so of others. 

695. — Obs, 10. The yerb nun having no present participle, two nouna^ 
or a noun and adjective, are used m the case absolute without a participle, 
which is supplied in Englii^ by-the word being ; thus, se duce, " he (being) 
leader ;" se consule, " he (being) consul," or " in his consulship ;" so, C, DuiL 
lio et Cn, Comelio AtML consulibus, 

696. — Obs. 11. Some word, phrase, or clause of a sentence, sometimes 
supplies the place of the substantive, and has a participle with it in the 
ablative; as, nondum comperto quam regiSnem hostes petta- 
sent; — audlto Barium appropinquare; — v&le dicto,6LG. 

697. — Obs. 12. Sometimes the noun is understood; aSyparto ^uod 
avSbas. Sometimes a plural substantive is joined with a singular participle • 
M, nobis prcBsente. For the construction of Gerundives, see next section. 


The Gerund is a verbal noun, in the singular number, governed in the 
oblique cases as other nouns, and having the same power of government as 

* Some Grammarians, who regard the (renxnd as a verbal noun, speak of 
it as siioh only in the oblique casets. They think that tlie nominative of the 
verbal is supplied by tiie inflniUve mood, and that which is called the nomi- 

§ 147 SYNTAX — GERUNDS. 285 

the Terb. As, therefore, the rules which apply to the o(»istruotion of douss 
and verba, apply to the gerimd, it is umiecessary to repeat taem here. 
All that is peculiar to the construction of the gerund, is oompriBed in the 
following Kules and Observations. 

699.— Rule LXI.— The verb Est with the ge- 
iTind for its subject, implies necessity, and governs ^ 
the dative of the doer ; as, 

Nom. Legendvm etl fittAt, I must read, lit reading is to me. 

Nom. Moriendum eat otnn\bu8y All must die, lit dying is to alL 
Aco. Bcio moriendum eue mihiy I know that I must die, lit that dying 

is tome. 

700. — EXI^'LANATION. The dative here is governed by ttt^ according 
to B. II (894.) In the first and second examples, the gerund in the nomina- 
tive is the subject of €8t^ which agrees with it by B. IV. (808.)^n the third .*^ 
example, the gerund is in the accusative, and the subject of ««m, by B. LVIIL 
(671.) The necessity implied in thi» construction la Btrouger than that ex- 
pressed by the participle in dua, the latter implying only that a thiug 18 to be 
done, or thould be done, — ^the former that it tnuei be done. See 214-9. ^'^ 

701. — Obs. 1. The dative of the doer in this construction is often un- 
derstood ; as, Orandum eat (t ibi)tU sit adna mens in corpdre sano, 

702. — Obs. 2. The gerund in di, of the genitive case, is 
governed by substantives or adjectives ; as, 

Tempus legendi. Time of reading,. 882. 

Cfupldue aieeendiy Desirous of learning, 849. 

703. — Obs. 3. The gerund in do^ of the dative case, is gov- 
erned by adjectives, signifying useAilness or fitness ; as, 

Charta uttlia eeribendo, Paper used for writing, 882. 

Sometimes it is governed by verbs; as, adeste eeribendo, Cia Ap' 
tat haben^o eneem. Virg. Is flnts cen sendofacttis est, 

704. — Obs, 4, The gerund in dum^ of the accusative case, 

native of the gerund, is really the neuter of the participle in d^iSy in a passive 
sense, joined with the verb est used impersonally. Thus, stiidenwum esi 
mihi, they think should be literally rendered ** it is to be studied by mc." 
Though this solution is plausible, and would seem to answer in many cases, 
there are otters in which we, at lea»t, cannot see how it could be applied. 
It canno*^ be applied unless the participle in due in aU cases has, or may nave, 
a passive sense ; but of Uiis there is no evidence, and facts are opposed to it, 
Tnns, it will hardly be admitted as a literal rendering of morienavm est om- 
w3>us{Xjo say " it is to be died by all," and it certainly cannot be so used in those 
examples in which it governs the same case that it does in its active sense ; 
thus, virum pace ndbis an bello esset vtendtim. Cic. Quum svo cuigtie 
jttaieio vtend/um sit. Indeed, the fact that gerunds, in all cases, do gov- 
ern the case of their own verb, seems to be opposed to their being considered 
M parts of the passive participle In due. 

286* SYHTAX. — GKRXTKDS. § 147 

when not the subject of the infinitiye, is governed by the pre- 
positionSy ad^ inter^ &c. ; as, 

Inter doeemdum. In time of teAohing. 

705. — Obs, 5. The gerund in do, of the ablative case, is gov- 
erned by the prepositions a, ah, de, e, ex, or in ; as, 

PwM a pteeando abtterrei, Ponuhment firightenB firom uomiig. 

Or, without a preposition, as the ablative of manner, or 

cause; as, 

Memoria exeolemdo tmgUwr^ Hie memory is improyed by exereising IL 
DefMau9 ntm amlnUtmdo, I am wearied with waUdng. 

706. — Obi. ft. The gerund, aa a verbal nomi, resembles the infinitiTeb 
and is often put for it ; aa, ^at tempua Ugendiy or l^ire. The gerund, 
howeyer, is never joined with an adjective, and is sometimes taken in a 
passive sense; as, Oum Tindiwn voearUur adimperandvm^^'*to re- 
ceite order$ ;" Urit v t dendo,--^'* by being seen," i e. dum viditur. 


707. — ^LXn. Gerunds governing the acctisative, 
are elegantly turned into gerundives in dus, which, 
with the sense of the gerund, instead of govern- 
ing, agree with their substantive in gender, num- 
ber, and case ; as. 

Gerund, Adpetendum pOeem, ) ^^ ^^;]^j^ ,,^3^ 

Gerundive, Ad petendam pOeem, ) ^ ^r^^*^ 

Gerund, A petendo pOcem, ) ,, -•««„» tmaaa. 

Gerundive, A petenddpOce, \ ^^^ ****^ P*"^ 

708. — EXPLANATION.— This rule applies only to the oblique casea^ 
In the first of these examples, the Gerund petendi is governed in the genitive 
by temptia according to Bale VI., 882, and then governs paatm in the accusa- 
tive by Bnle XX., 486. In the gerundive form, the genitive pdds is gov- 
erned by tempui, by Rule VI., 882, and the gerundive petenda agrees with it 
by Rule II., 268. In the gerund form, the (j^erund is governed, and then 
governs the noun. In the gerundive form, the mmn is governed, and then 
the gerundive agrees with it by R. II. In order to change from the gernnd 
to the gerundive, it is necessary only to change the accusative of the noun, 
into the case of the gerund, and then make the gerundive agree with it ; and 
^m the gerundive to the gerund, change the noun into the aoenaative, and 
the gerundive into the gerund, in the same case as before. 

The following are examples to be changed : 

Gin. CcnHlia urbia delendm ;^civium truddandOrwn ;— fiomlnit ItomMi 

§ 148 5T2TTAX— 6UPIKES. 287 

Day. Perpetieruh labihri idoneut ; — eapeHendm rmpubtfem kMlis ;-^mUuM 
muerias ferendo ; — ad miseriaa ferendoM ;<— onM firendo ajstiM. 

Aoa and As. Ad de/endendam Rdmam ; — ah oppugnando Capuam ;^-ad 
eoUocandfun ngna ; — in diripiendia cantria. 

709. — Oba. 7. Instead of the gerundive in the genitive plural, to a^ee 
with a noun in that case, the gerund in the genitive singular is often re- 
tained, probably for the sake of Euphony; as, Fuit exempt drum elir 
gendi pote8t€M.Qiix Facuita»agr6rum eondonandi; %y>i(^)eon- 
donandiy instead of eligendorum^ condonandOrum. Also, sometimes when 
the Doun is-singular and feminine ; aS) tf^' u < (fem.) videndi cupldtu, Txa. 

710. — Oba. 8. The gerunds of verbs, which do not govern the acco- 
sative, are never changed into the gerundive, except those of medeoTj utor^ 
abutoTyfruoTyfuiigorf and potior ; as, apes potiundi urbe, or potiuftdoe urbis : 
but we always say, Ouplaus aubveniendi tibi, never t u i. 

711. — Oba. 0. After eaae, /dre,itxe serund and the gerundive in the 
genitive (364), are used, to express tendency to a thing, or serving a cer- 
tain purpose ; as, Regium imperium initio conservandce libertdtiay atque 
augendcB r€ipubl%c€e fuirat. Ball., Cat VL, "The regal government at 
first had aerved the purpoae of preaerving liberty, and increasing the state," 
[Aiebant'jea prodendi imperii Romdnij tradendct HannibiUi vie- 
ioricB eaae, ** They said tiiat these things had a tendency to betray the Ro- 
man government, and to give the victory to HannibaL" Liv. (^um ani- 
madoertiaaetjUer^quediaaolvenddrum reHgiOnum eaae, **'WheDhehad 
peroeived ihaX most of them tended to deatroy religion." Lfv. '^ 


1. The Swpme m um. 

712. — :EuLE LXni. The supine in tt/m is put 
after a verb of motion ; as, 

Abiit deambiUatum, He hath gone to walk. 

So, Ihieire eohortea pretdotum, Liv. Nufne vSnia irrlaum dominion f 
Quod in rem tuam optimum factu arbUror, te id admonUum venio, Plaus. 

713. — Oba. 1. The supine in urn is elegantly joined with the verb eo, 
to express the sifipification of any verb more strongly ; as, it ae perdUum, 
the same with ia &git, or opiram dat^ ut ae perdaty *' he is bent on his own 
destruction.'' Tie. So, ut perdUvm eOtia'^ut perdOtia; ereptum mnty^ 
eriplunt. Salu This supine with Iriy taken impersonally, supplies the 
place of the future innnitive passive; as, an credsbaa illam a\ne tud 
opird iri deductum dSmumF 'Which maybe thus resolved; an credebaa 
%ri (i tCf or ab aliquo) deductum (i. e. ad deducendum) illam dS- 
mum. Tu. The supine here may be considered as a verbal Bubatantir« 
gOYerning the accusative, like the gerund. 


714. — Ob». 2. The supme in «m is put after other yerbs bendes those 
of motioo; as, diditfiliam nuptum; cantatum provoeSmtut. Tkr. JSs- 
•oeatua de/enautn patriam; divUit eopias hiematum. Nsp. 

715. — Ob8. 8. The meaiuDgof this supine may be expressed byseyeral 
other parts of the yerb; as, vlnit or a turn opem: or 1. Vinit dpem 
oranai cauadf or ^'« oranda. 2. V^Ut ad orandum dpem, or 
ad orandam Upem, 

2. The ^wpine in u. 

Y16. — ^RuLE LXIV. The supine in 'w is put after 
an adjective noun ; as, 

Fw^ tUetu, Easy to tell, or to be told. 


So, nihil dictu fadymj vitQguet heee limlna tangatf intra qum pvw 
Juv. JHffiiAlii rea 48i inveniu viru8 amieu$ I'^foM tat, or nifoM ut dictu ;^ 
iipui ut acUu. Oia 

717. — Obt, 4. The supine in u, being used in a passiye sense, hanfij 
ever goyerns any case. It is sometimes, especially in old writers, put 
after verbs of motion ; as, nunc obaondtu redeo^ — "from getting provir 
iiona.^ Plaut. Prlmnt cubltu turgat (villicus), postremua cub t turn 
taty ** let the overseer be the first to rise, and the last to go to bed.** Gavx. 

718. — Ob». 6. This supine maybe rendered by the infinitiye or gerund 
with the preposition ad; as, difficile cognltUf eognoeeif or ad cognoacendvtn ; 
ret facllia aa credendum, Cia 

719. — Obe. 6. The supines being nothing else but yerbal nouns of the 
fourth declension, used only in the accusative and ablative singular, are 
governed in these cases by prepositions understood ; — the supine in um,l3j 
the prepositi<Hi ad; and uie supine in ti, by the preposition tn. 


720. — ExjLE LXV. The conjunctions et^ ac^ atque^ 
nec^ neque^ avt^ vd^ and some others, couple simi- 
lar cases and moods ; as, 

HonHra patrem et matrem^ Honor father and mother. 
Nee ligit nee aer^bit. He neither reads nor writes. 

721. — EXPLANATION.— Words coupled by a conjunction under thia 
Kule, are in the same oonstraction, i. e. two nominatives coupled together ai«>i 
the subject of the same verb, or predicates of the same subject ; and nounn 
oonplod together in the oblique cases are governed by the same word, as in 
the first example. Verus thus coupled have the same subjeoc or nominallTa. 
•a in the second example. 


722. — Obs. 1. The copulative conjunctionB under this Rule are sacft 
S8 ety ae, atque^ etiam^ que ; the diBJunctives nee^ niqtte^ aut^ vel^ seu^ iUve^ 
v«, HivBy lieu ; also qiuimy prceierquam^ nisi, an^ nempe, qtutfnviSy needuntf 9cd, 
auteniy vSrum, and, m general, such connectives as do not imply a depend- 
ence of the folloXi^ing, on the preceding clause. 

723. — Obs. 2. These conjunctions connect not only words, but also 
clauses whose construction is the same, % e. whose subjects are in the same 
ease, and their verbs in the same mood ; as, conciduni venti, fugiuiitquB 


724. — Ob8.Z, Words in the same construction are sometimes in a dif 
ferent case : still they are connected by the copulative conjunctions ; thus^ 
fma et reipnblica interest Here, mea and reipubticiey though in different 
cases, are in the same construction by R. XVIIL (416). So, ^onstuU asm 
St plfkriSy Rule XLIV. (581). Vtr magni ingenii^ summdque incbistiid^ 
Rule VIL (389), <&c. The subjunctive being often used for the imperative 
is sometimes coupled with it ; as, discs nee invideM, 

725. — Obs, 4. The indicative and subjunctive maybe ocnmected in thia 
manner, if the latter does not depend on the former. 

726. — Obs, 5. When two words coupled together have each a conjunc- 
tion, such as, ety auf, vel, Ave, nee, <&&, without being connected with a pre- 
ceding word, the first et is rendered both or likewise; the first aut or vel^ 
by either; the first sive, by whether; and the first nee or niqvte, by neither. 
So, also, turn . . . ,twn, and eum, . . . ft^m, " not only . . . .but also"* or " both 
.... and;" and so of others ; as, nunc, . . .nunc; jam,, . . ./am, <&c In 
such oases, the conjunctive before the first wwd renders it more emphatic: 
twn .... ttmi often mean, " at one time, ... at another time." 

727. — Note, Affirmative and negative sentences are connected by con- 
junctions in pairs, as follows: 

Affirmative, Negative, 

et — et very common. tuque — neque, nee — nee^ 

et — quSy not unfrequently. neq^ie — nee, not unfrequently. 

que—ety connecting single words. nee — neque, seldom. 
que — qusy only in poe^ A Sall. 

Affirmative and negative, 

St — neque, nee, very frequent. 

neq^tSy nee — et, very frequent. 

necy neque — que, occasionally. 

728. — Obs. 6. After words expressing similarity or dissimilarity, ae 
and atque signify " as ;" and "than ; a8,/<^'« a c si me rdges, "you do as 
if you should ask me ;" — me cdlit cequh atque patr&nitm suum, " he 
shows me as much attention <w," Ac. ; — si a liter scrlbo a c sentioy *' if I 
write 'otherwise than I think.** 

729 — Obfi. *l. Conjunctions that do not imply doubt and contingency, 
are usually joined wititt the indicative mood ; those which do imply douot^ 
eontingency and dependence, are, for the most part, joined with the sub- 
junctive (628). 


290 SYNTAX. — ^FIGUJUBa § 160 


A FiouEX ifl a maimer of speakhig different from the regulai and gK" 
diiiaiy oonstniction, used for the Bake of beauty or force. 

730. — The figiures of Syntax, or, construction, may be reduced to four: 
JSllipM, Pleonaan^ Enall&gey and UyperhSiwi. Of these, the >£rs^, and 
meondy and third, respect the constituent parts of a sentence ; the fourth 
respects only the arrangement of words. 

731. — 1. Ellipsis, is the omission of one or more words 
neoessary to complete the sense ; as, 

Aiunt^firunty <bcL, sc, ham\ne%. Abirant hidui, se, iter, or UifUre. Quid 
multa f so, iHeam, Under this nuiy be comprehended, 

1st AsTNDBTOK, or the omission of a conjunction ; as> vini, vlcfi, vlei, . 
Deut opUmiLBf fn€ai^imus, sa, ef. 

2d. 2ieugma is the uniting of two nouns or infinitives to a yerb whi^ 
is applicable only to one of them ; as, pOcem an bdlum gfyrens, 
Qalu, where girent is applicable to helium only. In this way, 
nigo is sometimes used with two propositions, one of which is 
affirmative; as, Nigant Ccssdrem mansUrunif postulcUdque inter- 
poaUa esse ; L e.dicuntgue poatulcUa. 

8d. Syllepeis is when an adjective or a verb, belonging to two or more 
nouns of different genders, persons, or numbers, agi'ees with one 
rather than another. See examples 266, 267. 

4th. Bymecdbche is the use of an accusative of the part affected instead 
of an ablative ; as, Expliri mentem niquit, 638. Vihg. 

732. — 2. Pleonasm, is using a greater number of words 
than is necessary, to express the meaning ; as, 

8ic Ore locUta est, **thu8 she spoke with her mouth!* Vao^ Under this 
are included, 

1st. Polysyndeton^ or, a redundancy of conjunctions; as, und Eurtu 
que Notue que ruunt. Y ibg. 

2d. Hendi&dySy or the expression of an idea, by two nouns connected by 
a conjunction, instead of a noun limited by an adjective or genitive ; 
as, Pat iris libomua et awro, "We offer a ubation from cup* 
and from goldy" instead oipatiria aureis, ** from golden cups." 

Bd. PeriphraeiSf or a circuitous mode of expression ; as, ten^ri foetuB 
ovtum, " the tender young of the sheep," mstead of agni, " lambs." 

733. — 3. Enallage, is a change of words, or a change of 
one gender, number, case, person, tense, mood, or voice, of 
the same word, for another. It includes, 

1st Antimeria, or the using of one part of speech for another; as, not- 
tnim vivire, for nostra vUa; eonjugium videbit, for con- 
JUgemf Ae, 

2d. HeterdeiSy or the using of one form of a noun, pronoun, or verb, for 
another \A%Jiomanu8 prcelio victor, for Romdni victSres, 2Vun* 



Zd, AnHpt^tiSt or tbe vaiog of one case for another ; as> eui nunc eog- 
nfitnen IHklo^ for lolif, (261. and 488). Vibo. Uxor invicti JihtU 
«M0 ntscU, for ie eate ux^etn. Hob. See 675. 

4th. SynisiSf or Synthiaiw^ ia adapting the oonstrQotion to the aense ol a 
-woixl, rather than to its gender or number ; aa, Coneurmts popUli 
mirantium; — Parainerucemacti; — aeilus ^«t, Ac 278 
and 292. 

0th. An<icoluihon, or a departure in the end of a sentence, from the 
eonstruction with which it oonmienced. Thus, Nam not omne%^ 

quibus eat alicunde aliguit objectua l&bot lucro est. Here 

the writer began as if he intended to say Ivcro habimuSy and ended 
as if he had said nobis omnlbtu. As it is, the nominative nos has 
no verb, and esty which, in such sentences, requires the dative of a 
person, is without it 

734.-4. HrpERBATON, is a transgression of the usual order of 
words or clauses. It includes, 

1st Aruutri^hey or an inrersion of the order of two words; as TVaiutra 
per et remos, for per transtra, Ac; — Collo ddre brachia eircuniy for 
circumddref <bc. 

2d. Hyetiron protirany or reversing the natural order of the sense ; as, 
JfariOmur et in media arma ruomus, Vibo. VUlet atque vivii 

Sd HypalldgSy or an interchange of oonstruetionB ; as. In niva feri avit- 
mtu mutatas dicire formae corpbra ; for eorpbra m%U(Ua in ndv(U 
formas, Ddre clastffJbue AustroSy for ddre classes Austris. 

4th. TnusiSy or separating the parts of a compound word ; as, Septem 
tulffeeta tridni gens, for BeptentriCni, Vibo. Qimb tne eungve vheanl 
terrce, for quteeunguey Ao. 

5th. Parenthesisy or the insertion of a word or clause in a sentence 
which interrupts the natural connection ; as, Titfre, dum redeo, 
(brivis est via) pasce capellas, Vibo. 

To these may be added, 

735. — Archaism, which in Syntax means the use of ancient 
forms of eonstruction ; as, Oph-am abufitur, for op^A, Teb. 
Quid dbi hanc etiraiio est rem ? 

736. — Hellenism, or the use of Greek constructions ; as, 
jUstinelo irwrum^ for iris, Hor. Tempus desisUh'e pugnce^ for 
puffnd, ViRa. 


737. — In all languages, the arrangement of words in a sentence is dif- 
ftrent ; and all, it is probable, consider the order of arrangement in their 
own language tho. most natural, being that to which they have themselves 
been most accustomed. In a language like the English, however, the 
words of which have but few changes of form or temunation, much more 


depmdt od Amv pootioD in a Mntenee than in tlioM languagtcc wludi are 
ame« bj the efaangea of form only, to indicate the relation d words to 
€adi other, however tbey may be arranged. Thoa, when we aay in Eng- 
liahy " Alexander conquered Dariu»^ if we change the order of tne wordi% 
we neceasarily change the meaning aluo ; aa, Darius eomqtaered Alexander. 
But whether we tay in lAtin, Alexander vieii Dariwn, or Darium vteit 
Alexander^ or Alexander Dariwn vleil, or Darium Alexander vict/, or place 
these worda in any other puwible order of arrangement, the meaning is 
the same, and cannot be mistaken ; beeaoBe it depends, not on the potsitioH. 
but on the form of the words, lliis gave the Latin writer much more 
scope to arrsnge his wcHrds in that order which would best promote th« 
strength or euphony of the sentence, without endangering its perspicuity. 
Still, even in Latin, custom has establis&ed a certain order of arrangement 
which is considered the best And, though no certain rules can be given 
on this subject, which are applicable to every instance, the following 
genend principles and Rules may be notioed. 

Y38. — Oener(d' pHriciplea of Latin ArrangemeifU. 

1. Hie word governed is placed before the word which 
governs it. 

2. The word agreeing is placed after the word with which 
it agrees. More particularly, 

739. — Rule I. The subject is generally put before the verb ; 
as, Deva mundum guhemai, 

Mae, 1. When the subject is closely connected with a dause following 
the verb, it is placed after the verb ; as, iraiU mmnMno duo itiiUra, qui- 
buiy Ac 

JSxe. 2. When the subject is emphatic, it oiuaQy foUows the verb and 
concludes the soitence. 

740. — Bute II. The adjective or participle most commonly 
follows the substantive with which it agrees. . 

With few exceptions, however, the place of the adjective or 
participle is entirely arbitrary. The following usages naay 
De noticed: 

1st Ths adjectives, prfmuiy medttttj tJttmiu^ extrimus, mtmmuB^ infbmu, 
ImuSj tuprSmftSj reUquut^ ecetimSy denoting Ihe first part, the mid- 
dle part, ^., are generally put before the substantive ; as, «ummui 
mon»; extrSmo librOf *'the top of the mountain," <bc 

2(L When the substantive governs another in the genitive, ti^ adjective 
generally precedes hoih\ as. Duo Platdnia preefpta./^-'' 

8d. When the substantive is Governed by a preposition, the adjective is 
fi'equently put before tibe substantive ; as, ITdc in gueatidne ; mag- 
nd in parte. 

tth. The adjective is often put before the substantive f<»r the sake of 


ftth. JSf tile, hicy iste, are generallj placed before the BubBtaDtiTe» find, if 
used substantively, are placed before the participle. 

741. — Rule III. The relative is commonly placed after, and 
as near as possible to its antecedent. 

Oba, 1. The relative is commonly the first word of its own elatise, and 
when it stands for et ille, et hie, et t8, or for these proDouns without el, (29ft, 
lit,) it is always first Sometimes, howeyer, the relatiTe and its ehuiMb 
precede the antecedent and its dause. 

"'42. — JRule IV, The governing word is generallj placed 
after the word governed ; as, Carihaginienaium dux — laudia 
avldu^ — JRomanOrum ditis^mua — hostem Jiidit, <Sec. Hence, 

Ob8. 2. The finite verb is oomm<«ly the last in its own danse. To tfais^ 
however, there are many exceptions. 

743. — Rule V. Adverbs are generally introduced before the 
word which they are intended to modify ; as, Leviter cegro- 
taniesy leniter cUrant. Cio, 

744. — Rule VI. Conjunctions generally introduce the clause 
to which they belong ; as, at m <idree ; — sbd profecto in amni re 
foTtuna domindtur. 

Exe, I. The enclitics ^ue, w, ne, are ahrays amexed— tiie two first, to 
the latter of the two words which they serve to connect ; as, alhu aterwe, 
Oia B&ni mallqtie ;•— and the last, to the sul:jeet which tiie question 
chiefly regards; thus, loquamef ''shall I speak T egHne Idgitarf " shall / 
speak r 

Exe, 2. The conjunctions autem, Snim, viro, quXique, quXdem, are always 
placed .after the introductory word of the clause, generally in the second 
place, and sometimes in the uiird ; etiam, igttur, and tUmen^ more frequently 
in the second and the third place than in the first 

745. — Rule VII. Words connected in sense, should be as 
close as possible to each other, and the words of one dause 
should never be mixed with those of another. 

746. — Rule VIII. Circumstances, viz : the cmtse, — the man- 
»cr,T— the inetrumenty — ^the Hmey — itie place^ dec, Are put before 
the predicate ; as, 

Stan ferro oeadi;-^^fo U ob egregiam virtiUem eemper ean4»L 

747. — Rule IX. The proper name should precede the nanne 
of rank or profession ; as, Ciciro ordtor, 

74S,^^Rule X. The vocative should either introduce the 
sentence, or be placed among the first words; as, Credo poe^ 

749. — Rule XL When there is an antithesis, the words 
chiefly opposed to each other, should be as close together as 
possible; as, Appitie pecuniamy virfAtem abficie. 


750. — Rule XIL Dependent clauses, as well as single words*, 
are placed before the principal finite verb, upon which they 
chiefly depend. 

751. — Bute XIIL As a general rule, where the case will ad- 
mit, it is proper to proceed from shorter to longer words, and 
from shorter to longer clauses and members of a sentence, as 
we advance towards the dose. 

Hence, it will follow, that a sentence should not conclude 
with a monosyllable, when it can be avoided. 

BEMABK. — ^ThoBe are to bo oonsidered only as general Bnles, subject to 
many modificatious and exceptions, according to the taste of different writers. 
However, as a general guide, with dose attention to classical usage and 
euphony, they may be of use to enable the student to avoid errors on this 


A sentenee is suoh an assemblage of words as makes ocmplete aeiiBe , 
M, Admo marUt/U ett, " man is mortal" 

All sentences are either ntnpU or compound. 

A aimpU sentence contains only a single affirmation ; as, vita brhns est. 

A compound sentenee oonsiets of two or more simple sentences con- 
nected together ; as, 6m dot, qui dUo dot. 


A simple sentenee or ]»oposition oonsists of two parts— the tul^fcet Kod 
the predicate. 

The tut^eet is that of which aomethiQg is affirmed. 

The predicate is that which is affirmed of the subject 

The subject is commonly a noun or pronoun, but may be anything, how- 
ever expressed, about which we can speak or think. 

The predicate properly consists of two parts,— =tbe attribute affirmed 
of liie subject, and the copula^ by which the affirmation is made ; thus, 
in the sentence, vt/a hri)ie est, the subject is fflta; the predicate is 
brhfia eet^ of which brMe is the attribute^ and estihe copuia. In most 
eases, the attribute and copula are expressed by one word ; as, iguus 
eurritf ** the horse runs***— tquus current est, " the horse is running.** 

The name of a person or thing addressed forms no part of a sentence. 

The predicate may be a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a preposition 
with its case, an adverb, a participle, an infinitive mood, or clause of a 
sentence, as an attribute, connected with the subject by a substantive verb 
as a copula ; or it may be a verb which includes in itself both attribute 
and copula, and is therefore called an attributive verb. 



§ 152 SYNTAX. — ^ANALYSIS. 296 


Hie subject of a propositioD is either grammatical or logical, 

I. The grammatical subjeet is the person or thing spoken o^ wUifnUed 
by other words. 

The logical subject is the person or thing spoken o^ together with all 
the words or phrases by which it is limit^ or defined ; uiusi in the sen- 
tence, vir 6dniM tut rimUem quanit, the grammatical subject is vir; the 
logical, vir bUntu, Again : ^^^^""^ 

£L The subject of a proposition may be either timpU or compound. 

A simple subject consists of one subject of thought, either unlimited, as 
the grammatical, or limited, as the logical subject 

A compound subject consists of two or more simple subjects, to which 
bel<xigs but one predicate ; as, Romiilut it Bimut fratrea irant. 


A grammatical subject may be modified, limited, or described in yarions 
ways ; as,— 

1. By a noun in apposition ; as, Oidro ordto rfoKhu C8t_ conmiL v 

2. By a noun in the genitive ; as, Ira Dei lenta est, J 

8. By an adjunct ; aa^De victorid dBs&rit foma per/ertur, v 

4. By an adjective word, 1. e. an adiective, adjective pronoun, or partici- 
i pie ; as, JustiUd gaudmt virt b6n t.— ^ w « s culque irat Idcus definl' 

tus. — Vox mis 9a nAHt revertL ^ 

6. By a relative kad its clause; as, Vir sUpit^ qui pauea loquitur. 

Each grammatical subject ma^r have several modifications; and if it 
has none, the granlmatical and logical subject are the same. 


. Modifying, or limiting words, may themselves be modified. 

1. A noun modifying another may itself be modified in all the ways in 

which a noun, as a grammatical subject, is modified. 

2. An adjective qualifying a noun may itself be modified — 

1st By an adjunct; as, campi ad prmlium hUni: liber a </#- 

2d. By a noun ; as. Major p ietdte: — csgerpeMus, 

Sd. By an infinitive mood or clause of a sentence, a gerund, or a 
supine; as, fftmo dignus eantdri — digtius qui impg- 
ret — dignus utflgat p&lam in partite, — Oharta 
uVdie 8 crib en do, — Monsirum mirabue dietu, 

4th. By an adverb; as, UUmo longe dissim^is;-^fa€%le prin^ 

8. An adverb inay be modified — 

let By another adverb; as, multSmagis, 

2d By a substantive in an oblique case ; as, ecmtenttnter natUrm 
optlme omnium; proxime eastris 

296 SYNTAX- — ^ANALYSIS. . § 152 

757. — Toe sobjeet of t propositioQ maj' be an lofimliTe mooci, with oi 
witiiout a ftubject;or a clause uf a seiifeDce; as> hufndntan est err are 
Ineerta pro certia habire tiultUHmum e*t. Nunc dpu$ est^ t€ 
«»lm0 palire, Rdlquum est, ut offieiit ceriimut inter no9 


L Tlie Predicate, like the subject, is either grammatioal or logieaL 

The gframmeUical predicate ooDsiste of the attribute and copula, noL 
modified by other words. 

The logical predicate is the grumDatical, with all the words or phrases 
that modifv it; thus, vtr 6dnM4 «ttt eimllem yua;rt<; the grammatioAl 
predicate is qucerit ; the logical, quarit einCUem tui. 

When the grammatical predicate has no modifyii^ terms> the l<^cal 
and grammatical are the same. 

XL The predicate, like the subject, is either sunple or eompound. 

A eimple predicate affirms but one thing of its subject ; as, vita brivis 
eet; ignU urit. 

A compound predicate consists of two or more simple predicates affirmed 
of one subject ; as, Ccetar vinit, vldit^'vleiL ProtfUaa laudatuf 
•t alget, 


The grammatical predicate maj be modified or limited in different waya. 
L When the attribute in the predicate is a noun, it is modified — 

1. By a noun or pronoun limiting or describing the attribute ; as, fiHiiof 
eat prcemium virtUtie. Invidia eet aupplidnan auum. 

2. By an adjeetiye or participle limiting Ihe attribute ; as, Wa fUror 
trivia eat. 

IL When the grammatical predicate ii an attributive verb, it is modi- 
fied — 

1. B|y a noun or pronoun as its object; as, rea amleoa iiwkUt Laua 
debetur vtrtuti. Sopiena impirat cupiditattbua. Venter 
edret auribua, 

3. By an adverb; as, bia dot qui cXto dot; bine aeribit 

8. By an adjunct; as, vinit in urbem; ex urbe v9mL 

i. By an infinitive; as, eypio diaeire, 

6. By a dependent clause; aj^poHa dieit Iram eaae brivem inaa- 
ntam. — OonatituU ut ludi fiirenU 

760. — Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and other words modifying the 
predicate, may themselves be modified, as similar words are when modi- 
lying the subject 

Infinitives and participles modifying the predicate, mav themselves be 
modified in all respects, as the attnbutive verb is modifieo. 

761. — A Compound sentence ooosistB of two or more simple sentences 

I 162 SYNTAX. — ^AKALYSIS. 207 

or propoftitioDs cooxieeUd tog^Hhw, The proponitiooi vhieb mtk« up a 
eompound Bentence, ar« called members or clauses, 

762. — The propositioDS or clauses of a compound sentence, are either 
independent or aepeadeot ; in other words, eoihrdititUe, or subordifiale, 

Jin independent clause is one that makes complete sense by itselt 

A dependent clause is one that makes complete sense only in eomiectioii 
with another clause. 

The clause on which another depends, is called the leading clause ; its 
subject is the leading subject ; and its predicate, the leading predicate. 

763.-<*Glause8 of the same kind, whether independent or dependent^ 
are connected by. such conjunetioos as «t, Of^, aiq%tet nee, nique^ out, vel, A/o. 

764, — Dependent clauses having finite verba, are connected with ti»eir 
leading clauses in three different ways. 

1. By a relative; as, vir s&pit, qui pauea loquitur, 

2. By a conjunction ; as, loquOees, s i sapiat, vltet, 

8. By an adverb; tv^ubi quid d&tur oUi, Ulfjdo ehariis; nfgHbat cvr 
unquam fugisset. 

765. — A subordinate clause, consisting of an infinitive with its sub- 
jeet» is joined to a leading clause without a eonoectittg word ; as, gmideo 
te valire, 


766. — A compound sentence is sometimes converted into a simple one, 
by rejecting the connective, and changing the verb of the dependent clause 
into a participle. A simple sentence thus formed is called an abridged 
proposition ; as, hello confHto diseessit, for quvm hdlvm eonfeetum esset, 
discessit Casar, hesc locutus, pro/ectus est, for quum C^tsar ?icBe loeQius 
essetf pro/ectus est, 


1. VUa brhfis est 

This is a simple sentence, of which 

The logical subject, and also the grammatical, is vita. 

Ilie logical predicate, and also the grammatical, is brivis est, in whieh 
brivis is the attribute, and est the copula. 

2. jLabuntur anni. 

This is a simple sentence, of which 

The logical subject, and also the grammatical, is anni. 

The logical predicate, and also tjiie grammatical, is Icdmntur, an attriba 
tive verb including both the attribute and copula. 

8. Vsrum dicus in virtitte potfUum mi. 

This is a sunple sentence, of which 
The logical subject is vSrum dScus. 
Tht Iqgxcal predicate is, in vittnte po^iUum e§t. 


298 SYKTAX.— ANALYSIS. § 152 

Hm gnunmatiml ra> Jeet is Jieui, qualified hy the adjeetiTe 

The granim&tieal predicate is podtum est, modified bj the adjimot in 

4. Ronwlui si RtmusfnUres iramt 

Thia ifl a simple sentence, haying a compound subject 

The loffieal subject is RonwUus st Remus, compound, conststii:^ of t^o 
subjects ooonected hj et. 

The logical predicate isfratrss iratU. 

The grammatical subject and predicate are the same as the logical 

6. ProtfUas laudator et eUgsL 

This is a simple sentence with a compound predicate. ^ 

The logical subject is probHtas, 

The logical predicate is lattdatur st alget, compound, the parts of which 
are connected by et. 

The grammatical subject and predicate are the same as the logical 

6. Video mdiOra probOgve; deteriSra siquor. 

This is a compound sentence, consisting of two independent or coords 
nate clauses in juxtaposition. 

The first clause is a simple proposition with a compound predicate, of 

The logical subject is igo^ understood. 

The logical predicate is video meliSra probdque. *-^ 

The grammatical subject is the same as the logicaL 

The grammatical predicate is video prdbo que^ compound, consisting of 
two predicates connected bj que^ both modified b^ their object^ ne- 
gotick, understood, and that qualified by the adjecUve meHdra, 

The second clause, deteridra siquor, is a simple proposition, of which 

The logical subject is igo, understood. 

The logical predicate is deteriOra siqitor. 

The grammatical subject is the same as the logicaL 

The fframmatieal predicate is siquor, modified by its object, negotia, un- 
derstood, qualified by the adjectiye, deterUfrti, ., 

% QucB in terrd glgnuntur, ad Hsum hovrXnis omnia creantur. 

This is a compound sentence, consisting of one leading, and one da 
pendent clause, connected by qwx. 

The leading clause, ad Usufn homXnis omnia creantur, is a simple se i- 
Cence, or proposition, of which 

The logical subject is omnia {negotia), restricted by the reUtire clause, 
q^im in terrd gignuntur. 

The logical predicate is, ad Htum hominis creantur. 

The grammatical subject is neaotia understood, qualified by the «c^ee> 
tiye ofnma, and restricted by the relative clause. ^ 

S 162 SYNTAX. — ANALYSIS. 299 

Hie grammatioal predicate Ib ereantur, modified by tiie adjunot ad iUwR, 
and tbat modified hj homXtUs. 

The dependent clause is gwB in terrd gignurUur, of which 

The logical subject is the ^uce, which, being a relatiTe, 0(»uiect8 tiie d#- 
pendent with the leading clause. (126.) 

.The logical predicate is, in terrd gignuntur. 

l!he grammatical subject is quoB^ the same as the logical 

The grammatioal predicate is gignuniwr^ modified by the acyunot «m 


768. — In Latin and English, the general arrangement of a sentence is 
the same, i e. the sentence commonly begins with the subject and ends 
with the predicate. But the order of the words in each of these parts is 
usually so different in Latin, from what it is in English, that one of the 
first (ufficulties a beginner has to encounter with a Latin sentence, is to 
know how *^ to take it in," or to arrange it in the order of the English. 
This is technically called conatrving or giving the order. To assist in thisi 
some adyantage may be found by carefully attending to the following 


769. — Dduotion 1. As all the other parts of a sentence depend upon the 
two leading parts, namely, the subject or NOMINATIVE, and the predicate 
or VERB ; the first thing to be done with every sentence, is to find out 
these. In order to this, 

J^rtt Look for the leading verb, which is always in the present, imper- 
fect, perfect, pluperfect, or future, of the indicative, or in the imperative 
mood,* and usually at or near the end of the sente&ce. 

Second Having found the verb, observe its number and person ; this 
will aid in finding its nominative, which is commonly a noun or pronoun 
in the same number and person with the verb, commonly before it, and 
near the beginning of the sentence, though not always so, 730, K, L with 

770. — DiBKonoN 2. Having thus found the nominative and verb, and 
ascertained their meaning, the sentence may be resolved firom the latin 
into the English order, as follows : 

1st. Take the Vocative, Exciting, Introductory, or connecting worda, if 
there are any. 


8d. Words limiting or explaining it, L e. words agreeing Vith it, or gov- 
erned by it, or by one another, where they are found, till you come to the 

4th. The.VERR 

6th. Words limiting or mflaining it, i e. words which modify it» are 
governed by it, or depend upon it 759, XL 

* All the other parts of the verb are generally used in subordinate danseB. 
So, also, is the plnperfect indicative ULoblique discourse, the leading verb 
is in the infinitive. <(58. 

800 SYNTAX— AN ALYSia § 16S 

6th. Supply everywhere the words underttood, 

tth. If the Bentence be compound, take the parts of it sereraUy as they 
depend one upoo another, proceeding with eacn of them as above. 

771.- DuLsonoN 8. In arranging the words lor translationi in Ihe nb- 
ordinate parts of a sentence, observe the following 


L An oblique ease^ or the infinitive mood, is put after the word liiat 
gov eras it 

£xe. The relative and interrogative are usually put before the govern 
isg word, unless that be a preposition ; if it is, then after it 

IL An adjective, if no other word depend upon it» or be eoupled wifl 
it, is put before its substantive ; but if another word depend upon il^ oi 
be governed by it, it is usually placed after it 

IIL The participle iM usually oonslrued aft^r its substantive, or th« 
word with which it agrees. 

IV. The relative and its elause should, if possible, come ixnmediately 
after the antecedent 

y. When a question is asked, the nominative oomes after the verb (in 
English, between the auxiliary and the verbj. Interrogative words, how- 
ever, sueh as qvi*, qudtus^ gtumtua, Uter^ d^ come before the verb. 

Yl After a transitive active v^rb, look for an accusative ; — and after a 
preposition, for an accusative or ablative ; and arrange the words accord- 

VU Words in apposition must be construed as near together as 
possible. • 

VIII. Adverbs, adverbial phrases, prepositions with their cases, eircum^ 
stances of time, place, cause, manner, instrument, Ac, should be placed, in 
«eneral, after the words which they modify. The case absolute oonum»ly 
Before them, and often first in the sentence. 

IX. The words of different clauses must not be mixed together, but 
each clause translated by itself, in its order, according to ite connection 
with, or dependenee upon, those to which it is related. 

X. Conjunctions are to be placed before the last of two words, or eenteneea 

YTS. — Examyplea of Jteaoluiion. 

First EtSmm onuies artes, quce ad humanit&tem pertfoent. 
h&bent quoddam commline vinciilum, et qu&si cognatiione quk 
dam inter se continentur. Cic. 

1. In looking over this sentence, according to Direetion first, we find the 
first leading verb to be hdbent^ which mu^t have a plural nominative. 
This leads us at once to arte*, as the nominative. The nominative and 
verb being thus found on which the other parts depend, then 

S. By direotion S, the general arrangement will 


1. Cknineetiye won}, eUnim, 

8. NOMINATIVE, artes, 

8. Words limitiDg and ezplaimqg^ cfimea, gum ad kumanUdiem 

4. The VERB, habetU, 

6. Words governed hj it, quoddmn ecmmllLne vine^um, 

. &. Tlien by the rules in dii'ection 8, the words in each of these diyislaoi, 
will be arranged thus : 1. Ethiim ; 2. and 8. cmnei artes, (R. IL) guce (B» 
UV pertinent ad humaniUUem^ (K VIII.) 4 hUbent, 6. quoddam eommfitM 
•Mcu/nri), (B. IL) 

Bj proceeding in the same manner with the next danse, the whole will 
Uten stand thus : 

EtSuim omnes artes, qusB pertinent ad humanit&tem, hilbent qnoddam 
cpmmOne vinculum, et eontinentur inter ae quXai qoftdiam eoguMidne ;— 
and may be translated as follows: 

" For all the arte which pertain to liberal knowledge (eiviMzation), have 
a certain common bond, and are connected together as if by a certain 
affinity between them." 

Hie pupil will jiom see, that in tlie first dause, or simple sentence, the 
grammatical subject is artea ; the logioal-^omn^A arteB mux ad humaniiOr 
iem pertinent — The grammatical predicate is h&bent ; the loffical — hSheni 
guoddam cammUne vinculum (768-1) ; and so with the next dause. 

In like manner proceed with every new simple sentence, or with every 
succeeding clause of a compound sentence. 



Having arranged and translated a sentence, the next thine is to parse 
it, in pbin^ whi<ubL, every word should be fully described by iu acciaents, 
traced to its primitive, if a derivative,---analysed into its parts if com- 
pound, and its concord or government pointed out The following scheme, 
with each part of speech, may be usenil to the beginner. 

1. Nome. — 1. Kind ; 2* Gender ; 8. Declension ; 4. Decline ; 6. Derived 
from (if derived) ; 6. It is found i n case ; 7. Number ; 8. is the nomi- 
native to , or the predicate nominative afte r " (if the nominative) ; 

is governed by — (if governed) ; 9. Rule. 

8. Adjsoitvx. — 1. Declension ; 2. Decline it ; 8. Compare it (if com- 
pared); 4. It is found in — case; 5. Number; 6. Qender; 7. iigrees with 
— ; 8. Rule. 

8. PaoNOUN. — 1. Kind (I e. personal, relative or adjective,) ; 2. Dedioe 
it; then — 

If personal, 9- Person; 4. found in— case; 6. Number; 6. Reason of 
tl^e case ; 7. Rule ; 8. stands for — 

If a Relative pronoun, 8. found in*-ease ; 4. Number ; 0. Reason of tb« 
case; 6. Rule; 7. Its antecedent; 8. Rule. 

802 ffTNTAX. — ^PABSIKG. § 158 

U W A4i®^^® proDonD ; then, 8. Kind (I e. poflsesflive, indefinite, de- 
moostratiTe, ifcc), 4. It is found in— <au«; 6. Number; 6. Gender; 
7. Agrees with ; 8. Rule. 

4. Vbul— 1. Kind, viz: TransitiTeb or Intransitiye. 2. ConJugatioD (or 
Irregular, if it is to) ; 8. Coniuffate it ; 4. Derived from (if derived) ; 6 
Compounded of (if oompounaed) ; 6. It Ib found in — ^tense ; 1. Mood ; 8 
Voice; 8. Person; 10. Number; 11. agrees with— as its subject; 12. Rule* 
18. gire a Synopeia 

8. AoTEEa — 1. Derired from (if derired) ; 2. Compounded of (if com- 
pounded); 8. Compared (if compared); 4. It modifie»^ — ; 6. Rule. 

6. PaxpoernoN. — 1. Gover ns case ; 2. Rule; 8. It points out tlie re- 
latioD between an d 

7. bfTKaiBonoN^ — 1. Kind; 2. Govems, or is put with the— case; 8 

8. CoMUNcnoN. — 1. Kind; 2. Connect s ; 8. Rule. 

775. — Moomiple of Pareing by the foregoing 


The sentence construed (778) may serve as an example of Etymological 
and Syntactical parsing, and for this purpose we arrange it in the order 
of translation, as above. 

- Etdnim omnes artes, qun pertinent ad humanitfttem, h£bent quoddiun 
commtkne vincCdum, et continentur inter se qu&i quftdam cognatidne.** 

MMum « Conjunction, casual, connecting the following sentence with the 
preceding, as containing the eatue or reason of what is there 

cmnes . . . An adjective, third declension, omntx, -is, -€, Ac ; not compared, 
because incapable of increase, — ^in the nominative, pluraC fem* 
inine, and agrees with artes, (Rule,) ^ An adjective agrees," <bo 

mies ... A noun (or substantive), feminine, third declension, ars* artis, 
Ac — ^in the nominative plural, — ^the nominative to, (or subject 

gwB .... Relative pronoun, — ^in the nominative plural, feminine, nomina- 
tive to perftnent, agrees with its antecedent artes, Rule III, and 
connects its clause with artes which it restricts. 

pertinent, Verb intransitive, second conjugation, pertinio, -ire, -m, perten- 
ttiin ; compounded of per, and tenio, — ^in the present indicative^ 
active, third person plimd, and agrees with qua. Rule IV, 
** A verb agrees,** Ac 

* As all nouns are common except proper nouns; to save time in parsing, 
tliis may always be taken for-grantea, mentioning, however, when the noun 
\» proper. For the same reason, the words " gender,^' " number," " mood," 
** tense/' may be omitted, these being sufficiently indicated by the words 
maeeulme^ einffular^ indicatives Ac 

§ 153 SYNTAX. — PAKSING. 803 

ad Prepoeition, goyerns the accusatiye, and shows the relation be- 
tween pertinerU and humanitdtem. 

huvnanitatemj Noun, feminine, third declension, ktmianitas^-'—atig^ Ac Ab> 
stract) derived from humOnus (8S-2), in the accusative, sing^ 
lar, governed by ad. Rule XLVIIL "Twenty-eight preposi- 
tions,'* <&c. 

kibent, , Verb transitive, second conjugation, kabeo, -ire^ -ui, -%^Kfn, — in 
the present indicative active, third person plural — and agrees 
with artes. Rule IV. " A verb agrees," <bc. Synopsis. 

guoddamf Indefinite adjective pronoun, quldamt qwjedam^ dcc^ compounded 
of quU and the syllable aam. — in the accusative, singular, 
neuter, and agrees with vinculum. Rule XL ''An adjec^v^ 
agrees," <&& 

frine&luait Noun, neuter, second declension, wncUlum, 4y Jkc — in the accu- 
sative singular, governed by h&bent. Rule XX. '* A transitive 
verb in the active voice," &o. 

et, A conjunction, copulative, connecting eofutinentur with hdibent^ 

which are consequently in the same construction (121), and 
have the same nominative, artea. 

contineniur, A verb transitive, second conjugation ; contifieo, continSre^ eon,' 
tinuij eonientum ; compounded of eon and teneo, — in the present 
indicative passive, third person plural, and agi'ees witn artet. 
Rule IV. " A verb agrees," «fec. Synopsis. 

inteTf ... A preposition which governs the accusative, and here points out 
the relation of reciprocity between the individuals represented 
by »e. 118-6. 

m; . . Substantive pronoun, third person, in the accusative plural, femi- 
nine, governed by inter. Rule XLVIIL " Twenty-eight pre- 
positions," &Q,y refers to arteSy the subject of continentur, and 
IS here taken reciprocally, 118-6. 

qu&ai^ . . An adverb of manner modifying continentur. Rule XLV. ** Ad- 
verbf are joined," Ac 

quddam, Indefinite adjective pronoun, quldamj qucedam, Ac,, compounded 
of quia and the syllable dam^ — in the ablative singmar, and 
agrees with cognaiiOne. Rule IL " An adjective agrees," Ac 

cognatiOne^ A noun, feminine, third declension, eognaiio^ -dfiia, Ac, from 
eogndtuSf " related by birth," (from con and naacory—in the ab- 
lative of manner y relating to continentur inter se. Rule XXXV. 
** The cause, manner," Ac 

Note, — In this way, by stating everything respecting a word in the 
shortest maimer, and without waiting to be questioned, parsing may be 
done rapidly, and much time saved ; and then such questions may be ptit 
as will draw attention to anything not included in the above scheme. By 
a little attention, on the part of the teacher, in leading the pupil to under- 
stand and apply the preceding rules for arranging a sentence in the order 
of translation, he will save much time and labor to himself afterwards ; , 
ahd teach the learner to form the important habit of reasoning out a diffi- 
eult sentence, and so, b}* repeated victories, to gain confidence in his own 

804 PBoaoDY.— QUANTmr. § 154-5 



776. — ^Prosody, in its oommon aooeptation, treats of tho 
qiMntit jT of syllables, and the construction of verses ; in other 
words, of Quantify and Metre. 

g 154. OF QUANTITY- 

777. — QuAWTiTT means the relative length of fime taken 
ap in pronouncing a syllable. 

1. In respect of quantity, every syllable is either lon^ or 
$korL When a syllable is sometimes long, and sometimes 
short, it is said to be common. 

2. The quantity of syllables is determined by certain es- 
tablished rules ; or, when no rule applies, — ^by the authority 
of the poets. 

3. The rules of quantity are either general or special; the 
former apply alike to all the syllables of a word ; the latter, 
to particular syllables. 


778. — Rule I. A vowel before another vowel is short ; as, 
dihis, aUuSy nihil. 

779. — EXPLANATION.— This nile implies to a vowel before anothw 
Towel or diphthong in a different syllable, whether it be in the same, or in 
a different word. The letter hj in versoi being considered as only a breathing, 
is wholly disregai^led ; henoe, sneh words as, niMl, mUU, d'ke^ Ao., eome nnder 
this rnle. A diphthong before a vowel does not oome under this role, ezoepf 
as in Bale V., Eee, 1. 

780. — ^mcEFriONs. 

1. ^ is long io dtfr, CaX, aulOU, terrOi, and the like. 

2. Jf is long after i in the genitive and dativ« of the fifth dedieiisiaD ; 

as, speeiH; not after t, it is oommon. 

B is long in iheitf PcmpH. 

§ 155 PBOSODY. — QUANTITY. 806 

8. / not before tfr, is loDg in ^; as, /lo, flebam. Also in iJl^bM^ the 

gemtive of almi, 

I is common in Diana (i>tJna or .DiAna), and genitiyes 'in iwt; but 
is sbort in altefius. Genitives in itM, in pI*0B6, haye I long. 

4. O is tiommon in Ohe, 

6, Greek words vary. As a general rule, when the vowel before another 
representA a long yowel or diphthong in the Greek word, it is long ; other 
wise it is short 

781. — Rule II. A vowel before two consonants, or a double 
consonant, is long by position ; as, 

drmaf folloy axis, gOza, mdjor. ^ 
782. — EXPLANATION.— When a final syllable is long by another r«!e, 
khis role does not apply ; the doable consonants under this rule are, the same 
eonsonant doubled; as, 22, U, rr, (fee, and the letters,^*, as, and «, equivalent 
to d{/f kif ds. 

*ISZ. — ^EZOEFnOlfS. 

1. A short yowel in the end of a word, before two eonaoDanta in the 
next, is common ; before «c, tp, »q, st, it is nsually long ; before a doable 
consonant, it is short 

2. A vowel before ^', is short in compounds ot jugum\ as, h^^igu^ 

784. — Rule III. A vowel before a mute and a liquid, is 
common ; as, volucris, or volucris, 

785. — EXPLANATION.— Under this rule, the vowel must be natnraUy 
short, and the mute must oome before the liquid, uid be in the same syllable 
with it But if the vowel is naturally long, it remains so ; ^as, matria (from 
H^rnp), Mlubritj Ac If the mute and the liquid are in different syllables, 
the vowel preceding is long by position ; as, adW, dbrw>» In .Latin words, 
the liquids are I and r only. In Greek Words, 2, r, m, ft. 

786. — Ohs, 1. This rule is properly an exception to Rule IL A short 
yowel in the end of a word, is seldom affected oy a mute and a liquid in 
the next • 

787. — Rule IV. A contracted syllable is always long ; as, 

NU, for nihil; t»I, for miki; alius, for aUius; U, for iit; tcdes, for n 
audes; nolo, for non vdlo; bfffoi, for b\jiiffa!; scilicet, for setre licet, ie, 

788. — ^RuLx V. A diphthong is long ; as, C^ar^ AUrum^ 

1. Pra, in composition, before a vowel, is eommonly sIm^ ; ai, fritHf 
prmustus, Ae^ 

2. Also, as is sometimes short in the end of a word, when the next be- 
gins with a yowel ; as, JnsUiA lonio, Ao» 

Note, — U, after q and g, does not form a diphthong with a yowel fei« 
lowing it, but has a force similar to the English 10; as, lingua^ fuiror, Aa, 
pronounced lingwa, hoeror, 8«-2. 

800 PBOflODT.— QUAKTmr. § 15^7 



790. — RuLK VI. Preterites of two syllables lengthen tlie 
former ; as, vini^ vidi, trfci. 

lifl.-^Bxc. 1. ThoM whidi «re short by Btile I; as, rUi, lUi, Ac 

Sac 2. Seren bare the first syllable short; yiz: Iffbi^ didi, fldi (fixxn 
JMq\ iM, siiH, tati, and tUli. 

792. — RuLB VIL Preterites which double the first syllable, 
shorten the first and second ; as, ciddi, tetigi^ pepUU, &c., from 
cddo, taugo^ pello. 

Sxc deidit from eado; and pepidij hare the second long. 

793. — Rule VIIL Supines of two syllables lengthen the 
former ; as, cdsum^ mdtum, visum, from cddo, mSveo, video, 

794. — JSxe, Ten hare the first syllable short; yix: {Htmn (from cUo), 
ddtum, Uym, tUumf^^guUumt riUym^ fiUtan, sd^um,— «tttiM, and Udttmu 

795. — RuLK IX. In polysyllables, a, 0, and «, are long be- 
fore turn, of the Supine ; as, ctm&ium, delitum, indutum. 

796. — Rule X. In polysyllables, i is short before tum^ of 
the Supine ; as, monltum, I is long in divisutn. 

797. — Eic But Supines in Uum, from preterites in Ivi, haye t long; 
aa» eupXvij eupUum ; atuilvi, audfttmif Ae. 

798. — Obs, RecenBh> has reeefulUum, from ui in the preterite, because 
originally from centioy cenAvi, JSo and its compounds nave i f^rt; bm, 
^Uunif reaUunif iie. Except amlnot om^Uum, fourth conjugation. 

799. — Rule XI. Participles in rus have u long in the penult; 
as, amaiUruSj &c. 

800.— § 157. INCREMENT OF NOUNS. 

1. A noun is said to increase, when any of its cases has more 
syllables than the nominative singular ; as, rex, rlgis ; sermo, 

2. With only few exceptioDS, nouns have but <me increiUB in the singular 
number: Uar, sufdlex^ and compounds of e&ptU ending in tx, have two; 
as, t AnM's, supttliefUiM, prtBdipUUt from prtseeps, 

8. The increment, or increasing syllable, to which the foUowin^ rules 
apply, is never the hist syllable, but the one preceding it, if ^ere is only 
one mcrement ; or the two preceding it, if there are twa 

4. Tlie rules for the increase of nouns, apply to adjectives and parti- 

6. Nouns of tfae^^rfA declension have no increment in the singular; 
those of the Jirti and Ji/th, haye none but what come under Rule I. {I^S), 

§ 167 PEosoBf .— QUANnrr. 807 

aod its exeeptiom. (780.) In the meond declenBion, thoe« only inoreaM in 
the fliiigular which end in r» aooording to the following^ 

801. — RuLB. The increment of the second declension is 

short; as — . 

Pttiri, otW, MtUri, &g^ from puir, vtr, sdtur, 

Exe, But Iber and CetCiber^ have Ibtri and CeitibirL 


602. — ^XII. Increments of the third declension, have a and o 
Icmg ; e, », and u, short ; as-— 

Fietdti8t honOrU, muUirii, lapidiSf murm&nt, 

Hides with JSxceptions. 


803. — 1. Increments in a, of the third declension, are long. 

Exe, 1st The incremeDt in a, from masculines in ol and ar is short, also^ 
\ frx>m par and its compounds ; — ^from anoM^ mas, vas {v&dii), 
haccaVy hepaty jtcbary laVy nectary and sal, 

Exe. 2d. The increment in a, from nouns in s, with a consonant hefore it^ 
is short ; as, Ar(d>8y Ar&bis, 

Exe, 8d. The increment in Oy from Greek nouns in a, -dtis; and as, -dtUs, 
is short; as,/)o^ma, poemdtis; lampaSy lampddis. 

Exe, 4th. Also the following in ax; yiz : abcucy anihraXy AtaXy Atrax, 
climaXy eolaXy eoraXy dropaXy/aXy harpaXy panax, phylax, aimir 
lax, and styrax, increase with & short 


804. — 2. Increments in o, of the third declension, are long. 

Exe, 1st The increment in o, from neuter nouns is short; as, marmoTf 
marmdris; eorpiu, corporis. But os; CriSy and neuter com- 
paratives increase in 6 long ; <idor has addriSy or ad&ris. 

Exe, 2d. The increment in o, from nouns in s with a consonant before it it 
short; as, serobsy serdbis; inopSy inHpis, But CereopSy Cyclops, 
and HydropSy have 6 long, 

Exe Sd. Generally from Gentile and Greek nouns in o and on, the incre- 
ment 18 short; as, Macido, MaeedSnis: but some are long, 
and some are common. 

Exe, 4th. Greek nouns in or, shorten the increment; as, Hictor—Ms, 

Exe, 6th. Greek nouns in pus (novi) ; as, tripus. Polypus ; also, arbor 
mhnory boSy eompoSy imposy and l^pus, haye o short in the in- 
crement; as, trtpuSy tripddis, ^ 


805, — 3. Increments in «, of the third dedension, are short 

808 PROSODY. — QUANTITT. § 157 

JSm lit Tb« Inoremeiit in -Mm from en and o is long ; aa. Siren, Btrinw, 
Anio, Aniinit, 

Mko. id. The increment in e is long, from kiieret, loeupUs, manmies, meree^^ 
and quiet. Also, from Jber and ver — ^from lex, rex, and vervex 
— -plebs, aepe, and hcUee, 

Ewe Sd. Oreek nouns m er and «« increase e long; as, etaJter, eraUrit; 
magneM, magriitis. 


806.— 4. Increments in t, of the third declension, are short. 

Bsce, 1st Verbals in trix, and adjectiyes in ix, haT» % long ; as victrtx^ 
victricie; felix^f elicit. 

Also, cervix, eicatrix, comix, eotumix, lodix, nuUrix, perdixt 
pkcenix, radix, and vibex, 

Exe. id. Oreek nomis in it and Ui, with the genitiye in tnu, increase 
long ; as, ScJamit, Salaitnlnit. 

StDC Sd. Dii, glit, and /u^ with Neeit, Quirit, and /Somftif , increase long. 


807.-*6. InOTements in «, of the third declension, are short. 

Sxe, 1st Qenitiyes in Vdis, Uris, and iUie, from nominatiyes in tM, hare 
the increase loQg ; as, paius, palUdit, Ac But Ligtu, ifUercui 
and peeu9, increase with it short 

Skc id. Fvir,frwt, htx, and Pollux, have ft long. 


808. — 6. Increments in y are short. 

Exe, Greek nouns, with the genitive in ynu, haye the increase kog. 
Also, Bombyx, Ceyx, and ^r^<, which increase long. 


809. — A noun in the plural number, is said to increase, when 
it has more syllables in any case, than in the nominative pluraL 

810. — An increment in the plm«l, ean ooeur only in the genitiye, 
datiye, and ablatiye; and in these, it is the syllable next to the la<«t 
When any of these cases has no more syllables than the nominatiye, it 
has no plural increment Thus, sermOnuta, jmirit, capUum, haye no plural 
increase, because they haye no more syllables than sermOnes, puh% capita; 
still, they aU have tne increment of me singular, becuuse they hare more 
syllables than eermo, puer, and ciput. But sermOnXlmt, pu^Qrvan, and 
capU^uu, haye both tlie singular and pluTul increment 

811 . — Rule XIII. ~ Plural increments in a, «, and o, are long ; 
in t and u^ short ; as, 

Musarum, rSrum, virdrvm,. parfUms, laeiUnu, 
from Mum, ret, flrn p^uUa, lacui. 

§ 158 PROSODY. — QUANTITT. 809 

812. — ^EXPLANATION.— All the inorementa of the Bingnlar remain in 
U^ plnral, and to thefte the ptural increment ia added. The rale hero givezii 
applies to the plural increments only, and not to the inerements of the ein- 
gular in the plural. Thus, in Umeribut from U«r^ the second and third syl- 
4abloB are increments of the singular, to be found in itineris; the fourth ia 
the plural increment, which comes under this rule. 


813. — A yerb is said to increase when it has more syllables in any 
part, than in the second person singular, of the present incucative, active ; 
as, dmaSy amatU^ amabdhs, &c. — A verb in the active voice may have thre4 
increments, and in the passive four. If there is but one increment, it is 
the svllable next the last If there are two, the second increment is the 
syllaole next the last, and thcr first the syllable preceding that, <&c ; thus, 

1 12 128 

ft-maii— -un-a-mus, — ^am-ft-b&rmus, — am-Av-^r-ft-mus, ^. 

Hie increments of deponent verbs, are determined in the same masmei 
as if they had an active form. 

814. — RuLB XrV, In the increments of verbs, a^ c, and o 
are long ; i and u, short ; as, 

Afndr9mu8, amOtOte; legtnvus, poutlmtu, 

815, — Exceptions in A. 

1. The first increment of do is short; as, d&mufy ddhOnvM, ddr^mui^ Aa 

Exceptions in E. 

2. E is short before ram^ rim, and ro. 

But when contracted by syncope, it is long ; stA^flgram, (orflivkwu, 

3. In the third conjugation, e is short before r in the first in- 
crease of the present and imperfect ; as, 

Zegire^ Uff^enif Act ZegirSria, legirSrey leg^e^ Pass, 

4. In the first and second conjugations, e is short in — bhia 
and — bh-e. 

Note. — irunt and -#r« in the perfect come under the general role ; some' 
times they are shortened 867-6. 

Exceptions in 1. 

5. In preterite tenses, i is long before v; 


6. In the first increase of the fourth conjugation, except 
^ug of the perfect, i not before a vowel is always long ; as, 

Pt«t. vefOmus; Perl veidmiM. So^ alBO, i6am, and iboy from, ea, 

7. /is long in AmuSj sltis, veHmus^ velltis; and their cono- 
pounds ; aa, pos^mus, nohmuSy &c. 

8. In rimiu and ritis of the future perfect indicative, and 
perfect subjunctive, i is common ; as, 

DixMmuif or dixiAmta; vidMtU or vidirUiM, 

NoU.-^U long before turn of the anpioe com^ under Rules VllL and 
IX It is long abo in the penult of the perfeet participle by the same 
roles. be<»inse the perfect participle is always derived from the supine. 


816. — For the quantity of penult syllables, no definite rule can be 
S^ven whieh is not rendered nearly useless by the number of exceptions 
occurring under it The following observations are usually given rather 
as a general guide, than certain rules ; and they might be easUy extended, 
were it of any practical advantage. 

1. Patronymics in IDES or ADES usually shorten the 
penult; as, 

PriamldeM, AUarUiUdBi^^ Unless they come from nouns in «im; as, 
Pelldei, 7\/dldes, Ac. 

2. Patronymics, and similar words, in AIS, EIS^ ITIS^ 
OIS, OTIS, JNE, and ONE commonly lengthen the penult; 

AckdiSf PtolemdUy ChryaSia, JEnMty MemphltiSj LaWU^ learidtU^ Nerlne. 
AcrisiOne, Elxoept Theb&'ia, and Phoc&U short; and Nereis, whidi is 
oovamoDj'^NeriU or Iferiia, 

8. Adjectives in ACU8, ICUS, ID US, and IMUS, for the 
most part shorten the penult; as, 

AEgypti&euSf aeademicus, lepidus^ legiflmus: also superlatives; as, /or- 
iisttmtUf <&c. Except opdeuSy etmXeitBy aprfetUy pudleuM, msnd^euSy anifevt, 
postleuSy fiduSy infidu8 {fromfldo), 6fmtM, giiadrltnu8f wtMrnw^ motrimiM^ 
oplmus; and the two superlatives, fmiM, and primus; Dut per/ldut, from 
per and fideSy has the penult short 

4. Adjectives in ALIS, ANUS, ABUS, IVUS, OEUS, 
OS US, lengthen the penult; as, 

Dotalis, iHrbantUf avdruSy (Mffims, deeifruSt arendtuB, Except harbitnts, 

fe 159 PEOSODT.— QUANTITY. 811 

5. Verbal adjectives in ILIS shorten the penult ; as ctgilis^ 
facilis, (See. But derivatives from nouns usually lengthen it; ajs 

AnlUs, civllis, herUia^ A<^, To these add exUis, Mubtllis ; and oames of 
months, ApnliSy QuirictlliSf Sextllis : Except humtliSf parUU ; and also 
thtiilis. But all acljectiyes in atUU^ are «hort ; as, vertatilit, volalHis, wm- 

6. Adjectives in JNUS, derived from words denoting inani- 
mate things, as plants, stones, &c., also from adverbs of time, 
oommonly shorten the penult ; as, 

Amar€uAnu8, crocXnus^ cedrinus^ fa^inuty oUagUiru; adamaniXnuB, cryth 
tallintu^ craitinua^ priaiinw^ perenalnus, earXntUy annodntta, &cl 

Other adjectives in JNUS are long ; as, 

Afftanugy canlntUy leporintu, HntUj tnntUt qulmUj au8trinu9f dandesthiut, 
Latlnua^ mannus^ tupinuBj vetpertlnita, <&o. 

- 7. Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM ; and ULUS, 
ULA, UL UM^ always shorten the penult ; as, 

UreedltUyJUidlcLymxMcedlum; lectUliUf raiiunciUaf cordUumf &Q. 

8. Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penult ; as, 
Oppidatiniy viritinif tributim. Except affHiimy perpitiniy and st&tvin, 

9. Desideratives in URIO shorten the antepenult, which, 
in the second and third persons, is the penult ; as, 

EaiirtOy esUris, esitrit. But other verbs in urio lengthen that syllable ; 
as, liffuriOf ligurit; tcaturiOf scaturU, <&c. 


1. The following proper namea lengthen tJie penult : Abd^ra, Ab^dus, 
Adonis, .^sopus, Jctdlus, Ahftla, Alaricus, Alcldes, Amyclas, Andronicus, 
Anubis, Arcliimedes, AriarSthes, AriobarzaneS) Aristides, Aristobulus; 
Aristogiton, Arplnum, ArtabSlnua ; Brachm&nes, Buslris, Buthrotus ; Ce- 
thegus, Chalcedon, CleobQlus, CyrSne, Cythfira, Curgtes ; Daiici, Demoni- 
cus, Diomedes, Diores, Dioscari; Ebudes, Eriphyle, Eubalus, Euclides, 
Euphrates, Eumfides, Euripus, Eu»nu8; Garganus, Gsetulus, Granicus; 
Heliogabalus, Henncus, Heraclides, Heraclitus, Hippooax, Hispanus ; Irene ; 
Latdna, Leucata, Lugdunum, Lyodras; Mandftne, Mausolus, Maximinus, 
Meleager, Messala, Messaua, Miletus ; Nasica, Nioanor, NicStas ; Pachynua, 
Panddra, PelOris (k -us, Pharsalus, PhoBnice, Polites, Polydetus, Polynlces, 
Priapos ; SardanapAlus, Sarpgdon, Serapis, Sin5pe, Stratonice, Siifi^tes; 
Tigi-anes, Thessalonlca ; Verona, Veronica. 

2. The following are short : Amfithus, Amphipdlis, Anab^is, Anticyrai 
Antig6nus, dt -ne, Antildchus. Antidchus, Antiopa, Antifpas* Antipater, An- 
tiphanes, Antiphfites, Antiphila, AntXphon, Anjtus, ApQlus, AreopSguf 
Arimlnum, ArmSnus, Ath^sis, Attaius, Attiea ; Bitiirix, Bruct^ri ; Calaber, 
Callici^tes, Callisti^atus, Candace, Cantaber, Carneades, Chenlus, Chrysos- 
tdmus, CleombrStus, Cleom^nes, Corycos, CoDstaQtinopdlis, CratSrus, Cra- 
i^lus, OremSra, Crustumgri, CybSle, Cyciades, OyzXcus ; Dalmatas, I)am6- 
eiet, DardanuS) BejUceB, DejoULrus, Democritus^JDemipho, DidjhxkUi, Dio* 

812 PEOSODY.— QUANTITY, § 160 

cSnes, Drepimmi, DumnSriz ; Empeddclee, Epli^siiB, ErergStes, EoBi&iefl, 
UurymSdoo, Euripylua; Fucious; Geiydnes, Gyfirus; Hecyra, Helip51i^ 
Hermidoe, Herodotus, Hesiddus, Hesidne, HippocrdteB, HippotSmos, Hy- 
p&ta, HypAnifl ; Icarus, IcStas, Illyris, Iphltus, Ism&ruB, ItMca ; Laodice, 
taomSdoD, Lampsftcus, Lamynis, LapiUue, Lucretilis, Libanus, Lip^e, or 
•A, LysimiLchtiB, LoDgiminus ; Mar&thon, Maen^lus, Marmarica, Massag^te, 
Mati^a, Megftra, Melltus, d: -ta, Metropdlis, Mutlna, Miconus ; Neocles, 
NeiitoB, Noricum; Ompbiftle; Patftra, Pegftsus, PharD&ces, PisietrsLtus, 
PolrdAmus ; PolyzSna, PorB^na, or Poneima, Praxiteles, Putedli, Pyl&des, 
Pythagdras ; Sarmiltffi, Sarsma, Semdle, Semir&mis, Sequel, d: -a, Sisy. 
pnu8, Sicoris, Socr£tes, Soddma, Sot^des, SpartScus, Sporfides, Strongyle, 
Stymph&l^is, Sybftris ; Tayg^tua, Telegdnus, Telem^chus, Ten^dos, TaiTfico, 
Theopbdnas, Ixkeophllns, Tomj^ris ; UrblcoB ; Yen^ti, Y ologSsuBy Yoliisus ; 
Xeoocr&tes ; ZoUus, Zopj^rua. 

8. The penult of several words is doubtful ; tlius, JBat&vi. Lucan. ^a- 
tavi. Juv. and Maet. FortuUus. Hoa. FortuUus. Martial. Some make 
fortuiius of three syllables, but it aiay be shortened like gratultus. Sta!l 
jP<Urimu8f matrimWf prcBStolar^ ifec., are by some lengthened, and by some 
shortened ; but for their quantity there is zio certain authority. 


A Jinal, 

818. — RuLS XV. ^,in the end of a word, declined by cafles. 

is short ; as, Jdusd, templd, dec. 

I^xe. 1. The ablative of the first declension is long ; as, ifiMd, &e. 

Exc. 2. The vocative of Greek nouns in a«, is long ; as, .jEnSO, 

819. — Rule XVI. A, in the end of a word not declined by 
cases, is long ; as, am<l, j/rustrd, ergd^ intrdj &c. 

820. — Bxc, Itdy quia^ ejd^ potted, putH (adv.), are short; Bometim«s 
also, the prepositions, eontrd and lUtrd; and the compounds of ginta, as 
trigintdt ac But> contra and ultra, as adverbs, are always long. 

E JinaL 

821. — Rule XVII. U in the end of a word is short; as, 
naU, sedllSj ips^^ possS, ne7fipS, anti. 

822. — Special Rvles <md Moceptions. 

Rule 1. Monosyllables in e are long ; as, m^, te^ si, 
F^f:, The enclitics qui, vi, ni, are short ; also, pti, d, ti. 

Rule 2. Nouns of the first and fifth declensions have final 
e long ; as, Callidpe, Anchise, die, <fec. 

▲Iso Greek neuter plurals i as, Ceti, melt. Tempi, Aa 

i 160 ^EOSODY. — QUANTITY. 813 

KuLS 3. Verbs of the second conjugation have e long in the 
second person singular of the imperative active; as, doci^ 
mani^' &c. But cave, vale, and vide, are sometimes short. 

KiTLs 4. Adverbs, from adjectives of the first and second 
declensions, have final e long ; as, placide, pulckrS, valdi (con- 
tracted for vatide). So, also, ferme, fere, and ohi. 

^xe. But^ beni, nuUif in/emit and tuperrUf are short 

I JlnaL 

823. — RuLB XVni /final is long ; as, domlni, fih, &a 

Exc, 1. /final is common in mihi^ tibi, »ibi; also in ibi, t<5t, niH^ gwui 
Sometimes uti^ and cut as a dissyllable^ have « short SieuH, iicuiH, and 
neeukHy are always short 

Exe, 2. / final is short in Greek vocatiyes and datives ; as, AUa^ Daph' 
%\ : J^alladi, TVooH, and Troa^n, 

O finaU 

824. — Rule XIX. final is common ; as, Virgo, dmo^ 

Exc, 1. Monosyllables in o are long; as, 0, do, st0,pr6, 

Exc, 2. The dative and ablative in o are long; as, lihr^^ 
dominO, Also Greek nouns in o ; as. Dido, Sapphd, 

Exc. S. Ablatives used as adverbs have o long ; as, eeriOyfalaO^ navlO; 
qud, eo, and their compounds; illC, idcircdf citrOf retr(L lUtrO, ergO (for the 
sake of). < 

Exc. 4. Egh^ aeidf the defective verb cedd ; also 1iom6^ citb, illic6y immd, 
dudf ambd, modd, and its compounds ; guombdd, dummdddj postmddH^ are 
almost always short 

Exc, 6. In Virgil, the gerund in (io is long ; in other poets, mostly short 

U, and Y, final, 

825. — Rule XX. U final is long; Y final is short ; as, vuliU^ 

B, D, L, M, R, T, final 

826.— Rule XXI. B, D, L, R, and T, in the end of a wor^, 
are short ; as, &b, apud, semU, consul, pater, capfkU 

827. — EXPLANATION.— This rule does not apply, if any of these fln«L 
letters are preceded by a diphthong, or if the syllable is oontracted, or made 
long oy position : as, a/ut, abU for abiit^ af/umi^ 


814 FBOSODY. — QUANTITY. § 160 


Sxe, 1. Bdl, 90if and nil are long. 

JSxe. 2. Air and athery have the final syllable long. Also nouns in er, 
which hare frit in the genitire ; as, OrtUir, Jbity Ac 

Bxc, 8. Far^ lar^ Nar^ par^ cur, and fuTf are long. • 

JCxe. 4. The Hebrew names Jdb, Daniil, are long ; but DatriJand Boffud 
are common. 

829. — ObB, M final anciently made the preceding vowel short; as, 
JiUit^m octo. By later poets it is usually cut ot by Echthlipsis (§ 16&~ 
2.x when the next word begins with a vowel When not so cut o£ it is 

C, N, JinaL 

830. — KuLS XXII. C and N in the end of a word are long ; 
aA, dCf sic, illiic, e/i, fidn, &c. 

Ezc, 1. Nic and donk are short; hie and^c, common. 

JSxc, 2. Forsitdn^ In, forsdn^ taming dn^ vi€Unj are short. 

£xc, 8. Fn having tms in the genitive is short; as, eamUn, earmima. 
Also Greek nouns in an, on, in, yn, originally short, and the dative plural 
in nn, have the final syllable short; as, //idn, Eratibn^ MaUba^ Alexin^ 
eMyn, Troatfin, <bc. 

As, £s, Os, JlnaL 

831. — Rule XXIII. As, es, os, in the end of a word are 
long ; as, mds, quiiSy bon68. 

Ex*. 1. Ab is short in aniU, and Greek nouns which have adU or 4ido9 
in the genitive ; as, AreiU, lampiU, tfea 

Exc. 2. ^« is short, let, in nouns and adjectives which increase short in 
the genitive ; as, hospit, linUs, hebit. But Ceres, partis, ariis, abiis, and 
pis, with its compounds, are long. 2d. Es from sum, and penis are short. 
8d. Greek neuteins in es, and nominatives and vocatives of the third dedeii- 
flion which iocrease in the genitive otherwise than in eos, have es short ; aa 
Arcadis, Trois, Ac 

Exc. 3. Os is short in compds, impds, ds (ossis), — ^in Greek words of the 
second declension, and in neuters and genitives of the third ; as, Ilibs, I^ 
rdSf chads f epds, Falladds, Ae. 

. Is, Us, Ys, Jinal. 

832. — RxiLK XXIV. Is, us, and ys, in the end of a word are 
short ; as, Turris, legis, legimUs, Capys, 

Exc. 1. Plural cases in is and us are long; but the dative 
and ablative in bus are short. 

Exc. 2. Kouns in is with the genitive in i^, Xnis, or eniis are long ; m% 
BamnU, Salamls, 8imols. 

jB^v, 8. Is is long in glu, vf«» graa$, forit. And in the seooiid peraoo 




siDgular, present indicatiye, actire, of the fourth eoqjujOfatiQQ; aa, ttudu. 
Alfio in fUj l«, 9U, vUf velu, and their compounds posiU, quamvu^ mall$t 
nolu, <bc 

Uxc, 4. Monosyllables in us are long ; as, grus^ sUSy dsa 

A^ those -which have hHm, udis, iUiSy unttM^ or ddu, in the genitiTe; as 
tellusy incus, virtUs, Amathus, tripiU, To these add Greek genitives in 
iM ; as, Diduiy SapphUSy «&c. 

£!xe, 5. Tethys is sometimes loi^, likewise nouns in y«, which have also 
yn in the nominative ; as, JPhorc^s or JPhorcgn, 


833. — KuLB XXV. Derivatiyes follow the ^antity of their 
primitives; as, 

Amicus, frcm Xmo. 
Auctioaor, aoctio, -teis. 









auctor, -dria. 
auspez, -ids. 
caupo, -^nis. 
ccHiux, -Icis. 
custos, -odis. 
decor, -Oris. 









L^gebam, <&o. 

LegSram, A/a, 

from deens, -dria 
ezul, -iUis 
Quiris, -itis 
radix, -icis. 
soapes, -itis 

DSni, from d^em. — 

Fdmee, f5v60. Sedes, 

HdmAnus, hdmo. Sficius, 

Kegula, rSgo. PenOna, 


1. Long from Short. 

Mdbilis, from mdvea 

s^deo. HOmor, htimua. 

s^cus. jQmentum, jtivo." 

pdnus. Vox, vocis, vdco, i&e. 

Lucema, from lOcea 
Dux, -iicis, daco. 
StftUlis, stabam. 

Ditio, ' dis, ditis. 

Qu&sillus, quilus, Ac 

2. Short from Long, 

ArSna and Crista, from &reo. 

Ndta and ndto, nOtus. 

V&dum, vftdo. 

Fides, fido. 

Sdpor, sOpio. 

835. — £XPIiANATION.->This rale appUes to all those parts of the 
verb derived or formed from the primary parts, %% 51 and 52, i. e. the quan- 
tity of the primary part remains in all the parts formed from it. 

836. — Rule XXVL Compounds follow the quantity of the 
simple words which compose them ; as, 

ikdSimo, from &d and Smo; dedoeo, from di and dOeot, 

816 PROSODY. — QUANTITY. § 161 

837. — Obt, 1. The change of a vowel or diphthong, in forming the 
compound, does not alter its quantity; aa, e&do, eoneido; ccedo, coneldo; 
€lauaOf feelado ; ceqtnUt tnl^uiM, <bc. 

838. — 06<. 2. When a short syllable in the first part of the compound 
«nds with a consonant, it becomes long by position wnen joined to another 
word beginning with a consonant ; as, pimnameo^ from ^ and vmomo ; but 
if the second word begin with a vowel, the fin^ retama its quantity; as^ 
pirambUlOt from pir and ambiilo, 

839. — ObB, 8. When the second part of a compound word begins with 
a rowel, the vowel ending the first pari is short by Rule L When it 
begins with two consonants, or a double consonant, the vowel preceding is 
long by Rule IL But if it beeins with « simple consonant, followed by a 
vowel or diphthong, the vow^ preceding is sometimes long, and some- 
times ^rt» oy the following— 

Special Rvles for the prst pa/rt of a compound^ 

ending with a vowd. 

840. — Rule 1. The first part of a compound, if a preposi- 
tion of one syllable, has the final vowel long ; as, diculoy prd- 

£zc, 1. Pro is short in prdceUoy prl^fanu^ prdfari^ prdfeeto, prUfeaiua^ 
prdfieiMsoTy prdfiteoTt prUfwgiOj prifugw^ prdfundus, pr&nepot, prUtftaptui, 
prdp&rOy ana prdtermu. It is common in procUrOt profiwdo, propo^o, pro- 
pdlo, proplno, prapulto, 

Exe, 2. The Qreek pro (before), is always short ; as, prdphUa^ prdlogttt, 

Nate. — ^The final vowel of a preposition of more than one syllable, re- 
tains its own quantity ; as, corUrddico, antieedo. 

841. — Bule 2. The inseparable prepositions, se and di^ are 
long ; re is short ; as, Sipono^ dXvellOy ripello, 

Exc. 3. Di is short in dirimo and disertus. Be is long in 

842. — Rule 3. The first part of a compound, not a preposi 
tion, has final a long ; e, t, o, u, and y, short ; as, 

MdlOf nifas, bieepa^ philbtopkiaf d&centif PolpdOnu, 


Bxe. 1. A — ^In gudn, eSdeniy not in the abhitive, and in some Greek com 
pounds, a is short 

JSxe. 2. E — The e is long in ft^mo, niqtMm^ niquando^ niguagvam, nggtud- 
^'uam, nSguis^ nSquitia; mhnet, micumy tScumy secum, vScors^ vSsanus, venh 
Jicus. Also in words compounded with se for sex, or semi ; as, sideeim, 
sSmestris, <&c E is common in some compounds of facio ; as, liquefaeio, 
patefacioy rarefaeioy ^ 

§ 162 J. PBOSODT. — ^VEBSinCATION. 817 

Exe. 8. L— "^Mieii the first part of a oompoimd is declined, i is loqg; ai^ 
quldarriy gullibety relpubliccey ^c., or when tine first can be separated from, 
the last, and yet both retain their form and meaning ; as, Iwk-maffisier, 
Ittcrl-facio, A-guU, CLgrl-culturay <&c. 

/ is sometimes made long by contraction ; as, blga^ sclJicetf hlfnu8j Ao^ 
for bijugcB^ scire Heety bia annuSy or hlennius. It is also long in idem (mas- 
culine), uiique, tttrobigue, ibideniy nimiruntf and the compounds of dieg, 
snch as, btduum, priaie; meridies, Ag. In ubieunque and ubivis, it ii 

Bxe. 4. O — Contro, intro, retro, and guandoy in compounds, have the 
final o long ; as, eontr&vertia, intrOducOf retrdcedo, quanddquef (except quan- 

O is long in compounds of quo ; as, qufSmodOy qttOcunqve, quOmintu, quih 
eircOf quSviSt quCque, (from quiaque;) but in qudque^ the 0(mjuncti<»), it if 

Exc, 6. TJ'-yPctpiteryfQdeXy and Jitdfeiumy hare u long; also tuUeapto and 
ututfeniOy being capable of separation, as in £!xe, 8. 

844. — Rule XXVII. The last syllable of every verse is 

845. — EXPLANATION.— This means that a short syllable at the end 
of a line, if the verse requires it, is considered long ; and a long syllable, if 
the verse requires it, is considered short. 

?546. — N. B. A syllable which does not come under any of 
the preceding rules, is said to be long, or short, by " authority," 
viz. : of the poets. 


847. — ^A verse is a certain number of long and 
short syllables, disposed according to rule. The 
parts into which a verse is divided are called JPhet. 


848. — A FOOT, in metre, is composed of two or more syllables, stnctiy 
regulated by time, and is either sunple or compound. The simple feet 
are twelve in number, of which four consist of two, and eight of three 
syllables. There are sixteen compound feet^ each of four sylm>lea. Thea« 
Tarieties are as follows : 

849. — Simple feet of two Syllables. 

I*yTrhic ^^ >^ as Ddtis. 

Spondee ^-» as ftindOni. 

Iambus « s.^ ..-. as Sr&nt. 

Trochee — ^.^ aa finn& 




860 —Smiple feet of th/ree SyUablea. 









•0 fi(edr& 
as odotendQiit 
aa oOrpori. 
as ddmim. 
as doldr^a. 
as RdmfiD&& 
as h(kidrS. 
as chftiitfis. 

861. — Oompawnd feet of fawr Syllables 

Choriambns — w w -. 

looie a najore 
lonio a minore 
First P»0D 
Second Pson 
Third PaBon 
Fourth P«on 
First Bpitrite 
Second Epitrite 
Third Epitrite 
Fourth £pitiite 

pQntif ices Trochee and Iambus. 
am&bAtIs Iambus and Trochee, 

cftlcftribili Spondee and Pyrrhic 
prdpdrftbftnt I^rrhic and Spondee, 
tdmpdiibiis Troches and I^rrhia 
*"'""" Iambus and ^rrhio. 

Pyrrhic and Trochee. 

Pyrrhic and Iambus. 

Iambus and Spondee. 

Trochee and SpcHidee 

Spondee and Iambus. 

Spondee and TrochoA 

Two Pyrrhics. 

Two Spondeea. 

Two Iambi. 

Two Trochees. 












1. In eyery foot^ a long syllable is equal in time to two short ones. To 
constitute feet Isochronous, two things are necessary : 1st That they have 
the same time : 2d. That they be interchangeable m metre» 

2. Feet have the same time which are measured by an equal numbw 
of short syllables ; thus, the Spondee, Dactyl, Anapseat, and Proceleus- 
maticua, have the same time, each being equal to four short syilables. 

8. Feet are interchangeable in metre, when the ictw or stress of the 
voice falls, or may fall, on the same portion of the £oot The part of the 
foot that receives the ictus, is called artM^ or elevation ; the rest of the 
foot is termed /A««f<, or depression. 

4. The natural place of the arsis, is the loQg syllable of the foot Hence, 
in the Iambus, it uils on the second syllable, and in the Trochee, on liie 
first Its place in the Spondee and Tribrach cannot be determiaed by tiw 
feet themselves, each syllable being of the same length. 

5. In all. kinds of verse, the fundAroentul foot determines the place ol 
the arnxH for the other feet admitted into it ; thus, in Dactylic verse, and 
Trochaic verse, the Spondee will have the arsis on the first syllable ;•— in 
Anapaestic and Iambic, on the last In Trochaic verse, the mbrach will 
have the arsis on the first syllable, w's^ ^^, in lambie en the second^ 

§ 163 FBOSODY. — UETB8. 819 

ft. nioee feet) tiien, aoeordiiuf to the aneieiiti, were called m 
<whieh were capable of being divided into pirU that were equal in time^ 
BO that a short syllable should correspona to a short ; and a long to a 
long, or to two short ; thus, in Iambic and Trochaic verse, 

Iambus w -— Trochee — 

Tribrach >^ 

>^ >^ Tribrach >^ >-^ 

bk Daetylic and Anapestic ; tiras, 
Dact3rl — 

Spondee — 

Anapaest ^^>^ 
Spondee — 

853. — But feet which cannot be divided in this manner, are not iso- 
chronous, tiu>ugh they have the same time ; thus, the lamhu* and TVochee^ 
Uiough equal m time, cannot be divided so as to have the corresponding 
parts of equal length ; thus, 

Iambus, ^^ — 
Trochee, — 

854.-^Hence these feet are not interchangeable, or isochronous; and 
for this reason a Trochee is never admitted into Iambic verse nor an 
Iambus into Trodiaic The same is true of the Spondee, ( — — ) and 
Amphibrach ( ^^ — ^^ ), and of ilie Amphibradi with the Dactyl or 

855.— § 168. OF METRE. 

1. Metre, in its general eenae, means an arrangement of syllables and 
feet in verse, according to certain rules ; and, in this sense, applies, not 
only to an entire verse, but to part of a verse, or to any number of verses. 
A metre^ in a tpeeijie tenee, means a combination of two feet (sometimes 
called a sysygyX and sometimes one foot only. 

The distinction between rhythm and metre is this : — the former ref«>TS 
to the time only, in regard to which, two short syllables are equivalent to 
one long ; the latter refers both to the time and the order of the syllables. 
The rhythm of an anapaest and dactyl is the same ; the metre different 
The term rhythm, is also understood in a more comprehensive sense, and 
is applied to the harmonious construction and enunciation of feet and words 
in connection ; thus, a line Las rhythm when it contains any number of 
metres of equal time, without regard to their order. Metre requires a 
certain nu<nber of metres, and these arranged in a certain Ofder, Thus, 
in this line, 

Panditur interea domus onmipotentis Olympi, 

there is both rhythm (as it contains siz metres of equal value in respect 
of time) and metre, as these metres are arranged according to the canon 

820 PROSODY. — METBE. § 168 

tor Hexameter heroic rerBe, which requires a dactyl in tibie fifth, and a 
•poDdee in the sixth place. Change the order thus, 

Omnipotentis Olympi panditur interea domus, 

and the rhythm remains as perfect as before, but the metre is destroyed ; 
it is no longer a Hexameter heroic line. 

2. llie principal metres used in Latin poetry are six ; namely 1. Lunbio. 
2. Trochaic S. AnapieBtiCp 4. Dactylie 5. Choriambic. 6. Ionic These ar^ 
so called from the loot which prevails in them. 

These different kinds of verse, in certain varieties, are also designated 
by the names of certain poets, who either invented them, or made special 
use of them in their wntings. Thus, we have Asclepiadie, Glyconian, 
Alcaic, Sapphic, Pherecratian, ^^ from Asclepiades, Qlyoon, Alcaeus, 
Sappho, Pherecrates, Ae. 

8. In Iambic Trochaic and Anapaestic verse, a metre consists of two 
feet (sometimes called a dipodia^ or 9yzygy\ in the other kinds, of one foot 

4. A verse consisting of one metre is called Manometer ; of two metres, 
Ditneier ; of three, Drimeter ; of four, Tetrameter ; of five. Pentameter; 
of six, Hexameter; of seven, Heptameter; Ac Hence, in Trochaic Iambic, 
and Anapaestic verse, a monometer will contain ttoo feet; a dimeter, /otfr; 
a trimeter, six ; Ac In the other kinds of verse, a monometer contains 
ofM foot; a dimeter, tuw; a trimeter, three; 4&c 

5. A verse or line of any metre may be complete, having . precisely the 
number of feet or syllables that the canon requires ; or, it may be defi- 
cient ; or it may he redundant. To express this, a verse is variously 
eharacteriaed as follows ; viz : 

(1.) Aeat<iieetie, when complete. 

(2.) CatalectiCf if wanting one syllable. 

(3.) BrackycatalectiCf if wanting two syllables, or a foot 

(4.) Hypercatalectic^ or hypermeteTf when it has one or two syllables 
more than the verse requires. 

(5.) AcephalouSy when a syllable is wanting at the beginning of the line. 

(6.) Aiynartete^ when different measures are conjoined in one line. 

Hence, in order fully to describe any verse, three terms are employed 
the first expressing the kind of verse ; the second, the number of metres 
and the third, the character of the line ; thus, 

Ndn vol- I tfis in- I stantos | tyr&n- 1 n! | 

is described ; as, TambiCy dimeter^ hypereatalectie, 

6. Verses, or parts of verses, are further designated by a term expreti 
eive of the number of feet or parts of feet which they ocntaia Thu% 
a line, or a pai't of a line, containing — 

three half feet is called trimimery 
^ve half feet " penthemimer, 

seven half feet *' nepkthemimer, 
Hiese are of use to point out the place of-^ 

i 164 FBOSODY.— JCKTRE. 821 


856. — Catwrt^ in metre, ie the separatioo, by the ending of a word, 
of tyllables rhythmically or metrically ooDnectea 

It ie of three kinds, 1. Of the foot; 2. of the rhythm; 8. of the vene 

let Caesura of the foot ocomv when a word ends before a foot is com- 
pleted ; as in the second, third, fourth, and fifth feet of the following line: 

SHyCs- I trfim tSnii- 1 i MQ- | sfim m^di- | tftris ft- | Ytoft. 

2d. Gssura of the rhythm is the separation of the arsis from the (ftesis 
}ty the ending of a word, as in the second, third, and fourth feet ^f the 
preceding line. 

This has sometimes the effect of making a final short syllable long, bj 
the force of the ictus ; as, 

Pectdri- 1 Ims Inhi- 1 fins spl- 1 rfintIS | oOnsfiHt | fiztfi. 

y^ote. — This effect is not produced by the Csesura of the foot, nor of the 
verse, unless they happen to coincide with the caesura of the rhythm. 

Sd. The Caesura of the verse is such a division of the line into two 
parts, as affords to the Yoice a pause or rest, at a proper or fixed place, 
without injuring the sense by pausing in the middle of a word. 

857. — The proper management of this pause is a gpreat beauty in cer- 
tain kinds of verse, and shows the skill of the poet In pentameter verse, 
its place ie fixed ; in hexameter and other metres, it is left to the poeU 
When it occurs at the end of the third half foot, it is called trimimeris ;-^ 
of the ^&ht penthemimeris ; — of the seventh, hephtfiemimerfs. 

858. — The situation of each foot in a verse is called itB place. 


The canons, or rules of the different kinds of met{e used in Latin poetry 
are the following : 

869.^1. IAMBIC METRE. 

1. A pure iambic line consists of iambic feet only ; as, 

Ph&e- I bik n- I li qu&n | vidfl- 1 tib hte- 1 pitSs. | 
Here the single line marks the end of the foot ; the double 
line, the end of the metre ; and the Italic syllable, the caesura) 

2. A mixed iambic line admits a spondee into the first, 
third, and fifth places ; and again in all these a dactyl or an 
anapaest is sometimes admitted for a spondee, and a tribrach 
for the iambus. 

3. This verse occurs in all varieties of length, from the 
^imeter catalectic to the tetrameter. 

^ 14* 

822 FBOSOBY.— HBTBS. § 164 

4. The cssura oommonlj takes place at the fifth half foot. 

5. Different varieties of this metre are denominated as 
follows : 

Ut iSmarfan, or Trimeter memtaleetio, need in tragedy and eomedj. 

Sd. Arehiloehian, or Trimeter catalectio. 

8d. ArehiloehiaHj or Dimeter hjpermeter. 

4tb. Anaeretmiicy or Dimeter catalectia 

Sth. Oalliamhu, or Dimeter eatalectio, double ; L e. two yerses in one 

6tfa. Sipponaeiie, or Tetrameter catalectie. 

7tlL CAo/tamfriM, or Trimeter Aeatalectie. Tikis is called, also, Season 
and Hipponaetie trimeter^ and has a spondee in the siztli pUuWj 
and generally an iambus in the fifth. 

ttth. Oet<mafiu%, or Tetrameter aeataleetie, called also quadratu*. 

9th. AcepkaUuty or Dimeter, wanting the first syllable of the first foot 
Tnis may be resolved into Tiochaio dimeter catalectia 


1. A pure trochaic line consists of trochees only. These, 
however, are but seldom used. An acephalous trochaic be- 
comes an iambic line ; and an Acephalous iambic becomes a 
trdchaic line. 

2. A mixed trochaic line admits a spondee, a dactyl, an 
anapsest, and sometimes a proceleusmatic in even places, i. e. 
in ihe 2d, 4th, 6th, &c. But in'the odd places, a trochee, or a 
tribrach, and in the last place, a trochee only. 

3. This verse may be used in all varieties, from the Mono- 
meter hypercatalectic (two trochees and one syllable) to the 
tetrameter, or octonarius catalectie. The varieties most used 
by the Latin poets, are, 

1st. The Trochaic tetrameter catcdeeticy rarely pure: 

2d. The Sapphic, consisting of five feet, viz. : a trochee, a 
. spondee, a dactyl, and two trochees. It has the caesura) 
pause a^er the fiflh half foot ; thus, 

IntS- 1 gSr tI- I to I scSlS- 1 rlsqu^ | pQrOs. Ho&. 

3d. The PhalcBciany or Phaleucian, consisting of five feet , 
viz.': a spondee, a dactyl, and three trochees ; thus^ 

NOn est Ylygrd | s^d y&- \ ISrS | TltiL Mabt. 
This Terse neither requires nor rejects a ciesura. 
4th. The Trochaic dimeter catalectie, or Acephahtu iambir 
dimeter. See I. 9th. 

S 164 POSODT. — METRE. 828 

M^ Ofbe Tari€tie8, but seldom used, are : 1. The Paneratie, mono- 
{neter hypercatalectic 2. The Mj/p/ialie, dimeter brachyeatalectio. 
8. Th« Euripjdean^ dimeter catalectic. 4. The Alcmanic, dimeter 
atcataleetic. 6. Anaereontic, dimeter acatalectic, with a pyrrhie in 
like first place. 6. The Sipponactie, tetrameter aoataleoUo. 


1. A pure AnapaBStic line consists of Anapaests only. 

2. The mixed anapsBstio line has a spondee or a dactyl, feet of equal 
leogth, in any place. 

8. The following yarietiee occur, yiz. : Ist The Anapcestie MonomeUr, 
consisting of two anapsBsts. 2d The Anapastic dimeter, consisting of four 

Obe, AnapsBstic yerses are nsnallT so constructed, that each measure 
ends with a word, so that they may be read in lines of one, two, or more 

4. Other yarieties not much in use are the Simodian ; monometer cata- 
lectic The Petriheniac ; dimeter catalectic. The Arekebulian; trimeter 


1. A pure dactylic verse consists of dactyls only, which 
have the arsis on the first syllable of the foot. 

Of this yerse, («e foot coDstitut^ a metre, and the lines range in length 
from dimeter to hexameter. Of these, the most important are— 

1. Hexameter or Heroic verse. 

Hexameter or Heroic versQ consists of six feet, of which 
the fiflh is a dactyl, the sixth a spondee, and each of the other 
four, a dactyl or a spondee ; as, 

LOdSrS I quad yfil- 1 lem cSliC- 1 m6 per- 1 mlsft &- 1 grSstl. Yiso. 

Respecting this yerse the following things may be noticed. 

Isi. When a spondee occurs in the fifth phice, the line is called apondaHc 
Such lines are of a graye character, and but rarely occur. 

2d. When tiie line consists of dactyls, the morement is brisk and rapid, 
when of spondees, slow and heayy. Compare in this respect the two fol- 
lowing lines: the first expresses the rapid moyement oyer the plain, of a 
troop of horse eager for the combat; — ^the other describes the slow and 
toilsome moyements of the Cyclops at the labors of the forge. 

QuAdrfipd- I dAntd p&- 1 tr6m sdni- 1 tQ qufttift | OngiU& | cAmpQm. 
nii in- I t«r s«- 1 s« mfig- 1 n&'yl | br&chi& | t&llQnt Vibo. 

3d. The beauty and harmony of a Hexameter verse de- 
pends on the proper management of the caesura. The most 
approved caesural pause, in heroic poetry, is that which occurs 
after the arsis of the third foot. Sometimes called the heroic 
csesural pause; thus. 

At d&niis | mt^ri- 1 A- 1 r6- 1 gSU | splaufidft | IflxO. Ymo. 

824 PBOSODT. — MBTRB. § 164 

Id reading this line vitibi due attention to quantity, we naturally paiue 
where the eaeural pause ia indicated by the double line, and the whole 
movement is gpvceful and pleasing. Compare now with this, a line io 
which no attention is paid to the cesura, or m which, if one is made, you 
haye to pause in the middle of a word, and the difference is manifestb 

ROmft I mOenIS | ter- 1 rOit | impag^r | HfinmbSl | firmis. 

Sometimes the cassura &lls after the thesis of the third foot, or the arsia 
of the fourth. In the last case, a secondary one often occurs in the second 
foot The pause at the end of the third foot was the least approved. 
The following lines are examples of each of these: 

1. Inian- | dOm re- | ginft | jii- 1 bte r£n5- | yftrS d5- | IdrSm. 

2. Prim& t^- I net, | plaa- | sOqug yd- | Ult | fr^i- 1 tuquS sS- 1 cQndS. 
8. Gui nOn | dlctOs Hjf- | Ifis p&er | St Lft- 1 t5mS | DelOs. 

2. A species of Hexameter is the Priapean, It is divisible 
into two portions of three feet each, of which portions^ the 
first begins generally with a trochee^ and ends with an amphu^ 
macer^ and the second begins with a trochee ; as follows, 

O c5- I l6n£ft I quae ciUpis | pOntS | ladSrS | iQngGi Catull. 

These parts, however, may very well be scanned, the first as a Olycanie, 
and the second, as a Pherecratic verse, of which see under (V ) Choriambie 

3. Pentameter verse consists of five feet. It is commonly 
arranged in two portions or hemistichs, of which the first 
contains two feet, dactyls or spondees, followed by a long syl- 
lable which ought to end a word ; and the second, two dactyls, 
followed by a long syllable ; thus, 

IASjSxdSl I de nihl- 1 15 | nflsdftiir | hlstdr!- | Si^Propert, 
POm&que I n6n nO- I tis I ISgit &h \ firbdri- | bOs | TiBtJix. 

Where the first distich does not end a word, or, if there be an elision by 
8ynal<Bpha or Echthlipnt, the verse is considered harsh. 

This verse is commonly used alternately with a hexameter line, 
eombination which is commonly called Elegiac verse. 

4. Dactylic tetrameter^ of which there are two kinds. 

1st. Dactylic tetrameter a prior e, called also Alcmanian dac- 
tylic tetrameter, which consists of the first four feet of a 
hexameter line, the fourth being always a dactyl; as, 

SolvitQr I ftcns hj^- | Sms grft- 1 tft yic& Hor. 

2d. Dactylic tetrameter a posterior e^ called also Spondaic 
tetrameter^ which consists of the last four feet of a hexametei 
line; as, 

Sic tris- 1 tes ftf- I &t&s S- I mIo5s. Hob. 

§ 164 PBOSODT. — ^METBS. 825 

5. JDaeiyHe trimeter (or Choriambte IOmeter Oataleetie\ con- 
sists of the last three feet of a hexameter line (See Choriambio 
verse); as, 

GrfttO I Pyrrhft siib | SntrOi Hoe. 

6. Dactylic trimeter catalectic^ also called Archilockian pen- 

ihemimeris, consists of the first five half feet of a hexameter 

line; as, 

Arbdii- I bOsquS cd-| mo. Hor. 

7. Dactylic dimeter or ^(fontc— commonly used to conclude 
a Sapphic Stanza — consists of a dactyl and. spondee; thus, 

Rmt A- 1 pOUO. 


In Choriambio verse, the leading foot is a choriambus;but 
in the varieties of this metre, different other feet are admitted, 
chiefly at the beginning or end of the line, or both. The 
principal varieties are the following : 

1. The Ckoriamhic tetrameter consists of a spondee, three 
ehoriambi, and an iambus ; a^ 

TQ n3 I quffisiSris | BCirS nSf fts | quSm wSbi quSm | tiHbL 

2. Ckoriamlfic tetrameter^ consists of three ehoriambi, or 
feet equivalent in length, and a Bacchius ; as, 

JSnS p&ter I Jftnd tuSiiB | divS Uceps | bif5nnis. 

Horace altered without improvlDg this metre, by subfltituting a spondee 
for the iambuB in the first foot ; as, 

Te d^Os 6- I rO Sj^b&ln | 4&0. 

NgU. — Ohoriambic tetrameter was originally called Fhalaoian, Ironi 
PhalsBons, who made great use of it 

3. Asclepiadic tetrameter^ consists of a spondee, two cho> 
riambi, and an iambus ; thus, 

Mseed- 1 nfis fttSvis | fidltS r3- 1 gibQs. Hob. 

This form is uniformly used by Horace. Other poets sometimes naake 
the first foot a dactyl 

The ciBsural pause occurs at the end of the first choriambus. 

This verse is sometimes scanned as a Dactylic pentameter cataleetio , 

MoNse- 1 nfis fits- 1 Tis I editd | regTbfis. 

4. Ohoriambic trimeter, or Glycontc^ consists of a spondee, 
(sometimes an iambus or trochee,) a choriambus, and an iam- 
bus; as, 

aio t8 i dTTft pdtSns | Oj^ Hob. 

S26 PROSODY. — ^lOETRB. § 165 

WImb Am fint Awt ift a ipoDdee, it majr b« laiiiiMd as dad^lie tcimeteri 

8lc tfi I dlYft p6- 1 tens CfpcL 

5. Ckoriambic trimeter catalecticy or PhereeratiCy consists of 
ft spondee, choriambus, and a catoleetic syllable ; as, 

OrfttA I Pyrrhft s&b «ii- 1 trfi. 

Here, also, the fint foot is sometiines a trochee or an iambus. When a 
spoudee, it may be scamied as Dactylic trimeter. 8ee lY. 6. 

6. Chorioanhie dimeter ^ consists of a choriambus and a Bac- 
chius; as, 

Lydlft die I pdr Gmnds. Hoe. 


1. The Ionic a majore^ or Sotadic metre^ consists of three 
Ionics a majore, and a spondee ; as, 

Has cQm g^mi- 1 ni oQmpSdd | dsdicftt c&- 1 teofis. 

Ob$. — Id this metre, an Ionic foot is often changed for a ditrochee, as id 
the third foot of the preceding line ; and a long syllable is often resolyed 
into two short enes. 

2. The Ionic a minore, consists generally of three or lour 
^eet, which are all Ionics a minore ; as, 

P&dr filds I tibi tdbs | dpgrosce- 1 qud ma&rrm, Hoft. 


865. — A compound metre or Aiynartete, is the union of 
two kinds of metre in the same yerse or line. Of these the 
following are the chief: 

1. Greater Alcaic. Iambic mon. hyper. + Chor. dim. aoat. 

Thus, w — I w — I — 

2. Lesser Alcaic Dactylic dim. + Trochaic mon. 

Thus, -ww|-ww||-.w-w 

3. Arckilochian HepL or Dact. tetr. a priore + Trooh. dint. B. CL 

ak«, — ^^1 — ^^|_^^l_^w|| — i-^i 

4. Dactylico-Iambic, Dactylic trim. cat. + Iambic dim. 

„» ZZ^\ 1_||;_|__|3_|_. 

5. lambico DaetyUc, Iambic dim. + Dactylic trim. cat. 

•^^ 3-L-|3-.L>||z3^!_^, 

168 PBOSODT. — ^MBTBB. 827 

§ 166. SCANNING. 

866 ' — Scanning is Uie measuring of verse, or the resolving of a line 
into the several feet of which it is composed. 

To do this properly, a previous acquaintance with the rules of quantity, 
and the structure of each kind of verse, is indispensable, — ^and aJao with 
the various ways by which syllables in certain situations are varied by 
contraction, elision, &e. These are usually called Figures of Prosody 
and are as follows: 


1. Synahxpka^ cuts off a vowel or diphthong from the end 
of a word, when the next word begins with a vowel, or h with 
a vowel following it, thus converting two syllables into one ; 

Terra antiqua by Svnaloepha, terr* antiqua ; DardanidcB tn/«nn, Dar- 
danicT in/enai ; vento hue, venf w; thus : 

Quidve moror 9 si omnes uno ordine habetis Achivos. Yiaa. 

Scanned thus, 

QmdvS m5- | rOr t s' 6m- 1 nSs G- | n* Or dm' hit- | betis A- 1 chlvos. 

The Syndlceplia is sometimes neglected, and seldom takes place in the 
interjections, O, heu^ ah, proh, vcb, vah, hei. 

Long vowels and diphthongs, when not cut oft, are sometimes shortened; 

Insiilse | Idnf | In mflg- | no qufis | dirft Cg- | ]s&n5. Vmo. 

Oredim&fi | Sn qui &- 1 mSnt ip- | si ^i | sQmnii | f ingOnt In. 

2. Ecthlipds cuts off m with a vowel preceding it, fVom 
the end of a word, when the next word begins with a vowel, 
or h followed by a vowel ; as, 

Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, eui lumen ademptum. 

Scanned thus, 

MOnstr' hdrr | T6nd,' in- 1 f5rm,* in- | gSns cul | iGmSn ftd- 1 emptOm. 

This elision was sometimes omitted by the eaUy poets ; as, 

Corporum | offici- 1 um est quoni- 1 am preme- | re omnia de- 1 orsum. 

Obs, A Syvalceplia and JEcthlipsis are sometimes found at the end of a 
line, where, after the completing of the metre, a syllable remains to be 
joined to the next line, which of course must begin with a vowel ; thus, 

Steniitur | infe- | liz all- 1 one | vulnere | coelum | que 
Adspicit, Ike 

Here the que and adspieit are joined ; as, qt^ adspicit, 

Jamque iter | emen- 1 si, tur- | res ac | tecta La- 1 tino- | mm 
Ardua, <&c., where the -rum and ardua are joined ; as, r* ardua, 

3. SyncBresis^ sometimes called Crasis, contracts two s}'lla 
bles into one ; as, Phcsthon^ for Phaethon ; this is done by 

328 FBO8O0T. — ^MSTBE. § 167 

forming two vowels into a diphthong ; al, ^, ot, into m^ei^ci; 
or, pronouncing the two syllables as one ; thus, ea, tv, as if ya, 
yu, <kc ; as, aurea^ aurya ; JiUttSj Jilyua ; and ua, i», ^sc, as 
if t0a, m ; thus, gentta^ genwa; tenuis^ tenwii. 

4. Dicerfyia divides one syllable into two; as, aulaty for 
aulce ; Trotce, for Trojm; Perseus^ for Perseus; milutis^ for 
milvus ; soluit^ for «o/i;t/ / voliiit, £>r voM7 ; a^iks, suetus^ sua- 
sity SuevoSj relanguity reUquaSy for aqiUB^ suetus^ dsc. ; as, 

AvLhi in medio libabant pocula Baochi Visa. 
Stamina non nlli diaBoliienda Deo. Peniam, Tibdu.i». 

5. Systdle makes a long syllable short ; as, the penult in 
tuUrunt; thus, 

Matri | longa de- 1 cem tul^ | rant fiia- 1 tidia | menses. YiacL 

6. Diastdle makes a short syllable long ; as, the last sylla> 
ble of &m6r in the following verse : 

Oousi- 1 dant, si- 1 tantiis a- 1 m5r, et | moenia | oondant Ytrq. 

§ 167. STANZA. 

868. — A poem may consist of <me or 6iore kinds of verse. When a 
poem consists of one kind of yerse, it is called monocolon; of two, dieolon, 
of three, tricolon, 

869. — The different kinds of verse in a poem are usually combined ia 
regular portions called stanzas, or strophes, each of which contains the 
same number of lines, the same kinds of verse, and these arranged in the 
same order. 

870. — When a stanza or strophe consists of two lines, the poem ia 
called distrophon; of three lines, triatrophon; of four, tetrastrophaiK 
Hence poems, according to the number of kinds of verse which they con- 
tain, and the number of lines in the stanza, are characterized as follows* 

MonocoloTif one kind of verse in the poem. 

Dieolon distrophon^ two kinds of verse, and two lines in the stanza. 
Dicolon tristrophorif two kinds of verse, three lines in the stanza. 
Dieolon tetrastrophony two kinds of verse, four lines in the stanza. 
TVicolon triatrophonj three kinds of verse, three lines in the stanza. 
Tricolon tetrastrophimf three kinds of vei*se, four lines in the stanza. 


87 1 . — Horace makes use of nineteen different species of metre com* 
bined in eighteen different ways. They are arranged as follows, accor Hog 
to the order of preference given them by the poet. The references here^ 
where not marked, are to § 164. 

% 169 PBOSODT. — ^HETRE. 829 

Ka 1. Two lines Greater Alcaie. § 166. 1. One Ardulochian dixnetef 
hypermeter, L 2. 5. 8d; and one Leeaer AJcaie. g 166. 2. 

ISo, 2. Three lines Sapphic, XL 2. One Adonic, or Dactylic dim. lY. 7 

Ka 8. One line Choriambic trim, or Glyconic, Y. 4. One choriamhio 
tetram. or Asclepiadio. Y. 8. 

So. 4. One line Iambic trim, or Senarian, L 8. 6. Ist One Iambic dim. 

Ko. 6. Three lines, Ghor. tetram. or Asdepiadic, Y. 8. One Chor. trim, 
or Glyoonic, Y. 4. 

Ko. 6. Two lines Ohor. tetram. or Asclepiadic, Y. 8. One Chor. trim, 
cat, or Pherecratic, Y. 6. One Chor. trim, or Glyconic, Y. 4. 

No. 7. Choriambic tetrameter, or Asdepiadic alone, Y. 8. 

Na 8. One line Dactylic Hexameter, lY. 1. One Dactylic tetram. a 
posteriore, iV. 4. 2d. 

No. 9. Choriambic pentameter only, Y. 1. 

No. 10. One line Dactylic Hexameter, lY. 1. One Iambic dim. 1. 2. 8. 

No. 11. Iambic trimeter Senarian only, 1. 2. 6. 1st 

No. 12. One line Choriambic dim. Y. 6. One Chor. tetram. (altered) Y. 2. 

No. 18. One line Dactylic Hexameter, lY. 1. One Iambic trim. sen. L 8. 
6. 1st ^ 

No. 14. One line Dactylic Hexameter, lY. 1. One Archilochian Dactylie 
trimeter catalectic, lY. 6. 

No. 16. One line Dactylic Hexameter, lY. 1. One lambico dactylic^ 
g 166. 6. 

Na 16. One line Iambic trim. Senarian, L 8. 6. 1st One Dactylic Iam- 
bic, g 166, 4. 

Vo. 17. One line Archilochian Heptameter. g 166. 8. One Archilochian 
Iambic trimeter, Catalectic, L 2. 6. 2d. 

No. 18. One Une Iambic dimeter Acephalous, L 6. 9th.; and one lambie 
trimeter catalectic, L 6. 2d. 

No. 19. Ionic a minore only, YL 2. The first line contains three feeti 
the second, four. 

Note, — The Satires and Epistles are in Dactylic Hexameter, lY. 1. 


872. — This key gives, in alphabetic order, the first words of each ode, 
with a reference to the Nos. in the preceding section where the stanza is 
described, and reference made to the place where each metre is explained. 

^li yetusto No. 1 

^quom memento 1 

Albi ne doleas 6 

Altera jam teritur . . . . IS 

Angustam amici 1 

At O Deorum 4 

Andiv^re Lyce 6 

Bacchum in remotis . . . Nu 

Beatus ille 

Coelo supinas 

Ccelo tonantem .... 

Com tu Lydia . . .... 

Cur me querelis • . • • 

Delictamfyorum, . • • • • 


PB080DT. — ^MXTBB. 


D«teeDdeoQBb . . . 

Diaoam teners • . • • 

Piffiigdre Dives 

Dive quern prolef . . . 
Divis orte dodu . • . 
]>onarein paterM . . . . 
Dooeo gr^m enm . 

Elieu fu^&ees 

£tt mihi Donum . . • • 
£t thure et fidibos . 
Exegi moaamentam . . • 
Eztremum Taxuum . . . 
Fairne nympharom . . . 
Feato <}uid potios die . . 
Heivulia ritn • . . . 
Horrida tempestaB . . . 

Ibis Libumis 

loci bealis ...... 

Ille et nefasto 

Impioe parr» 

Incliiaain Daaa^ • . . . 
IntactiB opulentior • . • 

Integer vitas 

IntenuiBea VenuB din • • 
Jam jam effieaci . . • , 
Jam pauoa aratro • . • 
Jam aatia terris • • . . 
Jam veris oomites . • • 
Justum et tenaoem • • 
Laudabunt alii .... 
Lupis et a^8 . . • 
Lvdia die per omnea . • 
luBcenaa atavia . • • 

MaU soluta 

Martiifl ooelebt .... 
Mater aa^a Oupidiniaii • 
Mercuri facunde . . . 
MercmiDamte . . . . 
Miserarumest .... 

Mollis inertia 

Montium custoa . . • 
Motom ex Metello . . . 
Musis amioua . . . • 
Natis in aanm ..... 
Ne forte credaa. . • . 
Ke iiit aucillsB . . . • . 
Kolis longa feras . . . 
Kondura subacta .... 
Non ebur ne(|ue aureom 
Kou semper mibres . . . 
Kon usitata . . . . . 
Kon vides quanto . . , 


ftaJiam Vare saera 























NnllnB asveoto . . 
Nunc est bibendum . 
O crudelis adhuo 
O Diva gratum . 
O fons Biandusias . 
O matre pulchr& . . 
O nata mecum . . 

... 8 

. . 1 

• . • • V 

. . 1 

. . 6 

... 1 

... 1 

O navis referent 6 

O saspe meoum 1 

O Venus regina ...... 8 

Odi prolfianum • 1 

Otium Divos ........ 2 

Parcius Junctas 2 

Pftrcus Deorum 1 

Parentas olim 4 

Pastor quum traheret .... 6 

Persioos odi puer ...... 2 

Petti nihil me 16 

Phoebe, silvarumque 2 

I^oebus volentem 1 

Pindarum ^uisquis 2 

Poscimur siquia . • v . . . • 2 

Quae cura patrum 1 

Qualem nunistrum 1 

Quando repdstum 4 

Quantum distet ab Inacho . 8 
Quem to, Melp<»nene . . .8 

Quern vin&n aut h^roa . • 2 

Quid bellicosus 1 

Quid dedioatum 1 

Quid fles i^teria 6 

Quid immerentes 4 

Quid obsei^tis 11 

Quid tibi vis 8 

Quis desiderio 6 

Quis multa graoiliB .... 6 

Quo me, Baeche ..... 8 

Quo, quo soelesti mitia ... 4 

Rectius vives 2 

Ro^re longo 4 

Soriberis Vario ....... 6 

Septimi Gades 2 

8ie te Diva potens .... 8 

Solvitur aons hiems .... 17 

Te maris et terns 8 

Tu ne quaesieris tt 

IVn'hena regum ... . • I 

ifUa si juris 2 

Uxor pauperis Ibyei .... 8 

Velox amoenum .... 1 

Vides ut alta . . .... 1 

Vile potabis ....... 9 

Vitas hinnuleo 6 

Vixi dioreiM . . . . • ^* • 1 



1. JHvisiona of the Tear, 

878. — Bomulus is said to have divided the year into ten months, as 
follows: 1. MartiiUf from Mars, his supposed father; 2. Aprilis^ £roiii 
Aperio, ^ to open ;" 8. Maiua, from Maia^ the mother of Mercury ; 4. J%h 
miM, itoax the goddess Jww, The rest were named from their number, as 
follows: 6. QuiiUilUy afterwards Julius^ from Julius Ccesar; 6. Sexiilis, 
afterwards. ^tfjirtM^ut, from Augustus Ccesar; 7. September; 8. October; 
9. November; and 10. December. Numa afterwards added two months; 
viz: 11. JanuariuSt from the god Janus; 12. JF'ebruarius, from februo, "to 

874. — As the months were r^ulated by the oourse of the moon, it 
was soon found that the months and seasons did not always correspond, 
and Tarious expedients were adopted to correct this error. Much confu- 
sion however still remained till about A. U. 707, when Julius Ossar, assist- 
ed by Sosigenes, an astronomer of Alexandria, reformed the Oaiendar, 
adjusted the year according to the course of the sun, and assigned to each 
of the twelve months the number of days which they still contain. 

2. Tfis Roman Month, 

875.--— llie Ronuuss divided their month into three parts, called ^o* 
lettds^ Nones, and Idei^, The first day of erery month was called the 
Kalends ; the fifth was called the Nones ; and the thirteenth was called 
the Ides ; except in March, May, July, and October, when the Nones fell on 
the seventh, and the Ides on the fifteenth ; and the day was numbered ac- 
cording to its distance, (not after but) before each of these points ; that is, 
after the Kalends, they numoered tiie day according to its distance before 
the Nones ; after the Nones, according to its distance before the Ides ; 
and after the Ides, according to its distance before the Kalends — both 
days being always included. Tlie day before each of these points was 
Dcver numbered, bnt called Pridie, or ante diem Nondrum, or Iduum^ 
or Kalendarum, as the case might be ; the day before that was called 
tertio, the day before that, quarto, Ao, ; soiL NonOrum, Iduum, Kalendarum, 

876. — Yarious expressions and constructions were used by the Romans 
in the notation of the davs of the months. Thus, for example, the 29th 
Pecember or the 4th of the Kalends of January, was expressed differently 
as follows : 

1st Quarto Kalendamm JannariL Abbreyiated, lY. KaL Jan.» or 
2d. Quarto Kalendas Januarii " IV. KaL Jaa, or 

*The first day was named Kalends, from the Greek, «raX£ei), to eaUy becanss 
when the month was reflated aooordinff to the course of the moon, the priest 
armtftinoed the new moon, which was or course the first day of toe month. 
The Nones were so called because that day was always the ninth from the 
Ides. The term Ides U derived from an obsolete Latin verb iduare, to divide, 
it \f* supposed, because that diiy being about the middle of the month, divided 
it into two nearly equal parts 



Sd Quarto Ealendaa Januaria& Abbreinuiied. IV. EjiL JaiL, or 
4th. Ante diem quartuiu KaL Jan. '* a. d. IV. K. Jan. 

Id tbes« expreBsions, quarto agrees with die understood ; and die goyems 
Kaienddrum m the geiutiver Kalettdat is govemed by ante understood. 
In the first ezpressiau, Januarii is considered as a nouu goyerned by Ka- 
UndArum ; in the second, as a noun goyeined by Katendas ; in the third* 
Januariaa is regarded as an adjective agreeing with Kalendas ; in the 
fourth, ante diem quartum is a technical phrase for die quarto ante, and 
frequently has a preposition before it ; as, in ante diem, <&&, or, ex ante 
diem, &e. 

The notation of Nones and Ides was expressed in the same way, and 
with the same yariety of expression. 

The correspondence of the Roman notation of time with our own, may 
be seen by inspection of the following 



Mar. Mal 

Jan. aA}. 

Apr. Juk. 

. Febr. 


Jul. Oct. 


Sept. Nov. 

28 days. 


81 days. 

81 day 9, 

80 day9. 

Bissex. 29. 







VL nonas. 

IV. nonas. 

IV. nonas. 

IV. nonas 



IIL « 




IV. « 

Pridie « 

Pridie « 

Pridie ** 


IIL « 






VIIL idus. 

VIIL idus. 

VIIL idusL 



VIL « 

VIL « 

VIL « 


VIIL idus. 

' VL « 




VIL « 



V. « • 


VL " 

IV. « 





IIL « 




IV. « 


Pridie « 

Pridie « 


IIL « 






XIX. kal. 


XVL kaL 





XV. « 


XVIL kal. 


XVL « 

XIV. « 


XVL «« 

XVL « 

XV. « 



XV. « 

XV. « 

XIV. « 

XIL « 


XIV. « 

XIV. •* 






XIL « 



XIL « 

XIL « 




XL " 

XL « 




X. « 


IX. « 

VIL • 


IX. « 

IX. ** 





vin. " 

VIL « 



VIL « 

VIL « 




VL « 

VL « 




V. « 



Pridie Max. 


IV. « 

IV. « 

IIL « 


IIL « 

IIL « 

Pridie « 



Pridie « 


3. Hules for reducing TXme, 

Afl, however, this table caiinot be always at hand, the foUowiog aimpld 
rules will enable a person to reduce time without a tablt;. 


Fvr redhcing Kalends. 

878. — Kalendce are always the first day of the month : — Pridie Ka* 
lendarum^ always the last day of the month preceding. For any other 
notation, observe the following — 

879. — Rule. Subtract the number of the Kalends given, 
from the number of days in the preceding month ; add 2, and 
the result will be the day of the preceding month ; thus, 

X KaL Jan.— Dec has days 81—10=21 -|-2=23d of DecV. 
XVL KaL Dec— Nov. has days 80— 16= 14 +2= 16th of NoVr. 

For reducing Nones and Ides, 

880. — KuLB. Subtract the number given, from the number 
of the day on which the Nones or Ides fall, and add 1. The 
result will be the day of the month named ; thus, 

rV. Non. Dec — Nones on the 6 — 4=1 + 1=2, or 2d Dec'r 
VL Id. Dec— Ides on the 13—6=7 + 1=8, or 8th DecV. 
IV. KoaMar. — ^Nones on the 7—4=8 + 1=4, or 4th March. 
VL Id Mar.— Ides on the 16—6=9 + 1 = 10, or 10th MarcL 


881 . — If the day is that on which the Kalends, Nones, or Ides falL 
eall it by these names. If the day before, call it Pridie Kal. (of the fol- 
lowing month), Prid Non.^ Pridie Id (of the same month). Other days 
to be denominated according to their distance before the point next fol- 
lowing, viz. : those after the Kalends and before the Nones, to be called 
Nones ; those after the Nones and before the Ides, to be called Ides^ viz. : 
of the month named ; and those after the Ides and before the Kalends, to 
be called Kalends^ viz. : of the ^lonth following ; as follows : 

For reducing to Kalends, 

882. — Rule. Subtract the day of the month given, from 
the number of days in the month, and add 2. The result will 
t« the number of the Kalends of the month following ; thus, 

Dea 28d.— Dec has days 81—23=8+2=10, or X. Kal. Jan. 
Nov. 16th.— Nov. has days 80—16 = 14+2 = 16, or XVI. Kal. Dec 

For reducing to Nones and Idm. 

883. — Rule. Subtract the day of the month given, from 
the d*^y of the Nones (if between the Kalends and Nones), or 
from the day of the Ides (if between the Nc»nes and Ides), 


and add 1. The result will be the number of the Nones <m* 

Ides respectively ; as. 

Dee. 2d.— Day of the Nones 6—2=8+1=4, or IV. Non. Deei 
Dec 8th. * Idee 18— 8=6+1=6, or VL Id Dea 

March 4th. « Nonee 7—4=8+1=4, or IV. Noa Mar. 

March lOth. " Idea 16—10=6+1=6, or VI, Id Mar. 

Dvrinon of ths Roman Day, 

884. — The Roman civil day extended, as with ns, firom midnight to 
midnight, and its parts were Tariously named ; as, media nox^ gallicinium. 
tanii^nium, dUucidum, mdne, antemeridianum, meridu*, pomeruUdnium, do* 

B85.^-The natural day extended from sunrise {tdlis orhui) till sunset 

!$0li9 omAmmV, and was diWded into twelve equal parts, called houTB^ 
A^a) ; which were, of course, longer or shorter acoordinff to the length 
of the day. At the equinox, iheir hour and ours would be of the same 
length ; but, as they began to number at sunrise, the number would be 
different, L e. tJ^eir first himr would oorrespond to our 7 o'clock, their second 
to our 8 o'clock, <fcc. 

886. — The night was divided by the Romans into four watches {vigU 
{<€»), each equal to three hours ; ihejiret and neeond extending from sunset 
to midnight^ and the third and fourthy from midnight to sunrise. 


887. — ^The Romans at first seem to have had but one name ; as, Ro 
miUu9t Rimtu, NwnUor ; sometimes two ; as^ NUma FompUita^ Anew 
Martiue, (be ; but when theV began to be divided into tnbes, or dans, 
(aentet) they commonly had three names — ^the pram&nent the nSmen, fdid 
the eognOmen ; arranged as follows : 

1. The Prcendmen stood first, and distinguished the individual. It was 
oommonjy written with one or two letters ; as, A, for Aulu»; C. for Caius ; 
On, for Oneiuit <&o. 

2. The N&men^ which distinguished the genn. This name oonmionly 
ended in iut; as, ComdiuB, Fabius, 2\diiiu, (be; and 

8. The CogtUfmen, or surname, was put last, and marked the family ; ws, 
CicirOrXJatMTy Ait, 

Thus, in Publins Cornelius Scipio^ Puhliue is the pram/fman^ and de 
notes the indiyidual ; ComeliuM is the nOmen, and denotes the gentj and 
Sdpio is the cognomen, and denotes ih^ family. 

4. Sometimes a fourth name, called the Aan^imen, was added, as a me- 
morial of some illustrious action or remarkable event Thus, Scipio was 
named A/rieOnuMy from the conquest of Carthage in Africa. 

888. — The three names, however, were not always used— oonmionly 
two, am sometimes «ily one. In speaking to any one, the pramjfmen was 
commonly used, which was peculiar to Roman citizens. 

889. — When there was only one daughter in a family, she was called 
by the name of the getis, with a feminine termination ; as, J\Ulia^ the 
daughter of M, Tulliue Oieiro ; Julia, the daughter of O. JuliM Cmtar U 



tK«M wer« two, the elder was called M^jor^ and the rouDger Mitwf ; ais 
TuUia Major, dbc. If more than two, they were diatinguuhed by no- 
ineraU ; as» Prima, Seeunda, Tertiay Ao. 

890. — Slayes had no prcenGmen, but were ancienily called by this w 
nomen of their masters ; as, MarcXpor, as if Mard puer ; Lttclpor {Ludi 
puer\ 4&C. Afterwards they came to be named either from -their country 
or from other circumstances ; as, SyruSj DdvuSy OitOy Tlroy Laarea ; and 
still more frequently from their employment ; as, Medici, Chirurgi, Pasdor 
gdffi, Orammatld, Scribce, Fabri, <&c. 

891. — The most eommoD abbreviatioDB of Latin names^ are the £q1- 
lowing^ Tiz.: 

C, Caiu9, 
QtL, CneiuB. 
Da, Bedtmus. 
L^ LueiuB. 
II, Marcus. 

A. d^ Ante diem. 

A. U., Anno Urbie. 

A. U. Cy Anno urbia 

Cal, or kaL, Kalendce. 

Cos., Consul. (Singu- 

Cose., Co9itiiles. (Plu- 

D, JHviu. 

Eq. Rom., Bquet Ho- 

M. T. C MareuB 7\dUu9 Q., or Qa, Qwntm, 

dciro. Ser^ Serviue, 

11*, Manius. S., or Sex., Sextui. 

Mam., MamercuM, Sp., Spurius. 

N., Nianerius. 
P., Fublita. 

Other Abbreviaiunu. 

Id., Jdua. 

Imp^ ImperOtor 

Non., NoncB. 

P. C, Patree eoneerwtu 

P. R, PopiauM Eorna- 

Pont Max, Pontifex max- 

Pr., PrcBtor. 
Proa, ProconeuL 
Reap., JtetptMca, 

T, TV/Mt. 

Tl, or Tib.. 7?6mti«. 

S., ScUiUem, Sacrum, 

S. D. P., SalfUem dir 

cit plurlmain. 
S. P. Q. R., Senattu 

populutque JiomCh 

S. C, SenMue eontvi" 



892. — The Roman people were originally divided as follows : 

1. PtUres. Fathers, or Senators, called also patrdnes, from their relaticn 

to the plebeians, to whom they were the legfd protectors. 

2. PlSbeSy or common people, called also elientee. 

There were afterwards added — 

S. JKqu^ea, or Knights, persons of merit and distinction, selected from 
the two orders, whose duty at first was to serve in war as cavalry, 
but they were afterwards advanced to other important offices. It 
was necessary for them to be over 18 years of age, and to poss c w 

a fortune of four hundred thousand sesterces. 

4. lAberti, or lAbertlni, Freedmen — persons who had once been slaves, but 
obtained their freedom, and ranked as citizens. They were called 
Uberti in relation to the person by whom they were set free, and 
liberflni in relation to all others. " 

ft. Bern, SUvet. 


80S.-— When RfOmaltn arranged the affiun of Ihe new city, he ap» 
pointed a council of 100 Patres fit>m the Romans, and afterwards added 
to them 100 more from the Sabinea. Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of 
Rome, added 100 more, called Patres minOrum gentium, in relation to 
whom the former senators were called PcUret majOrum gentium, making 
800 in alL A great part of Ihese were slain by Tarquin the proud ; and 
after his expuWion, Brutus, the first consul, chose a number to supply their 
place, who were called Patrea conscripti, because they were enroUea with 
Uie otJier senators. This title was afterwards applied to all the senators 
in council assembled, and is^supposed to be abbreviated for Patra et eon' 

894. — The sons of the Patret were called Patricii, or Patricians. Be- 
sides these distinctions among the R<xnans, there were also distinctions of 
rank or party, as follows : 

Nobiles, wLose ancestors or themselyes held anv curole office, L e. had 
been Consul, Prator, Censor, or Curule .^Edile. 

IqnobUes, who neither themselves, nor their ancestors, held any eomla 

Optimatea, those who fiivored the senateu 

Populdres, those who favored the people; 


895. — At first Rome was governed by kings for the space of 244 yean* 
Die ordinary magistrates after that, till the end of the republic, were, 

1. Connd9, or chief magistrates, of whom there were twa 

2. Prcetora, or judges, also two in number, next in dignity to the consuls 

8. Centors, who took charge of the census, and had a general supervision 
of the morals of the people. 

4. Tribunes of the people, the special guardians of the people agains' 

the encixmchments of the patricians, and who, by the word ** Veto^" 
I forbid, could prevent the passage of any law. 

6. JEdiles, who took care of the city and had the inspection and regula- 
tion of its public buildings, temples, theatres, oaths, dec. 

6. Q^aators, or Treasurers, who collected the public revenues. 

896. — Under the emperors there were added, 

1. Prmfectu^ Urbi, or Urbis, Governor of the city. 

2. Prcefectus Prastorii, ConmiAnder of the body guards^ 

8. Prafeetui An^vdnte. whose duty it was to procure and distribute grain 
in times of scarcity. 

i. PrafeettM tnilitdris cBrarii, who had charge of the military fund. 

5. Prcefectus Classis, Admiral of the fleet 

^ Prcefectus VigUum, or captain of the watch. 


897. — The Romans were a nation of warriors. All within a certain 
age (17 to 45), were obliged to go forth to war at the call of their country; 


When an army was wanted for any purpose, a levy was made among the 
people, of the number required. These were then arranged, officered and 
eqmpped for service. 

898. — The Legion. The leading division of the Roman army was the 
legion, whieh when full -consisted of 6000 men, but varied from that to 

899. — Eaoh legion was divided into ten cohorts; each cohort, into 
Uiree maples ; and each maniple, into two centuries. 

900. — The complement of cavaky {equitatwt\ for each le^on was 
three hundred, eallea Aleiy or juettu e^iitotut. These were divided into 
ten twrma or troops ; and each turma mto three decuricB^ or bodies of ten 

IHviHon of the Soldier 9, 

901. — Tlie Roman soldiers were divided into three daases, vu : 

1. Mcutatiy or spearmen ; young men who occupied the first line. 

2. Prineipe9t or middle-aged men, who occupied the middle line. 

5. TViarii ; veterans of approved valor, who occupied the third line. 

Besides these, there were, 

4, VetUee^ or Ught armed soldiers ; distinguished for agility and swifk- 

6. FundUCretf or slingers. 
6. Sagiitarii, or bowmen. 

902. — The Officers of the Legion toere, 

I. Six Military <rt6tmM, who commanded under the consul in tank 
usually a month. 

fi. The Cfenturiiinet, who oonmxanded the centuries. 

The Offieere of the Oavalty were, 

1. llie Prcefeciue Alce^ or commander of the wing. 

2. The J)eeuricnes, or captains of ten. 

903. — The whole army was under the command of th« consul or pro- 
consul, who acted as commander-in-chiefl Under him were his Legdtt^ or 
lieutenants, who acted in his absence, or under his direction ; or, as his 
deputies, were sent by him on embassies, or on business of special im- 


Roman Money, 

904. — The principal coins among the Ronums were — Brass : the As 
and its divisions ; Silver : Sestertius^ Qu«nant<«, and Denarius^ called H- 
gOti and qtuuirigatif from the impression of a chariot drawn by hoo or 
four horses on one side; Chid: the Aureus or Solidus. 

905. — Before the coining of silver, the Romans reckoned bv the Asy a 
brass coin, called also librct. This coin was originally the weight of tiie 




Bumao libra crponduB, but was afterwards redueed at different timeo, till 
at last it came to one twenty-fourth of a pound, and was called libelUiy 
It was divided into twelve equal parts called Uncim, every number of 
which had a distinct name, as follows : 

1^ Uncia. 

^^ or \ Sextans. 
j'u or J Quadrans. 
^*i| or^ Triens. 




^ or ^ SemiSj sem- 

^ Septunx. 

Ta or J Bes, or bee- 


y'j or I Dodrang, 
jf or I Dextans^ 
\^ Deunx, 

906. — After the use of silver money, accounts were kept in Sesterces 
(Settertii). This coin emphatically called nummiu (money), was originally 
equal to 2^ <useSf as the name sestertius means. Its symbol was L. L. S^ 
i. e. Libra Libra Semis, or the numeral letters, thus, IIS, or with a line 
across HS. Other coins were multiples of this ; thus, the denariits waa 
equal to 4 sesterces, or 10 asses, and tne aureus, a gold coin, was equal to 
25 denarii, or 100 sestertii. When the as was reduced in weight after A. 
U. C. 536, the sestertius was worth 4 asses, and the denarius, 16. 

907. — A thousand sestertii was called sestertium (not a coin but the 
name of a sum), and was indicated by the mark ns* This word was never 
used in the singular ; and any simi less than 2000 sesterces was called 
so many sestertii ; 2000 was called duo or blna sestertia ; 10,000, dena 
sestertia ; 20,000, vicina sestertia, ^&, up to a million of sesterces ; which 
was written dedes eentSna millia sestertiOrum, or nummdrum, ten times a 
hundred thuusand sesterces. This was commonly abbreviated into Jeciea 
sestertiUm, or decies nummum, in which expressions centSna mUlia, or cenr 
ties millia is always understood. 

908. — The following table will show the value of the Roman as, in 
federal money, both before, and after, the Punic war, and of the larger 
coins at all tima< 

1. Tabu of Roman Money, 

Temncius, or 8 XJnciiB, . . . 
2 Teruncii = 1 Sembella, . . 

2 Sembella = 1 As, 

3 Sestertii = 1 Quinarius, or 

2 Quinarii = 1 Denarii, . . . 
26 Denarii = 1 Aureus, or So- 

lidus, . . . 
10 Aurei = 1 Sestertium, . 

Before A, U, 
D. cts. m. 


1 5.4 
8 8.6 

T '7.8 

16 4.1 

8 86 8.4 

88 68 4.6 

After A, V 


D. cts. m. 




8 8.6 

t 1.8 
16 4.7 

8 86 8.i 
88 68 4.6 


The Siliqua (equal to 4 Que), , 

2. Hof nan Weights, 

Troy Weight 
Lbs. oz. dwt grs. 

8 Siliquao = 1 
2 Obdi = 1 
4 ScrupiilA = 1 
H Sext^a = 1 
1^ Siciliquu8= 1 
8 DueUa = 1 
12 UnciaB = 1 

The Drachma was 8 ScrupiUffi. 

Scrupiilum, , 
SeztQla,. . . 
Sidliquus, , 
Duella, . . , 
Uncia, . . . , 

LlBEA, . . . , 











Avoirdupois W*L 

Lbs. oz. dm 








- - 11 8.668 

8. Roman Liquid Meature, 


I Ligiila, or Cochle&re, 

is equal to . . . 

4 Ligula, 

= 1 Cyfithus, 

H Cyathi, 

— 1 Acetabulum, 

2 AcetabQla, 

= 1 Quartarius, 

2 Quartarii, 

= 1 Hemina, 

2 HemTniB, 

= 1 Sextarius, 

6 Seztarii, % 

= 1 CoDgius, 

4 CkHigii, 

= 1 Uma, 

2 UnMB, 

^ 1 Amph^^n> 

20 AmphdriB, 

= 1 Culeus, 



qts. ptfli 



The SextariuB was cByided into twelve UneioB, one of which was tho 
Oydthus, equal to a small wine glass.' 

1 Sextarius (same 
8 Sextarii, 
f Semi-m6dii, 

4. Bcman Dry Measure. 

in liquid measure), 

= 1 Semi-modius, 
= 1 ModiuSy 

Fka. galLk qts. pts 


8 1.606 

— 1 8 1.218 

Homan Measures of Length, 

909. — The Roman foot {pes)^ like the as^ was divided into 1 2 uneieSf 
different numbers of which were sometimes called by the same names as 
those of the as; viz.: Sextans^ quadrans, Ac, The measures less than the 
uncia were the diaitus = ^ ; the semiunria = | ; the siciliguus = ^ ; and 
the sextula = l-6tiD of the uneia ; i e. the pes^ or foot, contained 12 uneio!, 
or 16 digiiif or 24 semiuneicB^ or 48 sieitiquij or 72 seztiilcB, 

5. Tahle of Measures above a Pes, 

I Pes 
li Pes 
li Pes 
2^ Pedes 
5 Pedes 
26 Passus 
8 Stadia 

= 12 TJncisB, or 16 Dig.ts, 

= 1 Palmipes,. .... . 

= 1 Cubitus, 

= 1 Pes Sestertius, .... 

s= 1 PaSBUB, 

a= 1 Stadium, 

= 1 Milliftre, or mile, 

Yds. ft 





1 1.86 

202 0.72 

1617 2.76 

A. roods. 

poles, sq. ft 


1 104.09 

1 180.08 

a 8S.66 


9 229.67 


19 18109 


99 101.83 

124 2 

17 109.79 

488 1 

29 166.91 

840 APniVDix. 

6» TaiU of Land Msamre, 

too Pfidet quadrftti, = 1 Sorup&lam, 

4 SerupQlo, = 1 Sextiila, 

1 1-A SextfilsB, s 1 Actus Simpl«i^ 

( Actas, or 6 SeitBlw^ = 1 Uncia, 

6 Udoub^ s 1 Actus quadrfttus, 

8 Actus qnftdrtti, = 1 JugSrum {A&\ 

2 Jugdra, = 1 Hasredium, 

100 HsBredia, = 1 Centnria, 

4 Oenturia, =* 1 Saltus, 

The Roman Jughrymy or Ab^ of land, was also divided into IS Uucia^ 
any number of wnieh was denominated as before, 906. 


910. — Of the Roman literature, previous to A. T7., 614, scaVcely a ves- 
tige remains. The Roman writers, subsequent to that period, have been 
arranged into four classes, with reference to the puriW of the language at 
tiie time in which they lived. These are called tiie (fdden age, the Silver 
age, the Brazen age, and the Iron age. 

911. — The Oolden age extends from the time ef the second Pume 
war, A. Un 614, to the death of Augustas, A. D., 14, a period of about 250 
years. In that period, Faeeiolatus reokoDa up in aU 62 writers, of many 
of whose works, nowever, only fragments remain. The most disting^ahed 
writers of that period are IWenee^ Catullus, OoMur, Nepos, OieirQ, VtrffU, 
Horace^ Ovid, Livy, and Salluat 

912. — ^The Silver age extends from the death of Augustus to the death 
of Trajan, A. D., 118, a period of 104 years. The writers who flouridiecl 
IB this age tare about twenty-three in number, of whom the most distin- 
guished are Oelnu, VUleius, Columella, the jSmeoM, the JPlinjfs, Jtmmal 
Quintiliain, Taeitue, Suet<miu$, and Curtius, 

913. — "Hie writers of the Brazen ase, extending from the death of 
Trajan till Rome was taken bv the Qo&s, A. D., 410, were 86 ; the most 
distuiffuiBhed of whom were Juatin, Terentianus, Victor, Laetantius, and 

914. — ^From this period oommenced the Iron age, during which the 
lAtin language was much adulterated by the admixture of foreign wonjfa^ 
and its purity, eleganoe, and atoeog^ greatly deeUaed. 



. 915. — For reasoD» atated io the note, g 2, the oontiiMiitel proDim«nili<m 
of the Latin laoguago^ a» presented in that section, is oonsidered.ths he^t 
But since there are i^any who prefer the English, or "Walkerian pr(Hiunci> 
ation, a brief statement of the principles hj which it is regulated is here 
introduced. In doing this it is necessary to state, and for the leanisr al- 
ways to bear in mind, that the English accentuation and ^owel sounds have 
notlung to do with the quantity of the syllables as established by the rules 
of Latm {>rosody. These indeea are often direedy opposed to each other. A 
yowel which by the rules of English orthoepy is long, baying both the ac<^ent 
and the long English sound, is short in Latin ; as pdf-ter, J)i*'its. On the other 
hand, a sylhible that is short, beii^ without the accent and haying the short 
Engliah soimd, is hm^ in Latin; as, am"'d-h<l^ti9, fium"'i4>d-ti9. When, 
^erefore, a yowel is said to haye the long sound, or the short sound — ^to be 
accented or unaccented, nothing is afiirmed respecting the quantity of th6 
iyUabla, as IcDg or dM>ri Here indeed there la an inoQiigniity,'but ^ is 
inseparable from the system. 

. . 916. — ^Aoewdi^ to this modet of pronnDOiition, the eoiwd of a Towel 
rr diphthong depend entirely on two things ; yiz, the accent and the pUtea 
of the yowel in the syllable. Again, the myision of words into syllablee 
diBpends, in a great ueeeure, on Ihe plaee of the aoeents; and liiat again 
entbeqiiadlii^^thepeaalteyUabie. Henee to pi eacu t thit matter faljy 
and properly, we must reyene this ojrder, and eoiisider« 

I. The q^uantity of the penult syllables. 

II. The accent. 

III. The division of words into syllables ; and 

IV. The sounds of the letters in their combinations, 

t3f*^or the diyision of letters into yowels and consonants, the oombip 
nation of the former into diphthongs, and the diyision of the latter into 
mvlfi^ lk|«ids^ dcei; as also for the meea&ig of the tenns nwm>syliiabU, 
dUtyllobU, ^ pemUi and tmUpmvU, and we maeks fctR Um§^ ahtnri, nod 
accented syllables^ see § L 

I. THB QUAirrmr of the PSKtlLT 8TLLABLES. 

917. — For quB&lily hi eoierf^ see ^ Rules, §g 154-161 ; and partieo- 
larly for penult syllablee, g§ 156-169. The fioUowmg are ffmertfit being 
applicable to other syUablee as well as the penult, and are of eztensiye 

1. A vowel before another Towel is short ; as, tfiay dhu. 

2. A vowel before two qonsonantSi or a double oonsonant 
is long by position ; as, arma^foLUoj axis. 

3. A vowel before a mute and a liquid (/ and r), is common ; 
i. e. either long or short; as, voUicriSy or volUcrk. 

4w A diphthong ia always long; as, Cibsarj oBrtmu 

Note. — When the quantttTf of tile penull is determined by taxf of theie 
miee, it is not marked ; otherwiee it ia marked. 



918. — AccssT is a particular stress of voice laid on a par- 
ticular syllable of a word, and marked thus (' ) ; as, jmz'-^, 
an'-umus. Its place is on the penult or antepenult. 

919. — When a word has more aecents than one, the last is called the 
prtrtary acceDt» the one preceding it, the secondary, marked (''); pre- 
ceding that, is often a tkif% marked {'"); and sometimeB e7en a faurthf 
marked ( "" ) ; and all of them subject to the same roles. These are as 
follows : 

920. ^RULES. 

1. Words of two syllables have the accent on the first, or 
penult ; as, pd'-ter^ mU'-aa^ aU'-rum. 

2. Words of more than two syllables, when the penult is 
long, have the accent on the penult ; as, Or^ml'cua : when the 
penult is short they have the accent on the antepenult ; as, 

8. When the enclitics que^ ve, n«, are added to a word, the 
two words are considered as one, and it is accented according- 
ly ; as, pa^ter'-qve, am"-f-<?w«'-n«, dom^-l-nus'-ve, 

4. If only two syllables precede the primary accent, the 
secondary accent is placed on the first; as, dom'''i-nO''rum, 

5. If three or four syllables precede the primary accent, the 
secondary is placed sometimes on the first and sometimes on 
the second ; as, toV'-e-ra-hiVArUS^ de-mon^'strorban'-tur. 

6. Some words which have four syllables before the primary 
accent, and all that have more than four have a third accent; 
and in longer words even a fourth; as, pah'"Aifla"'tirO''nis^ 


920. — In Latin, every word has as many syllables as there 
are separate vbwels or diphthongs. Hence tJ^e following^ 


1. Two vowels coming together and not forming a diph- 
thong, must be divided ; as, De'-us^ tu'-us^ au'-re-us, 

2. A single consonant, or a mute and a liquid (/, r) between 
the last two vowels of a word, or between any two unaccented 
vowels, are joined to the last ; as, ^'-ter, o/'-o-cer, aP-OrOKSs^ 

to^"-«-BA-6i/'-i*tM, ;9«r'"-«-GRI-«d"-<t-d'-NI8. 

^xe. But Ob-i and rib-i join it to the fint 


3. A single consonant, or a mute and a liquid before an ac- 
cented vowel, are joined to that vowel, and so also is a single 
consonant after it, except in the penult ; as, t-TiN'-^-ra, hom'-I-wc*. 

Exe. 1. A single oonspnant, or a mute and a liquid, after a, 0, o, accented, 
and followed by « or i before a vowel, are joinea to the latter ; as, 96-cl-u9^ 
rd-Di-^Mf <i6<m-o, pd^rsLi-us. 

Exe. 2. A single consonant, or a mute and a liquid after u, accented, must 
be joined to the following vowel ; as, mk-ureVy t'&-Ti-or, I^vbi-cus. 

4. Any two consonants, except a mute and a liquid coming 
before or after an accented vowel, and also a mute and a liquid 
after an accented vowel (the penult and the exceptions to Rule 
3 excepted), must be divided ; as, tem-por'-t-bits, lec^-tum, tern'- 
po-rum^ mef-ri'Cus, 

Also glj tly and often c/, after the penultimate vowel, or before the vowel 
of an accented syllable ; as, Af-las, At lan'-H-detf ec4ecf't€L 

5. If three consonants come between the vowels of any two 
syllables, the last two, if a mute and a liquid, are joined to the 
latter vowel; as, con^-tra^ am^'-pli-a^'Vit ; otherwise, the last 
only ; as, comp^-tu8, re-demp'-tor. * 

6. A compound word is resolved into its constituent parts, 
if the first* part ends with a consonant; as, AB-e«'-««, sub'-I-*/, 
iN'-l-<wr, circum'-o-^o. But if the first part ends with a vowel, 
it is divided like a simple word ; as, DE/'-^-ro, Bil'-i-go, FKJEs'-io. 

921 . — These rules are useful here, only as a guide to the pronunciation 
in the Walkerian mode, the vowel sounds being always different when they 
end a syllable, and when followed by a consonant ; thus, dW^-go and/)ra»'-to 
would be pronounced very differently if divided thus, di'-ti-go and prce*-sto, 
though the quantity and eiceent would be the same in both. It is therefore 
mamfest, that in order to correct pronunciation in this mode, it is necessary 
to be familiar with, and ready in applying, the rules of syllabication. 


922. — The sound of the Vowels, 

1. Every accented vowel at the end of a syllable has the 
long English sound ; as in the words fate, me, pine, no, tube ; 
thus, pa'-ter, de'-dit, vV-vus, to'-tus, tu'-ha, Ty'-rus,* 

2. At the end of an unaccented syllable, e, o, and u, have 
nearly the same sound as when accented, but are sounded 
shorter; a.s,re^'te, vo'-lo, ma'-nu ; a has the sound of a in fa* 
ther; as, mu'-sa, e-pis^-to-la, 

I, ending an unaccented syllaible, has always its long sound 
in the following positions : 

* Y has the sound of i in the same situation. 


Ist In the end of a word; as, dom'-lni. Except in Hb4 
«nd iib-ij in which final i sounds like short e. 

2d. In the first syllable of a word (the second of which ia 
accented), either when it stands alone before a consonant ; aa 
udo'-ni-us^ or ends the syllable before a vowel ; as, Ji^-bam. 

In all other situations at the end of an unaccented syllable 
not final, i has an obscure sound resembling short e ; as, nob'- 
I'iis, rap^'i-duiy vi-dif-liSj &c. 

3. When a syllable ends with a consonant, its yowel has the 
short English sound, as in fat, metypin, noty iuby symbol; thus« 
mag'-nuSy reg'-numyfin^-go^ IwCy sul^y cyg'-nua, 

Exe. E» at the end of a word, has the sound of the English ward eoti; 
as, fS-de^, ifif-nen, 

923.-2. The sound of the Diphthongs. 

JE and a are pronounced as « in the saoEie ntuation ; au, 
m'-ias, ecBt'-^ra^ pa'-na^ as'-trum. 

Au is pronounced like aw^ — eu like long «, — and n, not fol- 
lowed by another vowel, Uke long i ; as, au'-dUo, eu'-ge^ hei. 
Exe, In Greek proper names, an are separated; as» Men^'e4al-ui, 

Note.-^^tOy ue, ui, ito, and uu, in one syllable after q, g, «, are not properly 
diphthongs, but the u takes the sound of w, 8-2. 

After g and « these vowels are often pronouneed sepamtely, or in differ^ 

ent syllables ; as, ar^-gu-o, 8u!-a, su'-i, iw-ua. 

Exe, Ui in cut and Avic, has the sound of t loQg. 

924. — 3. The sound of the Consonants, 

The consonants are in general pronounced in Latin as In 
English. The following may be noticed. 

C before «, t, y, a, ce, has the sound of < ; as, ei^, ci-vie, eyg'-ntu, Cei* 
ear^ ea^-na ; before OyO^u^l^ r, and at the end of a syllable, it has the sound 
of ib; as, Ca~to^ con-tra, cur, Clo-di-ue^ Cfri-to, 

Ch, generally has the sound of ib; as chaf*'ta ehor'-da, ehr6^m€L 

O before «, t, y, «, ce, has its soft sound like Jf; as, gif^us, re*-gi§; alse 
before another g soft; as, agger. In other situations it is hard; as in the 
English words, bag, go. 

Ck and ph before th in the b^gimuxtt of a word, are not somiQed; aa^ 
Chthonia, Phihia; also when a word begins with mn,^ (m, ct^pt, pa, 
the first letter is silent, or but slightly sounded ; as, mne-motf-y-ne, gnd-vue, 
tme-Hs, Cte-ai at, Ptol-e-ma^^tu, psaPJo, 

Other consonants in their combinations resemble so closely their sounds 
in English words, that further illustration is unnecessary 






335 Broadway, corker Worth St., New York. 

«* It will b« luKlMd that moBt of tlieta works were written by Teaehera of toe 
■t<Mt eaiiRanee. 

Blcments of AflTRONOMT ; with explanatory Notes and ele- 

J«nt lUastratlons. By John BrocUeeby, A. M., Professor in Trinity College 

Pirotn the Connectieut Common School JoumaL 

We take pleasure in callinff the attention (^ teachers and students to this truly ex 
lellent book. It is not a milk-and-water compilation, without principles and with 
rat demonstration. It contains the elements of the Mcience in their propor integrity 
»nd proportions. Its author is a learned man and a practical instructor, as the 
iUthor of every sehool-book should be. The style is a model for a text-book, com 
lining in a high degree perspicuity, precision, and Tiracity. In a word, it is the very 
lest elementary work on Astronomy with which we are acquainted. 

This notice to echoed by a large number of academies, who are promptly intro 
lacing the book. 

Rlements of Metborology ; designed for Schools and Ac 

ademies. By John Brocklesby, A. M., Proftssor of Mathematics and Natund 
Philosophy In Trinity College, Hartford . 84 *WktB, 

The subject of Meteorology is of tlie deepest interest to all. Its phenomena every 
ivnere surround us, and ought to be as Ikmilia^'ly known to the scholar as his arith 
a.etic or philosophy. This work treats of Winv< i in general, Hurricanes^ Tornadoes, 
Wa*er-spouts, Rain, Fogs, Clcrads, Dew, Snow, Hail, Thunder-storms, Rainbows, 
Haloes, Meteorites, Northern Lights, Ae, 

it has proved highly satisfkctory in the school-room, and is now the established 
Mxt-book in a very large number of our best high schools and academies, where the 
aatural sciences are taught. 

It is highly commended by Prof. Olmsted, Prof. SUliman, Dr. J. L Comstoek* 
^ref Lee, ef Pa., Prof. Love, of Mo., and a host of eminent instructors 

Views OF THE Microscopic World ; designed for Genera) 

Reading, and as a Band-book Tor Classes in Natural Sciences. By Prof Brocklo* 
by $1 1%. 

By the aid of a powerftil microscope, the author has given us highly irstractiTe 
■ceoams of Infusorial Animalcules, FoHsil Infusoria, Minute Aquatic Animals^ 
Structure of Wood and Herbs, CrystaUiiaii»n, Parts of Insects, dec, dec. 

To those who are necesaarily deprived of the aid of a microscope, and eves ta 
ilOiie who liave it, thin Is a most valuable work. It is clearly and pleasantly written. 
Ihe sections on the Animalcules, Infusoria, and Crystaliization. are very beaucifully 
Sttstrated with large and expensive plates. The descriptions of the diflerent kindi 

these wonderful little animals, many of which multiply by billions in a few hours 
re really very instructive. There is no better sthool library book in the world. S 
ihould be read by every man, woman and child. 

Human Physiology ; designed for Colleges and the Highei 

Clasbes in Schools, and for General Reading. By Worthington Hooker, M. D 
Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in Yale College. Illustrated witft 
nearly SOO engravings. $135. 

This is an original w )rk, and not a compilation. Jt presents the subject in a new 
bght, and at the same time embraces all that is valuable for its purpose that could be 
drawn from the most eminent sources. The highest encomiums are reeeiTod ftrom 
all quarters ,- a few are subjoined. 

Prom Caleb J. Hallowell, Alexandria High School^ Va. 

Hooker's Physiology was duly received. We propose to adopt it as a text -boM, 
and shall order in the course of a fortnight. 

From the Boston Medical and Hur^cal Journal. 

We can truly say that we believe this volume is of great value, and we hope thai 
the rare merits of the diligent author will be both appreciated and patronised 

From B. F. TxwRSBuaT, Lenoxvxlley Pa. 

I am ready to pronounce it unqualifiedly the most admirable book or work on the 
human system that has fallen under my notice, and they have not been few. If any 
one desires a complete and thorough elucidation of the great science discussed, thAv 
can nowhere be better satisfied than in the perusal of Dr. Hooker's most excellent 

An Introductory Work on Human Physiology, by Prof 

Hooker, has just been published, designed for all persons commencing the study 
Dr. Hooker's works seem to hare taken their place decidedly at the head of aU 
treatises on the subjeei of Physiology. They are rapidly going into seminaries and 
normal schools in all parts of the country, and the best institutions express theii 
** delight at the result." 00 cents. 

A Comparative English-German Grammar ; based on thif 

afRnity of the two languages. By Prot. Elias Peissner, late of the University ^ 
Munich, now of Union College, Schenectady. ^1.00 

From the New York Ckurckman. 

Of all the German Grammars we have ever examined, this is the most modest antf 
v.i*retending, and yet 't contains a system and a principle which is the life of It, at 
dear, as practical, as effective for learning grammar as any thing we have ever seen 

ui forth, with so much more pret nse of originality and show of philosophy. II 
w\l\ be found, too, we th^nk, that the author has not only presented a new ideaol 
•uch interest in itself, but has admiraMy carried it out in the practical lessons and 

Xfrcises of his work. 

Prom Paor J. FofiTBB, o/ Schenectady. 

I nave examined Prof. Peissner's German Grammar with some attention i have 
narked ^'ith interest the rapid advancement of students here using it as a text-book, 
and have myself carefhlly teste«1 it in the instruction of a daughter eleven years o> 
age. The result is a conviction ihat it is most admirably adapted to secure easy 
pleasant, and real progress, and rbat from no other work which has come under niv 
cotioe can so satiathciory a knowleage of the language be obtained in s (iren time 

Whitlock's Gk^metrt and Surveying, is a wwV for ad- 
vanced stadenta, ponsessinf the highest claima upon the attention of MathomatleaJ 
Teachers. $1 50. 

.n .somparieon wuh other works of the kind, it presents the following advantages: 
1. A better connected and more progressive method of geomeirizing, calculated ts 

•nable the student to go alone. 
S. A fuller, more varied, and available practice, by the introduction of more ihaa 

four hundred exercises, arithmetical, demonstrative, and algebraical, so chosen as t« 

be serviceable rather than amuring, and so arranged as greatly to aid in the acquis! 

tion of the theory 

3. The bringing together of such a body of geometrical knowledge, theoretical an 
rsi^tical, as every individual on enterinc into active life denpands. 

4. A system o/survtying which saves two-thirds of the labor required by the onii 
nary process. 

This work is well spoken of universally, and is already in use in some of the best 
Institutions of this country. It is recommended by Pi of. Pierce, of Cambridge, Prof. 
Smith, of MiddletowD, Prof. Dodd, of Lexington, and many other eminent mathe- 

From E. M. Moksb, Esq. 

I ecnstder that I have obtained more mathematical knowledge from Whitlock's 
Geometry than fN>m all other text -books combined. Unlike too many treatises of » 
similar nature, it is eminently calculated to make malhematicians 



All Blcmentakt and Pkactical Arithmbtiu $n M 

Hien School ari'*'hmetic ^ 81 

Blbmsnts op Alobbra V 84 


Kby to Algebra 84 

BlbmemtsofObombtrt 1 M 

fViMn If . 8 LtTTi.lPtll.D, GraaU Rafi4*, Muk 

1 h«T0 Dodd*fl Hifher Arithmetic, and uahcsiiatiofiy pronouae* t %\9 bMt 
fir >< * M O>i dtfHM I bare ever aeen. 

Ftnm B. HtMfte^ Be^-i o/N^town Academy. 

i hMt9 reeentty adopted Dodd*8 High School Arithmetic, and like it much. Havtan 
■aea that Prof. Dodd it alec author of an Algebra, 1 ahould like to aee that woik ho 
•re ftormiof a ncie class. 

From H. BtlAS, BsQ., Palmyra, Jfo. 

1 have lUriy Ceeced Podd'o Aifehra, asd aoi iMeh pteaaed wtth It. WlUkm liia 
•nmeiry aa well aa tho Alf ebra« 1 akaU fmhwHh tncrodaea it into my odMoL 

From PaoF. W. H. De Put. 

We have Introdnead Dodd'a Algebra Into the Geneaee Weeleyan Seminary 9M ^ 
fetminent teat-book. « 

Ftom R. R. Moeac, tU. 

Dodd*a Algebra peaaeaaee ezeelleiviea pertfiniiig to so other work 

FV«m Rbt J. A. McCiNLCT, Va. 
t IB wieh pleaaed with Dodd'a Algebra, and will introdUM il. 

From OacAJi HAaaia, N. J 
I «ao ProTeeaor Dodd'a Algebra, and ahall continue ft aa our regular tezt-booa 

#Vom PaoF. A. L. Hamultoji, Pr^nieni of Androw C^lUgs, 

I have examined with eome care Prof. Dodd*e Elemente of Geumetry, and, ao Ou 
•a I am capable of Judging, ( conceive it to be ir. nnany respects decidedly the heal 
work of the kind extant. For aimplicity, exactoees, and completep^aa. itcaahara 
■0 avperior. Like hie Arithmetie and Algebra, in many important particulars, bia 
QaoiBetry atanda pre-eratneat and alone. 

A Nbw Common«School Arithmetic, by Prof. Dodd, lis in 


TlM Departnant of PnbUe loatmetion in Canada has repeatedly ordered -Prof 
Dodd'a booka, aa well aa many of F. B. dk Co.'a other publicationa, for uae in achoola 

ScHELL*s Introductory Lessons in Arithmetic ; designed 

as an Introduction to the atudy of any Mental or Written Arithmetie. It containa 
a large amount of mental questions together with a large number of questions to 
be performed on the slate, thus combining mental and written exercises lor young 
beginners. This is a very attractive little book, superior to any of its class. It 
leads the pupil on by the eaaiest steps posaible, and yet insures constant pro- 
gress. 30 cents. 

From Obo. Patki Qvackshbos, Rector of Henry street Grammar School^ If. Ir 

It ia unnecessary to do more than to ask the attention of teachers to this woik , 
they cannot examine it impartially without being convinced ot its superior merits 
It will, no doubt, beoome one of the most popular of school-books. 

From J. Maekham, Ohio. 

I wish to Introdnoe Sehell'a little Arithmetie. It la juat the thing for beglnnara 
end six doaen- 

From O. C. Mbeeifibu), Ind. 

I am highly pleaaed with ScheU's little book, and shall use It. 

JPVom b. P. Dbwolf. Ohio. 
SeheU's little book fbr ehildren ia a beau-ideal of my own, and of course It sniu 

From D. O. Hbffhon, SupU. Schools, Utica. 

The School Committee have adopted ScheJI's Arithmetic for our pubUe 
tend us ihrM hunar«d. 


Am Intkllbctual and Practical Arithmetic; or, Firet 

Lessons In Arithmetical Analysis. By T. L. Enos, Graduate of tlie New York 
8tMe Nomral Schools. 85 eenis. 

The same clearness and conciseness characterize this admirable book that belons 
to the works of Prof. Dodd. The natural arrangements of the text, and the logical 
m ide of solTing tlie questions, is a pectiliar and Important feature belonging to this 
•iiuk alone. 

From Pkop C. Mf WMirar. 

1 hare examined with care and interest Enos' Mantal Arithmetic, and shall intro 
iace it at once into the Academy. 

Frwm Pbovs. I>. I. PmcKiiiT, S. Af . Pbll»ws^ S. Siakli, Roek River Seminary 

'"e hare examined an intellectnal Arithmetic, by J. L. Enos, and like it murh 
VI tf shall immediately use It in our school. 

Frof. Palmer's Book-Kebpino ; Key and Blanks. 67 cents 

This excellent book is superior to the books generally used, becausa : 

1. It contains a large number of bosiness blanks to be fllled by the learner, such as 
oeeds, mortgages, agreements, assignments, &e., Ac. 

S. Explanations flrom page to page, fjrom article to article, and to settle principles 
of law in relation to deeds, mortgages, dec, ^kc. 

3. The exercises are to be written, out, after being calculated. In other works, the 
pupil is expected to copy, merely, 

Palroer*8 Book-Keeping is used in the New York Public Schools, and extensively 
In Academies, It is recommended by Horace Webster, LL. D., G. B, Dochartv 
LL. D., and a large number of accountants and teachers. 



PaiNGiPLis OF EMaLiBH Gbammab £0 

PaoeRKssivK Exbrcisbs-in An aitsis and Parsino IS 

Ihtkoduction TO Analytical Grammak 30 

New, or Analytical and Practical Enolish Grammar A3 

Latin Lbssons, with Exbrcisbs in Parsing. By Geo. Spencer, A. M. Half 
cloth, enlarged .• 63 

Bullions' Principlbs op Latin Grammar 1 00 

Bullions' Latin Reader. With an Introduction on the Idioms of the Latin 
Language. An improTed Vocabulary 1 00 

Bullions' Cjbsar's Commentaries 1 0<l 

Bullions' Cicbro's Orations. With reference both to Bullions*, ami An- 
drew's, and Stoddard's Latin Grammar 1 \l 

Bullions' Sallust 1 <K) 

Bullions' Greek Lessons for Bboinnbrs 75 

Bullions' Principles of Greek Grammar 1 13 

Bullions' Greek Reader. Witd Introduction on the Idioms of the Greek 
Language, and Improved Lexicon I 71 

Bullions' Latin Exircisbs Ltf 

Q^opER'sYiBeiL 300 


From Ptor. C. S. Pbnxel, Anlioch College.^ Ohio, 

BullioiM* book*, by their superior arrangement and accuracy, thcrtr eompletenesa 
•w a Merica, and the rcritrences I'ruin one to the otbur, aupply a want more perfectly 
than any other booka have done. They beur the murks of the instructor as well m 
the scholar. It reffuirefl more than learning to make a good school-book. 

rrom J. B. TiiOMPSOK, A. M., UUe Hector of ike Somerville Classical Instihite^ N. J. 

I use Bullions' works — all of them — and consider them the best of the kind thai 
bavc been issued in this or any other language. If they were universally used we 
would not have so many superficial scholars, and the study of the classics would be 
ninrc likely to serve the end for which It was designed — ^the strengthening and 
•d'>rning of the mind. 

From A. C. RicHAaos, Esq., Clay Co., Ga. 

We think Bulllona' Latin Ormmmar, in the arrangement of its syntax and the ern- 
-iseness of its rales, the manner of treating prosody, and the conjngationa of .be 
vcrliM, superior to any otbor. If his Greek Reader is as good aa the Latin Reader, w» 
•hnll introduce U. 

It Is almoM ■aptHtamu to pobllah notices of booka so extensively used. 

Within the laat fliw months Dr. Bnllione' English Grammar has been intn.ducetl 
mto the Public, and many of the Private Schools, the Latin School, the English 
High Sciutol, the City Normal School, of the city of Bosf ^ ; Normal Schools ot 
Bridgewater and Westfleld , Marlborough Academy ; cities Salem, Newbtiryport. 
Ac, Mass. ; Portsmouth, Concord, and several academies i New Hampshire ; and 
re-adopted in Albany and Troy, New York. They are used in over seventy acade 
mles in New York, and in many of the most flourishing institutions in every Slate of 
:he Union. Also, in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C, and of Canada, la 
Oregon and Australia. The classical Series has ^en mtroduced into several c«l 
leges, and it is not too much to say that Bullions' Grammars bid Our to become the 
Standard Oraoimara of the eountrv 



■E Stvbkvts' Piimsb 7 

" " Spkllino-Book It 

*• •* FikstRbadbe IS 

• « iSBCOND " tl 

* « Thibd " «C 

** •• FOUBTM *« 71 

• Fifth " tl 





Tb0 FmbUsbBra fbel Justified in claiming that tae 

Mstfoi teaching reading, and spoiling that has yet i 

tnelndea. In the Mrst steps, an ingenious and origii 

very pleasing and encouraging to ihe pupil. The d 

InstruciiTe, and the later portions consist of fine 

neyed. Prof. Page, late Principal or' the New York i 

system: "/( is the best I ever satv for teaching t 

Such testimony is of the highest value, and none ne 

such a recommendation. 

The numerous notices flrom all parts of the count 
used, cannot be introduced here. They have Just i 
County, N. Y., without solicitation ; and the sai 
•ehooU where they have been^xamined. 

From C. B. Ckumb, N 

The Students' Series is, in my opinion, the best in 
students will learn ttoice as much^ with the same lab< 
tysteni. The books of this Series exeel in the pur 
1 have introduced them. 


iMraoDUCTioN TO Natural Philosopht. For Ck 

Ststbm op NiTUKAL Philwsopht, Dowly revised a 

Elbmbhts op Chbmist&t. Adapted to the preseni 

The Youno Botanist. New edition 

Blbmbnts op Botant. Including Vegetable Physl 
Common Plants. With Cuts 

OuTLiNBs OP Phtsioloot, both Comparative and H 
Outliubs op Anatomy, excellent for thO'Cenoral 

Nbw Blbmbnts op Gboloqt. Highly Illustrated. 

Elbmbnts OP MiNEBALOoT. Illustrated With numt 

Natural History op Birds. Showing their Com] 
valuable feature 

VATO«»#t Ui!>roii^ OP Bkasts. Ditto 


Qubstions and Illustrations to thb Pbilosop 

All the above works are fhlly illustrated by elegan 

The Philosophy lias been republished in Scotland 
venools in Prussia. The many valuable additions i 
editors, Prof. Lees, of Edinburgh, and Prof. Uoblyn, 
oy the author in his last revision. The Chemistr; 
;ontains all the late discoveries, together with metj 
jietais. Portions of the series are in course of pub 
mony, in addition to the general good testimony of t 
eient to warrant us in saying that no works on sim 
have ever been so extensively used. Continual appli 
ers to replace the Philosophy in schools where, for a 
books. The style of Dr. Comstock is so clear, and 1 
that no writer can be found to excel him for school 
pmins to include Hew discoveries, and to consult emi 

Ppimart Gboqrapht; with Colored D 
Quarto Geography; with elegant 

phy Tables, Map of the Atlantic Oceaa 6cc. 75 c 

OlwctV School Geoorapht and Atlas. Containing An 

fitatt C^ofimpky, Ptajaieal Geocrmphj, Tables, an valirely mw Cbart of Urn 
Worid, to alMnr its phjraieat ooDtomuiiioii, as adaptad to parposAs of eonmera^ 
and also Air tba pvpooa of raTiewiag rlaaata ; alao a Chronologieiu Table of Diseo 
Tories. $1 It. 

>LNBY*s OvTLiNB Map8. Of the Worid, United States 

Europe, Asia, Africa, Aaieriea, and Canada, with Portfolio and Book of Bjorriaaa 


AU the recent bnproTementa are Included in OIney*s Quarto and Seboel Googra 
hies. They are not obsolete or out of date, but fwly ** up to the tiues.** In elo 
anoe or completeness they are not snrpassed. 

Mr. Olney commenced the plan of simpliryinf the first lesson, and teaching a ehHd 
f what is fiuoillar, to the exclusion of astronomy. He commenced the finn of hay- 
ing only those things represented on the maps which the pupil was required ts 
team. He originated the system of dassification, and of ahowing the goTernment, 
rtligion, &e., by symbols. He first adopted the system of carrying the pupil oTer 
Che earth by means of the Atlas. His worlis fir«t eontained cuts, in which the dress 
architectare, animals, intsmal t'spro^menu, Ac, of each country are gronped, as 
as to be seen at one riew. Hia works ^r«t contained the world as known to tlM An- 
eients, n^ m i!l Ao Aneisu History, a*^ a Synopsis of Physical Oeography, with 
maps. In short, mj 'aa7e seen no Talnabie feature hi any geography which has not 
originally appeared in theae works; and we think tt not too ranch to claim that, in 
many respects, most other works are oopiea of theae. We think that a/sir and 
amJ id examinntum will sho^ that Olney's' Atlas is the largest, most systematic, 
and complete of any yet published, and that the Quarto and Modern School Geogra- 
phicN contain more matter, and that better arranged, than any aimilar works ; and 
they are desired to lest the claims here aaserted. 

Ii is impossible to give here more than a fkvaionnl PVt of the reoommendaiiona, 
of the first order, which the puHishers hare reeeired ror the foregoing list of books 
Enough has bsea given to show ths claims of the books to examination and use. 

Ail these worfca are made in Tory neat, durable styl^, and are sold as (ow as a 
moderate remuneration will allow Copies supplied to teachers for ibcir own use at 
sne-flillh off from the retail pr^c*. ^nd postage paid. I.arge inutituiiuus arc furuislied 
ssp t aa wUHom ■he r gs. 


835 Broadwat, New Yore. 






Practical I^essons in English Grammar and Composltiott* 

For young beginners, (introductory to "Principles of Eaglish Gram- 
mar.") 25 cents. 

Principles of English Grammar* A brief but comprehensive work 
for Common Schools. 50 cents. 

Introduction to Analytical English Grammar* This little work 
is the Practical Lessons, so enlarged as to be what its title implies. 
80 cents. 

Analytical and Practical English Grammar* A larger work ftr 
Academies, High Schools, etc. 60 cents. 

Progressive Exercises in Analysis and Parsing. Adapted to botb 
Grammars. 15 cents. 

Latin Lessons, with Exercises in Parsing. 60 cents. 

Prepared by George Spencer, A. M., as introductory to 

Principles of Latin Grammar. Kew edition. $1.00. 
Latin Reader. With Introduction on Latin Idioms, an Improved Vo- 
cabulary, etc. $1.00. 

Exercises in Latin Composition. Adapted to the Latin Grammar. 

Key, separate, for Teachers only. 50 cents. 

CJaesar^s Commentaries. With Notes and References revised. $1.00. 

Sallnst. With Notes and References. $1.00. 

Clcero^s Orations. With Notes and References to Andrews* and Stod- 
dard's, as well as to Bullions* Grammar. $1.13. 

Latin-English IMctlonary. With Synonyms. 1014 pages. $3.00. 

First Lessons In Greelc Introductory to the Grammar. TO cents. 


PHnclples of Greek Grammar* New Edition. $1.13. 

Greek Reader* With Introduction on Greek Idioms, Improved Lexicon, 
«tc. 91.75. 

Coopei^ Viiyll* With valuable Enghsh notes. $2.00. 

The books of Dr. Bullions' series have been several years before 
the public, and have met with the approval of most competent 
judges. They are favorite text-books in schools, academies, and 
colleges throughout the United States and Canada, and to the fol- 
lowing peculiar excellences of these books teachers are respectfully 

These books are manufactured in a neat and most substantial 
manner, which renders them durable and economical. 

Each Grammar contains an abridgment of itself within itself, con- 
sisting of the leading and general principles of Grammar, distin- 
guished by being printed with the largest type used in each book. 

Aa the leading principles of all languages are substantially the 
same, the arrangement in tliis series of Grammars is the same in all 
*— the definitions and rules are expressed as far as possible in the 
same words. In this way one grammar becomes a useful introduc- 
tion to another ; and when the English is thoroughly studied, the 
labor of mastering the others, Latin and Greek, is more than half 
accomplished. By this arrangement Comparative Grammar becomes 
an interesting and profitable study. 

The metliod of reference in these books from one to another, for 
the sake of illustration and comparison, and also from one part of the 
same book to another, by means of running numbers, is peculiarly 
useful and convenient. 

In large schools, economy of time is a matter of great importance, 
and this object has been specially kept in view In the preparation of 
these books. The system of parsing here presented is at once clear, 
comprehensive, and concise, in the English Grammars especially; 
and the clear analysis of sentences in connection with parsing will 
be found a most pleasing and useful exercise. To the English 
Grammars are annexed Appendices, in which several controverted 
points are critically discussed, and to these the attention of Teachers 
is earnestly invited. 



Btoddard^s Juvenile Mental Arithmetic, by John F. Stoddabd, 
A. M., for Primary Schools. 72 pp. Price 13 cents. 

Stoddard^s American Intellectual Arithmetic, by the same. An 
extended work, designed for Common Schools, Seminaries, and Acade- 
mies. 164 pp. Price 20 cents. 

Stoddard's Practical Arithmetic, by the same, embracing every 
variety of exercises appropriate to written Arithmetic. 299 pp. Price 
40 cents. ' 

Key to Stoddard's Intellectnal and Practical Arithmetics, in 

one book. Price 50 cents. 

Schuyler's Hig^her Arithmetic. A new and original work for Col- 
leges, Seminaries, Academies, and High Schools, by A. Schutlbr, of 
Ohio. Price 75 cents. 

Stoddard and Henkle's Elementary Algehra, for the use of Com- 
mon Schools and Academies, by John F. Stoddard, A. M., and Profes- 
sor W. D. Henkle, of Ohio Southwestern Normal School. Price 75 

Key to Stoddard and Henkle's Elementary Algebra* Price 75 

Stoddard and Henkle's Universtty Algebra, for High Schools. 
Academies, and Colleges, by John F. Stoddard, A. M., and Professor 
W. D. Henkle. 528 pp. Price $1.50. 

Key to Stoddard and Henkle's University Algebra (in press). 

The Normal Series of Mathematical Text-Books have many fea- 
tures which justify the high estimation in which they are held by 
Teachers. The authors of these books being successful Instructws, 
they have prepared text-books just suited for Schools and Acade- 
mies, where it is desired that the sciences of Arithmetic and Alge- 
bra shall be taught understandingly, so that pupils may with facility 
apply them to the practical purposes of life. The use of these books 
induces careful attention and continuous application of the mind, at 
the same time relieving study of its usual irksomeness by such lucid 
explanations and a proper presentation of the subjects as make them 
apprehended easily by scholars. 

Stoddard's Intellectual Arithmetic has done very much to advance 
education in the schools of this country. By it the minds of pupils 
can be so trained in their development as to give them a power of 
thought not to be attained probably by any other study in our 
schools, certainly by none other in the same time, and of so much 
service in business affairs. The study of Mental Arithmetic accord« 
ing to the books of this author cultivates such a method of direct 
logical reasoning, as well as a clear^ concise, and intelligible expres- 


sion of the mode of analysis, that teachers should not Ml to make a 
tiial of it 

The practical and higher arithmetics of this series, whereyer used, 
produce a result similar to the Intellectual Arithmetics. They pre- 
sent the subject in such a manner as to have it clearly understood, 
explaining whatever may appear difficult by a thorough analysis, 
that the pupil may understand why by a rule or direction he is re« 
quired to do as there stated. The language is plain, concise, and 
■nfficient, which is no small merit in school books. 

So much has been said by Teachers in commendation of Stod- 
dard and Henkle's Algebras, which form part of the Kormal Series, 
that it is supposed the merits and peculiarities of these text-books 
are generally known. The Elementary Algebra explains the ele- 
ments of this science in a yery simple and practical manner, and 
makes the subject pleasing and useful apparently to young pupils. 
The Uniyersity Algebra is a thorough treatise, clear and agreeable 
in its language, philosophical and distinct in its plan, and in exam- 
I^ so ftdl as to exceed any other book of its kind. Examples in 
the Arithmetics and Algebras of this series are yaried and abundant ; 
problems are also numerous. 

Schuyler's Higher Arithmetic is a complete treatise of 427 pages, 
exhaosting the whole subject, and prepared for higher classes. It 
is scientific and complete, yet simple, methodical, and exact. The 
concise manner of this book is such, that more is contained on 
its pages than is within any other Arithmetic published. Eyery 
teacher should have a copy of this work, and indeed no library 
should be without it. 

These books are well made, neat in i^pearance, durable, and cheap 
in price. It is to the interest of schools that the Normal Mathemati- 
cal Series be carefhlly examined. 

" I hare examined Stoddard and Henkle*8 TTniyersity Algebra. It is a 
thorough and elaborate work. It combines clearness and simplity in its 
method and illastrations, and constitutes a valuable addition to the mathe- 
matical works of the day.'* — Cynw Nuttf A. Jf, Profenor of MaihemadcM 
in the Indiana Aahbury Univeraiiy, 

** I have examined ' Stoddard's American Intellectual Arithmetic,* and 
cheerfully recommend it to teachers and parents as a valuable elementary 
work, and one well adapted to the wants of pupils in the first stages of 
arithmetic. It is constructed upon sound and practical principles, and will 
be found an important addition to the text-books now in use in our Com- 
mon Schools.*' — JSTon. Samuel 8. RandaU, St^U of New York City Schooh, 

" Stoddard's Arithmetical Series is now in general use in the schools of 
this county. They have stood the test for four years as the text-books in 
Arithmetic in our schools, and are considered by our teachers superior to 
any others now before the pablic.'*— Mr. 8, A, TorriU, late Superiniendeni 
-fPtAHc SchooU of Wayne County, Pa, 



A New Method of learning the French lAngnage* By Jbah 

GusTAVK Keetels, ProfessoF of French and German in the Brooklyn 
Polytechnic Institute. 12mo. Price $1.00. 

A Key to the New Method in French, By J. G. Keetels. 1 vol. 
12mo. Price 40 cents. 

This work contains a clear and methodical expose of the principles 
of the language, on a plan entirely new. The arrangement is admi- 
rable. The lessons are of a suitable length, and within the compre- 
hension of all classes of students. The exercises are various, and 
well adapted to the purpose for which they are intended, of reading, 
writing, and speaking the language. The Grammar part is com- 
plete, and accompanied by questions and exercises on eyery subject. 
The book possesses many attractions for the teacher and student, 
and is destined to become a popular school-book. It has already 
been introduced into many of the principal schools and colleges in 
the country. 

The following testimonials hare lately been received : — 

" I have examined * Keetels' New Method of learning the French Lan- 
guage,* and find it admirably adapted for conveying a thorough knowledge 
of the French language. It is an easy and sure method of both writing 
and speaking French with accuracy and elegance.** — Darnel Lynch, 8, J., 
Director of Studies in Gonzaga College, Washington. 

" The * New Method of Learning the French Language,* by Professor 
Keetels, appears to be exceedingly well adapted as an introduction into 
the study of French. It is emphatically a practical book, and bears the 
mark that it has resulted from the author's own experience in teaching. 
I shall take pleasure in soon giving it the test of a trial in my own Insti- 
hute.'* — Oswald Seidensticker, Principal of the Commercial and Classical 
fn^uie, Philadelphia, 

**I have examined several works designed for pnpils studying the 
French language, and among them * Keetels' New Method of the French.' 
The last woi^ I consider superior to any other which I have examined, 
ind shall use it in my classes as the best text-book upon the subject" — 
8. A, Farrand, Trenton, N, J. 

" I take great pleasure in adding my testimony to the value of * Keetels' 
New Method of Learning the French Language,* as a school book. It will 
make its way, successfully, among the multitude of similar books, as well 
by its typographic as its scholastic merits. I shall introduce it next term 
into my school.** — Joseph McKie, Teacher of French, Nevoark, N, J, 

" I have examined * Keetels* New Method of Learning the French Lan- 
guage,* and take pleasure in recommending it as a work admirably 
adapted for the purpose." — Jphfi Early, President of Qtcrgetown CoBege» 


Elements of Anatomy, Pbyslolo^y, and Hygiene. 

By Prof. J. R. Loomis, President of Louisburgh University, 
Penn. BeautiAilly illustrated with colored plates, and original 
drawings. Price 75 cents. 

** I have examined with some care the Physiology of President Loomis. 
It seems to me clear, concise, well arranged, and in all respects admirably 
adapted for the purposes of a text-book in schools and colleges. It has 
been used by the classes in this UQlversity with entire satisfaction." — Rev. 
M. B. Anderton, D, D., President of Rochester University. 

" We have used Loomis's Physiology in our school, and cheerfully rec- 
ommend it as a work of real merit Its arrangement is superior, and the 
author has anticipated the wants of the school-room. He has done much 
to draw the attention of teachers to the importance of the study, and the 
general adoption of his treatise, as a text-book in our schools, would be an 
advance in the work of Education.*' — John G, McMynn^ Principal of Ro- 
ane High School 

" I have carefully examined Loomis*8 Physiology, and consider it the 
best work which has yet been published for the use of schools. I shall 
commend it at the next meeting of the teachers of our district.'' — A. J. 
Proiur^ Cambria Co., Penn. 

Lambert's Plates of Pictorial Anatomy. 

These large lllustrationB are carefully drawn from good author- 
ities, and printed in colors, on sheets of strong paper 37 inches long 
by 22 inches wide. They form an important part of the necessary 
furniture of a school, and are of great advantage in connection with 
any text-book on physiology, etc. The cheapness of them places 
them within the reach of any school. Price, mounted, $6.00. 

Platb 1. Represents the skeleton of the Human Figure 33 inches 
high ; also the Hand, the Foot, and the Vertebrae, on a larger scale. 

Platb 2. Human Figure 88 inches high, developing the muscles, 
tendons, etc. 

Plate 8. Human Figure 88 inches high, representing the ner- 
vous system, also its combination with the muscles. 

Platb 4. Contains 16 charts and diagrams, elucidating the pecul- 
iar properties of the eye, and its adaptation to light. 

Platb 5. Human Figure 38 inches high — a beautiful presenta- 
tion of the arteries and veins in combination with the muscles. 

Plate 6. Illustrates the circulation of the blood through the in- 
ternal organs of the body, and contains also fine illustrations of the 
heart, lungs, stomach, liver, etc. 

These phites can be sent by mail in sheets, postage paid, for $6.00. 



Normal Primer. By J. Russell Webb, A. M. Beautifully Illas- 
trated. 12ino. 24 pp. Paper covers, 5 cents; stiff covers, 6 cents. 

Webb's CardS) (three in number, printed on both sides.) For primary 
lessons in connection "with 1st Reader. Price $1.00 per set. 

The Word Method Primer. Price 15 cents.^ 

Normal Reader^ No. 1. 12rao. 00 pp. Price 13 cents. 

Normal Reader^ Ko. 2. 


168 pp. 

Price 25 cents. 

Normal Reader^ No. 3. 


216 pp. 

Price 38 cents. 

Normal Reader, No. 4. 


312 pp. 

Price 50 cents. 

Normal Reader, No. 5. 


490 pp. 

Price 75 cents. 

These Readers are used in many of the principal cities and vil- 
lages throughout the United States, anA are rapidly coming into use 
in the smaller towns of the country. Their merits have been fairly 
tested, and they have been pronounced superior to any series of 
Readers extant, not only for the improvement in the system of teach- 
ing, which is the word method, but also in the high moral tone and 
inspiriting character of the pieces selected. 

" They are the best Practical Readers that have come under my notice ; 
they are all and everything they should be.'* — Hon. 8. 8. BandaOy 
Deputy 8tate Superintendent of N, Y, Common Schools, 

** Webb's Readers are the best books of their kind for our schools." — 
Hon, D, M. Campy Ex-Governor of Vermont. 

"Having somewhat carefully examined *Webb*s Normal Readers,' I 
have no hesitation in saying I consider them to rank high among the best 
Practical Readers that have come under my notice. We have lately intro- 
duced two numbers into some of our public schools of this city, which have 
thus far given -good satisfaction." — D. 8. Heffron, City St^erintendeni 
ofSchooUf Utica N, Y. 

^ The day and age of the world in which a scholar is put through a year 
of alphabet preparatory to reading, is entirely past, and that teacher who 
is so utterly regardless of the time of his pupil, or so entirely ignorant of 
his own duties, as to pursue the old method of teaching the young in their 
first efforts to read, is totally unqualified for his position. You may think 
this is strong language ; but having seen and felt some of the evils of the old 
system, I am confident it is no stronger than is deserved. As invaluable 
aids in the Word Method of teaching, I would say that Webb's Normal 
Cards and Series of Readers have been in use for the last six or eight 
years, and I have thought that the author should have a monument nailed 
to his memory in every school-house in the land, and benisons breathed 
upon his head from every fireside in the land — so much, in my opinion, 
has he done for the rising generation. We use the Normal Cards, Primers, 
First and Second Readers." — E. W, Chesebro^ Princ^ of Union Schoolf 
Grand Begndif Mich. 


Melvine*8 Slate Drawing Cards. By Francis M£l< 

TILLS. Designed for Primary Schools, are rery simple and easily 
copied, at the same time teaching the elements of the art. The 
lines are white, on a black ground. Price 25 cents. 

MelTllIe'S Drawing Cards, in 5 Numbers, each number 
containing 16 cards, with pamphlet of instruction, in a neat case. 
No. 1 contains lessons in Elementary Drawing, consisting of out- 
lines of rarious forms for beginners. No. 2 contains lessons in 
Landscape Drawing, both in outline and shading. Several of the 
lessons are devoted entirely to examples in shading. No. 3 con- 
tains lessons for Drawing Flowers and Ornaments, commencing 
with the elements of the art. No. 4 contains lessons for Drawing 
the Human Head. Atteiftion is given to the outlines of the fea- 
tures, the drawing of which is AiUy explained. No. 6 contains 
Finished Drawings of Landscapes, Figures, Animals, Fruits, etc. 
etc. Price 50 cents each. 

HelvlIIe's Twelve Studies* Twelve Finished Drawings, 
printed in tints. Boyal quarto size, in a neat portfolio. Price 

The series comprises heads of Washington and Franklin, Land- 
scapes, Figures, Flowers, Fruits, &c. Some of the studies are de- 
signed to be copied with two crayons. 

Mr. Melville's long connection with the Public Schools as Profes- 
8<nr of Drawing, is a guarantee of the value of his series. A few of 
the numerous testimonials received from teachers are given. 

" Having had for some time practical experience in the use of Melville's 
Drawing Cards in Grammar School No. 30, 1 take much pleasure in rec- 
ommending them to the immediate attention of teachers desirous of intro- 
ducing a system of drawing superior to anything of the kind which has 
already come under my observation." — E. Mcllroy^ Principal^ New Torh. 

" I cheerfully concur in the foregoing recommendation of Melville's 
Drawing Cards.'* — M. J. O^DonneU, Principal of Ward School No. 5. 

"The twelve superior lessbns of drawing, originated by Mr. Melville, we 
have used in our advanced classes, and can cheerfully recommend them to 
the pupils of our Grammar Schools as being designed both for pleasure and 
improvement. It would afford us pleasure to hear of their general intro- 
duction." — G. M. Watson and 8. J. DeGrove, Female Grammar DeparU 
meni No. 13, New York. 

"Melville's Drawing and Slate Cards have been in use in Grammar 
School No. 18 for some time, and I am much pleased with both series, and 
prefer them to any yet introduced into the schools."— JFupA. SirsL Prin- 



Cklldsmitll'S Copy Books, with Instructions, complete in 
flTe numbers, viz., No. 1, containing the letters of the Alpliabet, 
with words suitably arranged for beginners. No. 2, Letters, with 
words alphabetically arranged ; days of the week, months of the 
year, and States of the Union, etc. No. 8, sentences, alphabeti- 
cally arranged from the letter A to Z. No. 4, Names and addresses 
of well-known city firms. No. 5, Fine hand for ladies. Price 12 
cents each. 

Goldsmith's Gems of Penmanship; a fine exhibition 

of the author's skill- and genius. One quarto yolume. Price (re- 
duced) $2.00. 

Mr. Oliver B. Goldsmith, the author of this System of Penman- 
ship, stauds preeminently at the head of his profession. For twenty 
years he has pursued successfully the teaching of Penmanship at his 
Academy on Broadway, New York, receiring for five years the 
award of the American Institute, for the best specimens of off*hand 
penmanship, with numerous testimonials of bis skill and genius 
from all parts of the country. 

His System, the result of his twenty years of practical attention to 
the Art of Penmanship, is now first ofiered for the use of Public and. 
Private Schools, Academies, and PamiUes, and the Publishers are 
confident that the nameroas teachers and friends of education 
tiiroughout the land will be glad to receive and adopt for practice 
the beautiful and practical handwriting of so accomplished a pen- 

The Copies are exact jbc-similee of the author's own hand-writing, 
engraved in the best manner on steel, and the quality of the paper, 
and clearness of print, are intended to be superior to that of any 
books of the kind in use either in America or Europe. 

The Series is comprised in five books, a number fully ample for 
the use of schools for either sex. It is proposed at some future time 
to add two or three books expressly for the use of ladies in the higher 
classes of our schools and seminaries. 


The Elements <if Intdleetiiid Philosophy* By Fbak- 

cis Watland, D. D. 1 vol. 12mo. Price $1.26. 

This clearly written book, from the pen of a scholar of eminent 
ability, and who has had the largest ex]ierience in the education of 
the human mind, is unquestionably at the head of text-books in In- 
tellectual Philosophy. It contains the substance of Lectures during 
several years, delivered to the classes in Intellectual Philosophy in 
Brown University. Being intended to serve the purposes of a text- 
book, the important truths of the science have been presented and 
illustrated, rather than the inferences which may be drawn from 
them, or the doctrines which they may presuppose. The compass 
of the volume is adapted to the time usually allotted to the study ei- 
this subject in the colleges and higher seminaries of our country. It 
is divided into eight chapters on the following subjects : — The Per- 
ceptive Faculties — Consciousness, Attention, and Reflection — 
Original Suggestion, or the Intuitions of the Intellect — Abstrac- 
tion — Memory, Reasoning — Imagination — Taste — also an Ap- 
pendix of interesting matter. The author's practical suggestions on 
the cultivation of the several faculties of the mind, aiding the stu^ 
dent's efforts to discipline and strengthen his intellectual energies, 
and the numerous references to books of easy access, specifying the 
places where topics treated of are more fully discussed, make this 
book a valuable addition to the readable books of any teacher or pro- 
fessional man. 

The Exhibition Speaker and Gymnastic Book, con- 
taining Farces, Dialogues, and Tableaux, with Exercises for Dec- 
lamation, in Prose and Verse. Also a Treatise on Oratory and 
Elocution, Hints on Dramatic Characters, Costumes, Position on 
the Stage, Making up, etc., etc., with illustrations. Carefully 
compiled and arranged Ibr School Exhibitions, by P. A. Fitz- 
OBBALD. To which is added a complete system of Calisthenics 
and Gymnastics, with instructions for Teachers and Pupils, illus- 
trated by numerous engravings. 1 vol. 12mo. 75 cents. 

"There are books enough containing exercises for Speaking; but, till 
Mr. Fitzgerald brought forth this compilation of instructions, we have wit- 
nessed no effort to inform pupils how to deliver their parts artisticallyi and 
at the same time naturally. . . . The author has taken great care in 
the matter of elementary instruction. . . . There have also been given 
valuable directions in the matter of gestures, which every schoolboy 
should read and commit to memory. Very full instructions are given in 
gymnastics and calisthenics. We apprehend a general rising of publie 
tentiment to this department. . . . The sale of Ten Thousand copies 
evidences that it has been found to have a value which other * Speakers • 
do not possess." — New York Teacher, 


Unirersal History. By E. P. Peabody. Arranged to 

illustrate Bem's Chronological Charts. Complete in one toI. 
Quarto, with Blanks. Price $1.25. 

After ample experiment of their eflScienc/, the Charts of Gen. 
Bern were furnished by order of the government to all the high 
schools and colleges in France. The use of these charts by the plan- 
and full illustrations of this book will give students in history sucH 
a mastery of tlie subject as cannot be obtained by the mOst careful 
study of events and dates according to the methods often pursued. 
From the text of this book the student is required to fill up the 
charts with colors. As he progresses, each color will disseminate 
the career of a nation in time as fiur as there is extant chronological 
data for it, and thus the history of different nations will form of one 
chart a symmetrical picture. Thus the outlines of history are pre- 
sented to the eye -for future retereaee and additional data by the 
student, as pupils now so profitably produce geographical maps from 
the detailed description of books. The result is their own work, and 
an interesting proof of their intelligence, attention, and discrimina- 

Teachers are invited to an examination of this method of illus- 
trating the studies of their scholars in history, when it will be seen 
that the time given to this study may be made interesting and very 
profitable to themselves and the pupils imder their charge. 

Fitell'S Happing JMateS ; designed for Learners in Ge** 
ography, being a collection of Plates prepared for Delineating 
Maps of the World, and Countries forming its prinoipiil subdivi- 
sions, viz., 1. The Worid. 2. Unitetd States. 8. North America. 
4. South America. 5. A State. 6. Mexico .and Guatemala. 
7. Great Britain and Ireland. 8. Europe. 9. Southern Europe. 
10. Germany. 11. Africa. 12. Asia. 13. Atlantic Ocean. 14. Pa- 
cific Ocean. By George W. Fitch. Price 30 cents. 

The attention of the public is respectfully called to the above 
plates, and to the advantages they are calculated to afibrd in the 
study of Geography. The/ are prepared with the suitable and 
requisite lines of latitude and longitude, for maps of the world, and 
the countries forming its principal subdivisions, and are designed to 
be used in connection with the school atlases in common use, as well 
as with outline maps. With these Plates, the pupil is able to com- 
mence, at once, the delineation of maps, without the difficult and 
perplexing labor of drawing the meridians and parallels — a labor 
which generally consumes the time of both teacher and scholar, to 
an extent entirely disproportionate to any good which may be de- 
rived thereby. 


Hazeil'fl SpeUer and Deflner. The Speller and Definer, 

or ClsM-Book No. 2, designed to answer the purposes of a spellingp- 
book, and to aopersede the necessity' of the use of a dictionar/ as a 
dass-bopk. if £. Hazbn, A. M. Price 20 cents. 

U:^ Oyer £00,000 rolumes of this book have been sold. 

This Speller and A^ner was first published in 1829, and has stood 
the test of the school-room successfully to the present day. It was 
thoroughly rerised by the author in 1857, and is now called superior 
to any other book of the kind in use. At the time it was first pub- 
lished, it was the practice in nearly all the schools to try to commit . 
to memory Walker's School Dictionary, but through the influence 
of this book dictionaries in this application were nearly banished ia 
% few yeai^. « 

Hizen's Symbolic Spelling^ Book. With 553 Catsu 

Price 20 cents. 
Hacbu's Symbolic Sfelliko Book. Part Ist, 288 Cuts. Price 

10 cents. 
Hasbx's Stxbolio Sfbllivg Book. Part 2d, 265 Cuts. Price 

12 cents. 

The SynibfTlie Speller is intended to precede Hazen's Speller and 
Befiner. From the reading lessons of this spelling book, pupils may 
learn the meaning %vA implication of a great number of words which 
will serve as a good foundation tot the explanation of others* 

■1168*8 United State8 Speller. A new work, containiDg 
upwards of fifteen thousand of the most common English words. 
Price 18 cents. 

The author of this work is an old Practical Teacher. The ar- 
rangements and classification are original and strictly progressive ; 
and in Orthography and Pronunciation, the best standard authors, 
writers, and speakers, have been consulted. 

These Spelling-Books are designed to accompany WebVs Series 
of Normal Readers. 

Kirkham'S Elocntioili 12mo. 857 pages. Price 75 

This is one of the best Elocutions ever printed. It contains a 
varied and interesting selection of very useful matter, carefully 
arranged. It is a standard work, and now used in some of the best 
schools in the country ; among which are the Normal School, Phil- 
adelphia ; Lower Canada College j Toronto Academy, etc. 



- M _ 7// '